Realizing the three tenets of Strength Maintenance by focusing on two: The impact of recruiting practices and attrition ma...
The process of continuous ES management in ARNG organizationsis referred to as Strength Maintenance (SM). In the post-911 ...
GWOT at hand, what is the focus: recruiting or retention? Which tenet ofthe SM philosophy is the priority for members of t...
turnover can be either functional or dysfunctional from the perspective ofwho is departing the organization (Boudreau, 199...
increase organizational effectiveness (Ellickson, 2002). Job satisfactionhas been a focal concept in the quest to understa...
environment, other research has been conducted concerning individualpersonality variables to explain job satisfaction.    ...
organization.” Organizational commitment is distinctly different from thevariable of job satisfaction in both affectivity ...
employee turnover – as turnover increases, organizational commitmentdecreases (Cotton & Tuttle, 1986). Organizational comm...
of training and reduced turnover (Knowles, Parlier, Hoscheit, Ayer,Lyman, & Fancher, 2002).      Several studies have exam...
When expectancy theory is applied to the hiring process, anapplicant’s motivation for employment is likely based on the ex...
dissatisfaction among employees and thereby impacting turnover of theforce (Wanous, Poland, Premack & Davis, 1992).Summary...
The general theme for employee retention, based on the literature,can be divided into three interconnected processes. Firs...
identify and recruit applicants. The research has provided strongevidence that the quality of accessions is an important p...
The RSP is the first step in the organizational process of attritionmanagement. It is a model to provide initial employee ...
should be focused on welcoming new members and aligning their goalsand aspirations with the mission, goals, values and vis...
Figure 1.0 Prescriptive Model of Retention Influence & OrganizationalCommitment over a typical 6-year enlistment in the Ge...
The Georgia ARNG RRB Prototype      The RRB of the Georgia ARNG (GAARNG) has developed an actionresearch model focused on ...
provide NPS recruits the confidence and capability to be successfulcompleting IET; (3) develop a base for long term organi...
satisfaction are discernable and correctable under the command andcontrol of the RRB through the production lines or RSP. ...
the two tenets of recruiting and attrition management, results may be felton the third tenet of retention.                ...
ReferencesAbbasi, S., & Hollman, K. (2000). Turnover: the real bottom line. Public  Personnel Management, V29, No3.Agho, A...
Flynn, G. (1994). Attracting the right employees – and keeping them.  Personnel Journal, 73.Hollenbeck, J., & Williams, C....
Miller, O. (1996). Employee turnover in the public sector. New York:  Garland.Mobley, W., Horner, S., & Hollinsworth, A. (...
Sturman, M., Trevor, C., Boudreau, J., & Gerhart, B. (2003). Is it worth it  to win the talent war? Evaluating the utility...
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Realizing the three tenets of Strength Maintenance by focusing on two: The impact of recruiting practices and attrition management on long-term employee retention.

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The Georgia Army National Guard has significantly improved its end-strength over the last eight years growing from 8700 to our current authorized strength of 11,100. This increase was the result of changes to our state's strength management philosophy, a transformation of the recruiting and retention force, and re-stationing of units to capitalize on demographics and spread capabilities across the state. The document that served as the catalyst for our strategic success can be found at the link to this message. The paper outlines the theory-research-application, and implication of focusing the Recruiting and Retention force on quality accessions and orienting them through the Recruit Sustainment Program while leaving retention duties on the chain of command. This model, to include the recruit sustainment program, was replicated nationally. The philosophy, coupled with the GA Recruiting and Retention Battalion 3-Year Strategic Transformation Plan, have been credited with significantly influencing the entire ARNG's direction and subsequent turn-around from end-strength decline to growth.

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Realizing the three tenets of Strength Maintenance by focusing on two: The impact of recruiting practices and attrition management on long-term employee retention.

  1. 1. Realizing the three tenets of Strength Maintenance by focusing on two: The impact of recruiting practices and attrition management on long-term employee retention. by LTC Peter C. VanAmburgh, EdD In post-September 11th America, commonly referred to as thepost-911 period, tremendous organizational and personnel challengeshave emerged in the Reserve Components (RC) of the United StatesArmy. The Army National Guard (ARNG) is the largest RC of the Armyand has a long-standing history of service to the country during times ofpeace and conflict. However, not since World War II have suchmonumental requirements been levied onto our citizen soldiers as in theGlobal War on Terrorism (GWOT). Mobilizations of ARNG soldiers forOperations Enduring Freedom (OEF), Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and NobleEagle (ONE) have exceeded 200,000 guardsmen and women (Deblois,2004). The GWOT is an enormous long-term commitment for the ARNGand it is likely that activations will exceed the 350,000 Endstrength (ES)by mobilizing members one, two or three times during a career. Thispotential commitment far exceeds the pre-911 paradigm of ARNG part-time service and turnover is feared to present a potentiallyinsurmountable challenge to future staffing of ARNG units.
  2. 2. The process of continuous ES management in ARNG organizationsis referred to as Strength Maintenance (SM). In the post-911 period, SMhas become a primary focus for leaders at all levels to ensure ARNGunits are assigned the personnel necessary to meet the nation’s securityneeds at home and abroad (Shultz, 2004). The ARNG SM philosophyinvolves three tenets: recruiting, attrition management, and retention.Recruiting is the first element of staffing and involves the identification,selection and accession of members into the organization. Attritionmanagement is the inculcation process into the ARNG and ensuringmembers meet their first-term of service obligations. Retention involveskeeping qualified soldiers in the organization. In sum, one tenet of theARNG SM philosophy is focused on accession (recruiting) with theremaining two focused on reducing turnover (attrition management andretention) (NGR 601-1, 2003). Recruiting and retention recently emerged as the number oneemployment issue facing 52% of employers surveyed by RewardsPlus ofAmerica (Langan, 2000). The primary agencies called to fill unitpersonnel vacancies and retain members of ARNG units are theRecruiting and Retention Battalions (RRB’s) of each state (NGR 601-1,2003). Combining the notion of corporate recruiting and employeeretention is well documented (Brownson & Harriman, 2000; Flynn &Gillian, 1994; Langan 2000; Kenkel, 1997; ). Clearly the concepts are notlimited to the ARNG, but in a resource constrained environment with the 2
  3. 3. GWOT at hand, what is the focus: recruiting or retention? Which tenet ofthe SM philosophy is the priority for members of the state RRB’s? And,what does the research infer about the concepts of recruiting and itsimpact on retention of personnel? This research project will attempt toascertain the answers by exploring the themes found in the literatureregarding employee recruiting and retention. The study will also attemptto recommend the best focus for RRB personnel to impact the SMposture of their states. Factors Influencing Turnover In the ARNG, attrition management and retention are tenetsfocused on reducing turnover. A common definition of turnover “is therotation of workers around the labor market; between firms, andoccupations; and between states of employment and unemployment”(Burgess, 1998). While planned member turnover can be healthy fororganizations, voluntary employee departures are generally characterizedas undesirable, disruptive and costly to organizations (Buck & Watson,2002). In the last two decades talented workers have shown a willingnessto abandon their job when it is economically convenient (Abbasi &Hollman, 2000). Several studies have suggested that high and lowperformers are generally more likely to leave while average performers aremore likely to remain (Jackofsky, 1984; Trevor, Gerhart & Boudreau,1997; Williams & Livingstone, 1994). One can generally conclude that 3
  4. 4. turnover can be either functional or dysfunctional from the perspective ofwho is departing the organization (Boudreau, 1991; Boudreau & Berger,1985; Hollenbeck & Williams, 1986; Trevor, 2001). While some lossesmay be regarded as positive (functional) for an organization as in poorperformer departures, the loss of talented performers can becharacterized as negative (dysfunctional) turnover. The loss of high performers is a particularly crucial matter fororganizations (Sturman, Trevor, Boudreau & Gerhart, 2003). Oftentimesthe most talented employees will voluntarily part the organization indisproportionate numbers over other performance groups (Abbasi &Hollman, 2000). Both technical and institutional knowledge can be lostin dysfunctional turnover resulting in damage to organizationaleffectiveness. Several studies have concluded that dysfunctional turnovercorrelates with a decline in morale and productivity among employeeswho remain (O’Reilly, Caldwell, & Barnett, 1989; Sheehan 1993).Additionally, institutions are often forced to commit substantialresources to replacement efforts (Buck & Watson, 2002). The challengefor organizations is to manage turnover in a way that allows functionallosses but reduces dysfunctional departures.Job Satisfaction Why employees voluntarily part from organizations has been widelystudied in an effort to find opportunities for improved productivity andorganizational commitment, lower absenteeism and turnover, and 4
  5. 5. increase organizational effectiveness (Ellickson, 2002). Job satisfactionhas been a focal concept in the quest to understand employeeproductivity and related concepts (Agho, Price & Mueller, 1992). Jobsatisfaction can be summated as “the extent to which employees liketheir work” (Agho, Price & Mueller, 1992). A body of research hasconcluded that job satisfaction may assist in explaining identificationwith organizations (commitment), unscheduled absences from work(absenteeism), and membership fluctuations (turnover) (Brooke & Price,1989; Micheals & Spector, 1982; Mobley, Horner & Hollingsworth, 1978;Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982; Mueller & Price, 1990). However, severalresearchers have questioned the importance of job satisfaction toproductivity (Iaffaldano & Muchinsky, 1985) and its relationship withabsenteeism is not well-established (Nicholson, Brown & Chadwick-Jones, 1976). Nevertheless, job satisfaction does appear to assist inunderstanding the major themes associated with employee turnover. Several authors have concluded that an employee’s autonomy tomake decisions related to the work has a positive impact on jobsatisfaction, while routinization of tasks appears to negatively affect jobsatisfaction (Agho, Price & Mueller, 1992). Work group cohesion, theextent that close friendships exist in immediate work teams, also appearsto influence job satisfaction (Jones & James, 1979; James & Jones,1992). While these studies looked at various aspects of the work and 5
  6. 6. environment, other research has been conducted concerning individualpersonality variables to explain job satisfaction. Attitudinal predisposition is a personality variable based on anindividuals general affect, or liking, of aspects of the work orenvironment. Positive affectivity refers to a person’s predisposition to behappy across time and situations while negative affectivity is apredisposition to experience discomfort across time and situations(Watson, Pennebaker & Folger, 1987). In essence, employees who arepredisposed to be happy over time and situations are more likely to havehigher job satisfaction that those who are predisposed to negativeaffectivity. The ability to differentiate individual predisposition and jobsatisfaction determinants has been a point of dissention among scholars.However, Agho, Price & Mueller (1992) have found evidence that jobsatisfaction and affectivity are separate variables easily discerned byorganizational members and therefore should be viewed as such. Agho,Price & Mueller’s (1992) research suggests an individual’s affectivitypredisposition may help explain long-term job satisfaction ratings.Organizational Commitment Another part of the literature concerning employee retentioninvolves the concept of organizational commitment. Meyer & Allen (1997)define organizational commitment as a “psychological state that (a)characterizes the employees relationship with the organization, and (b)has implications for the decision to continue membership in the 6
  7. 7. organization.” Organizational commitment is distinctly different from thevariable of job satisfaction in both affectivity and episode. Mowdays,Steers & Porter (1979) describe the distinction: As an attitude, commitment differs from the concept of jobsatisfaction in several ways. To begin with, commitment as a construct ismore global, reflecting a general affective response to the organization asa whole. Job satisfaction, on the other hand, reflects one’s responseeither to one’s job or to certain aspects of one’s job. Hence, commitmentemphasizes attachment to the employing organization, including its goalsand values, while satisfaction emphasizes the specific task environmentwhere an employee performs his or her duties. In addition, organizational commitment should be somewhat morestable over time than job satisfaction. Although day-to-day events in thework place may affect an employee’s level of job satisfaction, suchtransitory events should not cause and employee to seriously reevaluatehis or her attachment to the organization. (p.226) Three constructs are associated with the review of organizationalcommitment: affective, continuance, and normative levels ofcommitment. Affective commitment is an employee’s emotionalattachment to an organization. Continuance is derived from theperceived cost of disassociation from an organization and normativecommitment refers to an individual’s feeling of obligation to remain withan organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991). Several researchers have indicated that a positive correlation existsbetween an employee’s level of commitment to an organization and theirdesire to stay (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Steers, 1977). Miller (1996)suggested that an employee’s decision to remain with an organization islargely based on their level of commitment. Additionally, organizationalcommitment has been demonstrated to have a negative correlation with 7
  8. 8. employee turnover – as turnover increases, organizational commitmentdecreases (Cotton & Tuttle, 1986). Organizational commitment alsoappears to be an antecedent to an employee’s intent to leave theworkplace (Tett & Meyer, 1993).Hiring Practices Hiring practices emerge as an important part of the researchconcerning recruiting and subsequent retention of employees. Aconsistent theme in the literature is that organizations can reduceturnover by utilizing appropriate selection processes (Buck & Watson,2002). Inadequate hiring processes are both costly in actual accessionexpenditures and follow-on turnover (Abbasi & Hollman, 2000). The first element of the hiring process is identifying theappropriate person for employment. Several authors have suggested thatthe quality of applicant is an antecedent to potential turnover (Kenkel,1997; ). For military employment, the classification of applicants forservice is scored using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery(ASVAB). The ASVAB categorizes applicants into aptitude Categories(CAT) I to IV. There is significant statistical evidence that a highclassification category (CAT I to IIIA) translates into high trainability.There is additional evidence that high school diploma recipients are morelikely to successfully complete Initial Entry Training (IET) and their firstterm of service. Therefore the quality of the applicant, CAT I to IIIA with ahigh school diploma, benefits the service by their potential for completion 8
  9. 9. of training and reduced turnover (Knowles, Parlier, Hoscheit, Ayer,Lyman, & Fancher, 2002). Several studies have examined and found that “truth in recruiting”appears to lower post-hire turnover (Premack & Wanous, 1985). Evidenceexists that realistic expectancies communicated during the recruitingprocess may improve retention of employees (Wanous, 1989). Theexamination of expectancies and their impact on employee motivationand satisfaction can be found in the tenets of Expectancy theory. Expectancy theory is based on the premise that an act will befollowed by an outcome (Vroom, 1964). Yeatts & Hyten (1998) identify thethree components of expectancy theory as: 1. Expectancy or degree of confidence a person has with regard to his or her ability to successfully accomplish the desired behavior. 2. Instrumentality or the degree of confidence a person has that if the behavior is performed successfully he or she will be rewarded appropriately. 3. Valence or the value a person places on the expected rewards.(p. 63) The model assumes that people will be motivated and exhibitbehaviors based on the expectancies of the outcome of their actions. Thestrength of their motivation and the influence on their behavior is linkedto the value assigned or perceived of the outcome. The value, or valence,is directly related to the preference or needs of the individual (Vroom,1964; Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler & Wieck, 1970). 9
  10. 10. When expectancy theory is applied to the hiring process, anapplicant’s motivation for employment is likely based on the expectanciesformed through communication with the recruiter. The valence ofemployment and the rewards (intrinsic and/or extrinsic) become theimpetus for the individual to join and become and organizationalmember. Expectancy theory can be related to both motivation andsatisfaction regarding work activities. A major tenet of expectancy theoryis that while satisfaction may not be derived from meeting expectations,dissatisfaction is likely to occur if expectations are not met (CampbellDunnette, Lawler & Wieck, 1970). For example, an enlistee may contractwith an enlistment bonus to be paid upon the completion of IET. Thevalence of the enlistment bonus influences the soldier to exhibit thedesired behavior and complete IET. The soldier completes IET and is paidthe bonus following completion of the requirement. Although theexpectancy of an act (completion of IET) was followed by an outcome (thepayment of the bonus), one cannot predict the soldier’s satisfaction withthe instrumentality. However, if the soldier exhibits behavior with theexpectancy of receiving the bonus immediately following the completionof IET and the bonus is not forthcoming or paid at all, dissatisfactionwith the system is likely to occur. Expectancy theory is a strongmotivational and satisfaction model. For employers, ensuring realisticexpectations are set by recruiting personnel is likely to assist in reducing 10
  11. 11. dissatisfaction among employees and thereby impacting turnover of theforce (Wanous, Poland, Premack & Davis, 1992).Summary The literature associated with employee turnover has severalthemes important to the discussion of recruiting and retention activities.First, one must acknowledge that turnover may be considered functionalor dysfunctional depending on who is departing the organization(Sturman, Trevor, Boudreau & Gerhart, 2003). The focus of retentionefforts should clearly be on top performers to reduce dysfunctionalturnover and the negative outcomes associated with these losses. To retain employees, three major areas of research emerge thataddress the retention phenomenon: job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment, and hiring practices. Job satisfaction involves aspects ofthe work environment, the work itself and attitudinal predisposition ofaffectivity. Organizational commitment involves a more stable concept tojudge long-term retention along several constructs: normative,continuance, and affective levels of commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1997).Hiring practices are another area associated with employee retention andinvolve specifically targeted applicants of a quality that will likely providelong-term employment with organizations. Hiring practices also involvethe tenets of expectancy theory regarding the setting of realisticexpectancies of the work and the organization. 11
  12. 12. The general theme for employee retention, based on the literature,can be divided into three interconnected processes. First, hiring practicesinvolving realistic work expectancies and focused on the accession ofhigh performance personnel with an attitudinal predisposition forpositive affectivity, will likely reduce dysfunctional turnover. Second, aprogram that inculcates new employees using the three constructs oforganizational commitment for reinforcement (including aligning theirpersonal goals and vision with that of the organization), should improvelong-term employee retention. Finally, employers must be cognizant ofthe concept of job satisfaction and strive to improve both the tasks beingperformed and the work environment as these factors may assist inimproving long-term organizational commitment and retention of topperformers. The Recruiting & Retention Battalion (RRB) and the Recruit Sustainment Program (RSP) RRB’s are tasked to recruit and retain members of the ARNG toensure ES meets or exceeds readiness objectives. The summary in theprevious section provides the major research themes associated withturnover. When the RRB is viewed in the context of these themes aquestion emerges: what influence does the RRB have in the areas ofhiring practices, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction? As the sole accession authority in the ARNG, the RRB clearly has atremendous influence in the hiring methods and practices employed to 12
  13. 13. identify and recruit applicants. The research has provided strongevidence that the quality of accessions is an important part of long-termretention of employees (Knowles, Parlier, Hoscheit, Ayer, Lymam &Fancher, 2002). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction, otherkey concepts associated with retention, are not so easily influenced byRRB’s. How can a RRB improve organizational commitment and jobsatisfaction among members? It would appear that major influences on the phenomena oforganizational commitment and job satisfaction generally lie with unitleadership. Organizational leaders establish the command climate,structure tasks and the operating environment, and build unit cohesion(AR 20-1). So, how can the RRB reduce dysfunctional turnover whenarguably the largest element of long-term retention (organizationalcommitment and job satisfaction) falls in the purview of organizationalleaders? An area of emphasis in the literature suggests that organizationalcommitment starts with the inculcation of new members into theorganization (Rynes, 1991; Wanous, 1989). New member orientation, orsponsorship, appears important for meeting initial employmentexpectations, socializing new members, and building both affective andnormative levels of commitment. The RRB’s have a key role in theprocess of inculcating new members through the RSP. 13
  14. 14. The RSP is the first step in the organizational process of attritionmanagement. It is a model to provide initial employee sponsorship andprepare Non-prior Service (NPS) recruits for the rigors of IET. The RSP isdesigned with a mission to reduce dysfunctional turnover prior to andduring IET. The RSP provides the RRB the link and ideal forum for beginningthe process of long-term commitment among new members of theorganization. The RRB provides a primary role in the hiring process bythe development of expectations and selection of quality applicants. TheRSP, under the command and control of the RRB, thereby becomes theinitial element of the organization to meet the expectations set in therecruiting process. By meeting or exceeding enlistment expectations, andstructuring the work tasks and environment to make effective use ofavailable time and resources, the RSP has an opportunity to impactinitial job satisfaction with the organization. The unity of command (RRBdirecting the RSP) provides both a mutually supportive environment andcongruence between what applicants are told and what they experienceas recruits. The RSP’s unique responsibility to inculcate new members into theorganization is another important element in long-term retention ofsoldiers. The period of initial entry into an organization is where earlyexpectations are met and long-term expectations are developed (Wanous,Poland, Premack & Davis, 1992). The sponsorship process of the RSP 14
  15. 15. should be focused on welcoming new members and aligning their goalsand aspirations with the mission, goals, values and vision of theorganization. When viewing the three constructs of organizational commitmentand the organization’s ability to influence commitment over a typical 6-year enlistment, it is clear where the RRB and unit leadership haveownership. Figure 1.0 is a graphic and prescriptive model displaying theperiod of enlistment, ability to influence, and constructs of commitmentmost important and prevalent for employee retention. Figure 1.0 graphs the commitment influence ability of the RRB andunit leadership. In the first year of enlistment, the RRB has the mostimportant role in influencing new employee commitment through thehiring process and the RSP. The key constructs of commitment duringthis phase of enlistment are affective and normative commitment. As theenlistment progresses along the 6-year time horizon, the unit leadershipbecomes the primary influence to those elements of commitment. Only inthe latter period does the RRB become involved during the process ofretention interviews. Coinciding with the RRB involvement is theadditional construct of continuance commitment and improving theknowledge of benefits and other services potentially lost by a soldier whoelects to self select out of the organization (unwilling to extend orreenlist). 15
  16. 16. Figure 1.0 Prescriptive Model of Retention Influence & OrganizationalCommitment over a typical 6-year enlistment in the Georgia ArmyNational Guard Greater Commitment Influence UNIT Level LEADERSHIP REC & RET BATTALION Lesser Commitment Continuance constructs and Normative importance for retention Affective YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3-4 YEAR 5-6 TIME The model in Figure 1.0 is prescriptive in that it displays the mostprevalent commitment construct and the organizational element (RRB orUnit Leadership) that should take the lead in improving membercommitment during specific periods of a 6-year enlistment. Processownership of commitment-focused activities during various portions ofan enlistment is potentially important for developing the three constructsof commitment for the purpose of reducing dysfunctional employeeturnover. 16
  17. 17. The Georgia ARNG RRB Prototype The RRB of the Georgia ARNG (GAARNG) has developed an actionresearch model focused on reducing long-term turnover in the force. Themodel uses two tenets of SM, recruiting and attrition management, toimprove employee retention. Themes in the research were explored in thecontext of ARNG recruiting and retention for application and implicationsto reduce turnover. The intent of the prototype program is to apply theprescriptive model and place ownership, accountability and unity ofcommand over the tenets of SM that the RRB can significantly influence,and the same for areas unit commanders can influence. Georgia’s RRB model is focused on two critical and interrelatedareas involving NPS recruits: hiring practices and organizationalcommitment. Unit commanders are given the sole mission of retention offirst term (outside the RSP), obligor and careerist soldiers. RRB recruitingis centered on improving hiring practices by ensuring the communicationof realistic work expectancies and the accession of high performance NPSpersonnel (CAT I to IIIA), preferably with an attitudinal disposition forpositive affectivity. The focus on NPS accessions continues in the RSP,under the command and control of the RRB. The RSP is a regionally oriented (five sites, or detachments, in thestate) and standardized program for all NPS recruits enlisted into theGAARNG. The RSP in Georgia is designed to meet four major objectives:(1) inculcate, or sponsor, new employees into the Georgia ARNG; (2) 17
  18. 18. provide NPS recruits the confidence and capability to be successfulcompleting IET; (3) develop a base for long term organizationalcommitment using the three constructs of commitment forreinforcement; and (4) meet or exceed enlistment expectations regardingwork tasks and work environment (job satisfaction). The RSP is commanded by a member of the RRB fulltime staff. TheRSP site NCOIC’s, both Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) and Active DutySpecial Work (ADSW), are physically assigned to each detachmentlocation to perform unit-level supervisory duties. Support for the RSP isprovided by the RRB staff and production personnel. Production TeamNCOIC’s and their personnel are aligned with particular detachments foroversight and support. Upon accession in the GAARNG, all NPS recruitsare attached by orders to the closest regional site near their home ofrecord. NPS soldiers remain attached to their respective detachment untilthey have graduated IET and a unit sponsor is available for an officialhandover. The unity of command and congruence between the RRB and RSPis critical for reducing turnover. An institutionalized check and balanceis immediately available to the RRB commander. The quality andexpectations of the NPS recruit are visible in the RSP. Consequently, theRSP must meet/or exceed the expectations of the NPS force attached,prepare them for IET, and begin building long-term commitment.Variations in recruit quality, ship rates, sponsorship, training, and job 18
  19. 19. satisfaction are discernable and correctable under the command andcontrol of the RRB through the production lines or RSP. Ultimately the long-term retention of quality soldiers lies in theirindividual commitment to the GAARNG. Unit commanders have the taskof reducing turnover in their organizations by building strong teams,esprit de corps, organizational commitment and staying cognizant of thework tasks and environment (job satisfaction). Retention is therefore bestleft to the unit commanders. The RRB contributes to this tenet byrecruiting quality applicants with realistic expectations of theirassignment and inculcating and preparing them to meet their initialemployment expectations through the RSP. The clear delineation of responsibility between unit commandersand the RRB is important for focused effort by each entity. Specificdirection and appropriate standards of accountability should allow forimproved results in each of the three SM tenets: recruiting, attritionmanagement, and retention. As depicted in the prescriptive model foundin Figure 1.0, the unit command climate and the long-termorganizational commitment necessary for unit-level retention is bestinfluenced by unit leaders. However, the RRB can contribute to reducingdysfunctional turnover during the first portion of an enlistment period.The hiring processes, initial job satisfaction and the start point forbuilding of organizational commitment among NPS recruits are factorsbest influenced by the RRB and RSP. In essence, by the RRB focusing on 19
  20. 20. the two tenets of recruiting and attrition management, results may be felton the third tenet of retention. 20
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