1. THE TABON MAN - is thought as the earliest human in the Philippines; - were discovered by Robert B. Fox on May 28, 1962, an anthropologist of National Museum of the Philippines in Tabon Cave, Lipuun Point, Municipality of Quezon, Palawan.
3 jawbones or mandiblesskullcap (14,500 B.C) (29,000 B.C.)and the tibia (bone of thelower leg, 45,000 B.C.)
Possible look of Tabon Man Tagbanua: Possible Decendants
The Tabon Man is a modern man or homo sapiens (as distinguished from a mid-pleistocene homo erectus species). This means the fossilized remains was pre-mongoloid (pre modern Malay, Indonesian, pacific, Filipino) and does not resemble a negrito. The team also found: burial jars, earthenware, jade ornaments & other jewelry, stone tools, animal bones, & human fossils dating back to 47,000 years ago
Also found: finished stone flake tools, waste core flakes and charcoal used by Tabon man for cooking. Charcoals was dated back 7,000 to 22,000 B.C. It is thought that the cave was a habitation of man for a period of 50,000 to 9,000 years ago based on all relics and artifacts found. The caves are called after the Tabon Scrubfowl. Out of 200 caves that are recognized to exist on Lipuun Point, 29 are searched caves, with Diwata Cave and Liyang Cave open to the public. They are preserved by the National Museum.
The Filipino ancient warrior systems are sometimes referred to as Arnis, Escrima, the most popular names. Arnis, Eskrima or Escrima is a Spanish origin. "Kali" is the ancient indigenous name taken from the Kali Warrior word: Kalis." Kalis is an ancient blade which is also native to the Filipino people.
New discovery of Callao Man (in Callao Cave, Cagayan, 2007): foot boneA team of archaeologists led by Dr. Armand Mijares (UP- Diliman) has confirmed that it was at least 67,000 years old. Tabon Man’s remains were a relatively 50,000 years old.The primary theory is that Callao Man, or his ancestors, reached Luzon from what is now Indonesia by raft at a time when experts did not think human beings were capable of traveling long distances by sea.However, the scientists also found signs that Callao Man might not have been fully human, but only a species akin to modern man.
- the alphabet system of The Phils. during pre-hispanic times (system originated fr. the Javanese script of Old Kawi & is a member of the Brahmic family which includes The Burmese abugida, Tamil and Malayalam). Unfortunately, the use of baybayin was discouraged by The Spaniards and was in fact prohibited. The Filipino language was later romanized and still used this form today.
The discovery of the "Tabon Man“ proves that the early Filipinos grew in control over their environment.The community are pagans believing in spiritual beings residing in naturePhil Lit was in Oral Literature form (Oral Lore)Subjects: nature, anitos and way of livingKinds of Oral Lit:1. Folk songs 3. Folk speeches2. Folk narratives
Much of the valuable info were lost by decay and because the missionaries destroyed those that remained, believing that indigenous pagan culture was the handicraft of the devil himself.How did the unique indigenous culture survive colonization?• by passing the info through oral means;• by resistance to colonial rule • (the Maranaws, the Maguindanaws, and the Tausogs of Mindanao and Igorots, Ifugao, Bontocs and Kalingas of the Mountain Province) ;• by isolation • (The Tagbanwas, Tagabilis, Mangyans, Bagob os, Manuvus, Bilaan, Bukidnons, and Isneg)
- are one of the oldest forms of Philippine literature that emerged in the pre-Spanish period- These songs mirrored the early forms of culture. Many of these have 12 syllables.- a form of folk lyric which expresses the people’s hopes, aspirations, and lifestyles- repetitive and sonorous, didactic and naive- traditional songs and melodies- inspired by the reaction of the people to their environment
Pamulinawen Essem mot’diac calipatanPamulinawen, pusoc indengan man, Ken nasudi unay a naganToy umas-asog, aagrayo ta sadiam Ta uray sadin tiyan,Panunutem man ta dika paguin- Disso sadino man, tutulngan Aw-awagac a di agsardayToy agayat a agrucnoy ito emmam Ta nagan mo nga casamitan No malaquip ca,Adu nga sabsabung, adu nga rosrosas, Pusoc ta mabang-arawTi adda’t ditoy nga mabuy-buyac,Ngem awan manlaeng ti sabali nga Noumulogac nga mapan magmag na liwliwak Dayta raniag mo, Neneng nga GapuNo di la dayto sudim ken immas. kenca.
Stone-hearted Sitsiritsit Sitsiritsit, alibangbang,Hey, stone-hearted, listen to my Salaginto, salagubang pleadings Ang babae sa lansangan, Kung gumiri’y parang tandang.There are many flowers here, but there is nothing that gives me Santo Nino sa Pandacan, comfort but you Puto seco sa tindahan, Kung ayaw kang magpautangI will never forget your sweetness and Uubusin ka ng langgam. good name. No matter where I go, I keep calling you. Mama, mama, namamangka,When I think of you, my heart is relieved. Pasakayin yaring bata, Pagdating sa Maynila,In my travels I always think about Ipagpalit ng manika. beauty. When I rest I cannot sleep because of you. Ale-ale namamayong, Pasukubin yaring sanggol, Pagdating sa Malabon, Ipagpalit ng baggong.
b. Kumintang o Tagumpay – a war song (that later became a love song during the Spanish period)c. Oyayi o Hele, Ili-ili in Ilongo - Lullabyes Katurog na, Neneng Sleep now, Neneng Katurog na, batya Sleep now, please Dai pa si Tay mo Your father is not yet here . Naganap ki sira He has gone fishing Pagabot nya Neneng, When he arrives, Neneng Humigop ka, Neneng Take the soup, Neneng Ngani kang tumaba To fatten you up. Bicol lullabye
d. Work songs (ex. Soliranin – Tagalog rowing song; Mambayu – a Kalinga rice-pounding song)e. Talindaw - a boat songf. Drinking songs – Tagay (Cebuano and Waray);g. lamentations – for the dead - ex. Kanogon(Cebuano), Annako (Bontoc)
Kinakalambre sa lamig, laging may ulang tikatik, Buhok man ay nagkulay bayang parating may tsok, sakit, Lalamunan may napaos, iaangat ng pag-ibig. Walang lubay sa paghubog Frank Rivera Ng magiging manunubos. Gregorio Rodillo Di pa hinog sa panahon, Malayo man ako ngayon, tinutuka na ng ibon. kaulayaw bawat alon. Bungang natakpan ng Akoy nalagas na dahon, dahon, sa ibang bayan umahon. sinusungkit na ng gutom. Roger Endaya Ferdinand Bajado
h. Subli – dance-ritual song of courtship /marriagei. Tagulaylay- songs of the dead Kinds of Folk Lit: 2. Folk Speech Close to the religious and political organizations of the ancient Filipinos• The verses were addressed to the ears rather than the eyes Verses composed and sung were regarded as group property Versification: Octosyllabic Legendary and religious poems Dodecasyllabic Romance
1. Ate mo, ate ko, 1. Rhyming couplet Ate ng lahat ng tao. 2. Rhyming tercet (My sister, your sister, 3. Monorhyming everyones sister) quatrain Atis (Sugar Apple) 4. Quatrain in 2 rhyming couplets2. Manok kong pula Umakyat sa Sampaga Nagpakita ng ganda Araw – sun 4. Ang aso ko sa Malabon3. May isa kang kaibigan Lumukso ng pitong balon Kasama mo sa higaan Umulit ng pitong gubat Bago ka pagnakawan Bago nagtanaw dagat. Ikawa muna’y kakantahan (sungkaan) Lamok - mosquito
It is used as battle of wits to pass the time and be together with family and friends It uses one or more images as metaphor to refer to an object to be guessed. It enriches the imagination and sharpen the senses. It is generally poetic in form and come in 1, 2, 3, or 4 lines
Aanhin pa ang damo What good is the grass kung patay na ang kabayo. if the horse that will eat it is dead. Matibay ang walis The broom is sturdy palibhasas magkabigkis. Because it is tightly bound. Even if the house is big, if Bahay mo man ay bato kung tumitiray kuwago the inhabitant is an owl mabuti pa ang isang kubo It is better to have a small na ang nakatira ay tao. hut whose inhabitant are real caring people. Ang matapat na kaibigan, You will know a true friend tunay na maaasahan. in time of need.
1. Kuwarta na, naging bato pa. What was already money turned to stone.2. Ang isip ay parang itak, sa hasa tumatalas. The mind is like a knife honed by sharpening.3. Kung anong bukang bibig ay siyang nilalaman ng dibdib. What comes out of your mouth is what is in your heart.4. Wala nang hihigit pang kadakilaan sa pag-alay ng buhay sa bayan. There is no greater nobility than offering ones life to the nation.5. Walang mahirap na gawa pag dinaan sa tiyaga. Nothings hard to do if you pursue it through perseverance.6. Ang kaginhawaan ay nasa kasiyahan, at wala sa kasaganaan. Well-being is in happiness and not in prosperity.7. Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang wika ay mahigit pa sa hayop at malansang isda. A person who does not love his own language is worse than beast and foul-smelling fish. (This is a quote attributed to José Rizal.)
8. Ang isang bugok na A spoiled egg when put itlog together with the good kapag sinama sa mga ones will spoil all. mabuting itlog bubugukin din ang iba.9. Sungay mo’y dala Your own tail, you pull mo, buntot mo’y hila your own horn, you carry mo. Beauty fades but not10. Lumilipas ang character. kagandahan, Ngunit hindi ang kabutihan Show me your11. Ipakilala mo sa ‘kin ang friends, and I’ll tell you iyong kaibigan, at who you are. sasabihin ko kung sino ka.
b. Kasabihan: Filipino Sayings A saying is an often repeated and familiar expression.c. A Proverb: Salawikain is an old and popular saying that illustrates something such as a basic truth or a practical precept. It’s a short sentence that is very meaningful and aims to provide guidance in everyday living.The difference between a saying and a proverb? Not much. Simply put, a proverb is a saying that is older and has more history!
d. Sawikain: Idioms or idiomatic expression A saying is an often repeated and familiar expression. Often, mistaken as salawikain. kumukulo ang dugo "blood is boiling" = is very angry masama ang loob "inside is bad" = is harboring a grudge towards someone mabigat ang kamay "hand is heavy" = lazy isulat sa tubig "write on water" = forget about it
mababaw ang luha"tears are shallow" = used to describe someonewho easily criestengang kawalifrying-pan ears (pretending to be deaf)nagbabatak ng butopulls ones bones (physically working hard)magsunog ng kilayburn eyebrows (study hard = burn the midnightoil)
e. BULONG (chants)Used in witchcraft or enchantments Sa hinaba-haba ng prusisyon Sa simbahan din pala ang tuloy Tabi, tabi po, Ingkong Makikiraan po lamang Ikaw ang nagnanakaw ng bigas ko Lumuwa sana ang mga mata mo Mamaga sana ang katawan mo Patayin ka ng mga anito.
a. MYTHS – are prose narratives explaining how the world and people came to be - considered to be true stories - main characters can be both human and visitors. Ex. Tungkung Langit and Alunsina Story of Bathala Visayan version
b. Legends – prose narrative accounts of an extraordinary happening believed to have occurredc. Epic – revolve around supernatural events or heroic deeds, and they embody the beliefs and customs of a community - sung or chanted during the harvests, weddings,or funerals- are sung or chanted to the accompaniment of indigenous musical instruments, and dancing - other names: Guman (Subanon), Hudhud (Ifugao) Also called Metrical Tales -
Folk narrative examples : o. Darangen – Maranaoa. Bidasari-Moro epic p. Ulahingan – Manobob. Biag ni Lam-ang-Ilokano epic q. Kulaman - Palawanc. Maragtas-Visayan epicd. Haraya-Visayan epice. Lagda-Visayan epicf. Hari sa Bukid-Visayan epicg. Kumintang-Tagalog epich. Parang Sabir-Moro epici. Dagoy at Sudsod-Tagbaua epicj. Tatuaang-Bagobo epick. Indarapatra at Sulaymanl. Bantugan.m. Daramoke-A-Babay Moro epic in Darangann. Urdujao. Kalinga – Ulaliimp. Hinilawod – Sulod