Cyber WarfareWeb-based Weaponry in the Hands of Hackers
A Deﬁnition“Cyber warfare involves units organized alongnation-state boundaries, in offensive anddefensive operations, using computers toattack other computers or networks throughelectronic means.” Institute for Security Technology Studies Dartmouth College Source: http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/docs/cyberwarfare.pdf
A History 1979: The ﬁrst March 1999: hacker forum 1994: Russian Vladimir Hackers in Serbia May 1999: NATOemerges from a Levin leads a group of attack NATO accidentally bombs thecrude electronic hackers that steals systems in retaliation Chinese embassy inmessaging board. millions of dollars for NATO’s military Belgrade, spawning a from Citibank though intervention in wave of cyberattacks its dial-up wire Kosovo. from China against U.S. transfer service. government Web sites. Source: http://fcw.com/articles/2009/10/19/feat-dod-cyber-timeline.aspx
A History2003: Hackers begin a August 2008: series of assaults on Cyber attackers U.S. government June-July 2008: hijack government October 2009:computer systems that Hundreds of government and commercial Web The new U.S. Cyber lasts for years. The and corporate Web sites sites in Georgia Command is government code in Lithuania are hacked, during a military scheduled to beginnames the attacks Titan and some are covered in conﬂict with Russia. overseeing the Rain and eventually digital Soviet-era grafﬁti, protection of traces them to China. implicating Russian military networks nationalist hackers. from cyber threats. Source: http://fcw.com/articles/2009/10/19/feat-dod-cyber-timeline.aspx
The New Threat The Pentagon’s computer networks are probed 250,000 time each hour. About 6 million times a day, by “more than 140 foreign spy organizations trying ti inﬁltrate US networks.” Source: http://greathistory.com/uscybercoms-ﬁrst-commander.htm
The War has Started In July of 2010, STUXNET markedthe moment whenStuxnet: Cyber Warfare became a reality - an attack originating in cyberspace targeting a part of a nation’s critical national infrastructure. The complexity of STUXNET suggests that a nation state was heavily involved in its development. If this is the case, there are massive implications for how future wars will be fought, with conﬂict set to be characterized by a dual campaign in cyberspace and in reality.