Gva cost lunteren 2012 v3


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Emulsion structure in relation to sensory and and digestive functionality
Food is essential to provide the nutritional support for the body and is almost always of plant or animal origin. However, consumer acceptance and bioavailability of the food materials is greatly increased by processing the raw food materials into a broad range of food structures.
Being the portal of the gastrointestinal tract, the mouth is functional for testing the safety and expected nutritional value, pleasure and possible toxicity of the food and to prepare the food in the form of a slippery, smooth bolus that does no longer contain large solid structures that are difficult to digest or become stuck in the gastrointestinal tract, or sharp objects that could penetrate the mucous epithelial surfaces of the gastro intestinal tract. During oral processing, the food is broken up into pieces and mixed with saliva, during which tastants and aromas are released and detected. The swallowing reflex occurs when a sufficiently smooth cohesive bolus is formed that can be easily swallowed and passed to the esophagus without the risk of food material entering the windpipe. Once swallowed, the bolus enters the gastrointestinal tract, which is a very efficient machinery to extract the required nutrients in a safely absorbable form. The gastrointestinal tract is organized in such a way that the food is stored in the stomach, from which it is gradually released at a controlled rate into the intestine, where a large assembly of chemicals (emulsifiers, enzymes) is activated and the residence time is regulated to ensure an efficient digestion and absorption of the food. Gastrointestinal receptors continuously monitor the remaining nutrient availability, which translates into signals that control food intake.
Some of these oral and gastro-intestinal processes are consciously perceived and described as oral texture, flavor, taste, fullness and hunger. Altogether, perception, intake and bioavailability of the food materials are highly dependent not only on the structure and composition of the food before intake, but especially also on the behavior during oral and gastro-intestinal processing.
Nevertheless, in spite of the high level of control by the intricate machinery of our body, the highly digestible and sensorial attractiveness of modern food, in combination with a sedate lifestyle, can lead to health problems. Of particularly concern is the metabolic syndrome, which encompasses a number of appearances such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Since caloric over-consumption of especially sugars and fats in the diet seems to be the main food-driver of metabolic syndrome, there is an urgent need to reduce the caloric intake from these components.
Two recent TIFN projects have been focusing on the food emulsion side of this issue, one related to the role of emulsified fat on sensory perception, and one focusing on emulsion digestion. This presentation will o

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Gva cost lunteren 2012 v3

  1. 1. Emulsion structurein relation to Jennifer Aniston (W Magazine photo shoot )sensory and anddigestive George van Akenfunctionality george.vanaken@nizo.comTogether to the next level
  3. 3. Positive energy balance METABOLIC SYNDROME: Obesity, CardioVascular Disease inflammation, diabetes type II, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis Enlarged adipocytes: Ectopic fat storage • Impared adiposite liver, heart, pancreas.Fat storage exceeds differentiation and function skeletal muscle,abdominenthe normal storage • Modulated endocrine functioncapacity of adiposites High blood triglycerides Impaired glucose homeostasis Heilbron et al, Int. J. Obesity, (2004)
  4. 4. Approaches against metabolicsyndrome• Reduce ectopic fat • Reduce caloric intake • Increase satiety • Sport • Burn more fat, built more muscles• Improved clearance of inflammatory pro- atherogenic blood lipoprotein remnants • Increase in Omega-3 and short and medium chain fatty acid, Increase fibers. Reduce sugar. Increase fibers. • Reduce saturated (palmitic) fatty acids (Challenged)• Lower blood pressure, less vessel injury leading to better cardiovascular health • Low salt, less stress• Low glycemic index • Low sugar, slow starch, slower gastric emptying, slower absorption
  5. 5. Approaches against metabolicsyndrome• Reduce ectopic fat • Reduce caloric intake • Increase satiety • Sport • Burn more fat, built more muscles• Improved clearance of inflammatory pro- atherogenic blood lipoprotein remnants • Increase in Omega-3 and short and medium chain fatty acid, Increase fibers. Reduce sugar. Increase fibers. • Reduce saturated (palmitic) fatty acids (Challenged)• Lower blood pressure, less vessel injury leading to better cardiovascular health • Low salt, less stress• Low glycemic index • Low sugar, slow starch, slower gastric emptying, slower absorption
  6. 6. Product requirements • Should reduce caloric intake • Early satiety • Long lasting hunger reduction • Should be healthy • Low glycemic index • Reduce blood triglycerides, improve inflammatory response • Should be preferred by consumer • Sensory quality • Creamy, full taste and aroma Together to the next level6
  7. 7. Goals: • Healthy: low calorie intake at satiety • Sensorially liked: creamy, smooth, full 2 finalized projects at TIFN: - Improved satiety by emulsified fat - Improved creaminess by emulsified fat Application Contract research Together to the next level7
  8. 8. Main findings of the two projects • Sensory perception of emulsions determined by the behaviour during oral processing • Satiety by emulsions influenced by the structure and dynamics in the gastro-intestinal tract Needed is a better understanding and control of the interactions of the emulsions with the human body product formulation Together to the next level8
  9. 9. TIFN Project team: Diane DresselhuisUnilever Erika SillettiDSM Guido SalaCosun Els de HoogAvebe Monique VingerhoedsFrieslandCampina Jan Benjamins Franklin ZoetNIZO food research Jerry van MaanenTNO Eefjan TimmermanWUR Willem Norde Martien Cohen Stuart George van Aken Sensory pereption ORAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMULSIONS Together to the next level
  10. 10. Product developers approach Sensory panelingProduct development: Product characteristics:composition, structure sensory properties• reduced fat Correlations correlations • not so creamy, thin, slimy, gritty• thickeners are often • off tastes, off flavours, unbalanced flavours• particles• aroma’s poor• sugar replacers Instrumental measurements: • viscosity, gel strength, fracture behavior • friction measurement • droplet and particle size • aroma and flavour release Together to the next level10
  11. 11. Sensory perception of food Appearance color, shine, structure, flow, aroma Brain Receptors First biterheology, temperature Feed back Masticatory Gut signals oral processing Satiety, well being many structural changes, flavour release swallow After taste oral and pharyngeal coating,11 Together to the next level flavour release
  12. 12. Tribological regimes of papillae (Stribeck curve) Hydrodynamic modelling Friction force of the soft deformable Static surface bonds papilla surface* Static friction “Smooth” thickness Transient surface bonds and particle size corrugations palate boundary Only viscous forces Liquid starts to interpenetrate hydrodynamic papilla Gap-width mixed increases with speed viscosity“Rough speedtongue” viscosityastringency * Van Aken, G.A., Modelling texture perception by soft epithelial surfaces, Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 826–834
  13. 13. Emulsions:Large structural changes, even for thin liquid emulsions:THIS is what you taste! TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition13
  14. 14. Structural changes in the oral cavity Food emulsions Saliva-induced Formation of slimy droplet aggregation structures Droplet-coating of Inhomogeneous coverage oral surfaces of tongue papillae Amylase induced Droplet coalescence starch breakdown Fat spreading at air Droplet spreading at bubble surfaces tongue surface Fracture of gels into Release of ‘crumbs’ emulsions droplets Van Aken et al., Food Colloids, Dickinson ed., RSC, 2005, pp.356 – 366; TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition14 Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 12, 251-262. .
  15. 15. Saliva-induced flocculation1:1 mixtures of emulsions with salivaE. Silletti et al., Food Hydrocolloids 21 (2007) 596–606; J.Colloid Interface Sci. 313 (2007) 485–493 50 emulsion 40 mixture 30 32 20d 10 0 -100 -50 0 50 100 Emulsion -potential (mV)
  16. 16. Viscosity increases due to saliva-induced droplet aggregation → increased creaminess ξ<0 ξ>0 Liquid emulsionat 100 s-1 Saliva-induced droplet aggregation Vingerhoeds et al. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(3) (2009), 773-785. TI food and 16 Van Aken to the next level Colloid Interface Sci. 12 (2007), 251-262. Together et al., Curr. Opin. Nutrition
  17. 17. Interaction with the tonguePhD study of Diane Dresselhuis Visualization of fat retention on pig tongue CSLM image 500 500 m 10 wt% SF oil; 1 wt% WPI red: oil; green: tongue papillae Dresselhuis et al., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2008) TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition 17
  18. 18. 0 .3 s pitFat retention on the tongue rins egram fat remaining in mouthin m ou th emulsions varying in stability to coalescence 00.2 .2 o/w emulsion 0 .3 sFat pit gr am fat rem ain ing remaining rins e 7% SF (sunflower oil) gr am fat rem ain ing in m ou th after first stabilized with protein WPI spit stable unstable 0 .2 0 0.1 .1 Fat WPI 1 0.3 remaining [%] 0 .1 after water D[3,2] 0.92 1.15 rinsing [ m] 1.6 1.4 0 0.0 .0 (@51 s-1) 0 1% W P I S F .0 0.3 w t% W P I S F 1% W P I S F L 1% W P I S F 0.3 w t% W P I S F 1% W P I S F L [mPa s] stable unstable Fat adhesion and retention larger for more unstable emulsions → increased creaminess Dresselhuis et al., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2008) TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition18
  19. 19. Friction between PDMS (hydrophobic) and glass (boundary friction regime) Dresselhuis et al. Food Biophysics (2007) 0.6 Effect of adsorption of fat onto the surface 0.4 Friction coefficient Fat content (wt%) 0.2 0.3 wt%WPI unstable emulsion 1.0 wt%WPI stable emulsion 0.0 Dewetting of saliva 0 10 20 30 40 from the oral surfaces Fat content (wt%) Fat reduces the friction (→ increases creaminess), but an increase in fat content has no further effect TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition19
  20. 20. What makes emulsions creamy? GEL FRACTURING dependent on gelling agent and droplet interaction ACTIVE saliva VISCOUS BOLUS of gel particles Thick INACTIVE and saliva saliva Gelled emulsion porous Rich HIGHER VISCOSITY by saliva –induced droplet flocculation rubbing, EXTENDED aroma release Creamy shear saliva Smooth shear LUBRICATING saliva FATTY COATING Liquid Droplet coating on oral surfaces Coatingemulsion26 refereed journal publications and 8 book chapters (2005-2011) by the TIFN project team TI food and Together to the next level Nutrition 20
  21. 21. Restored creaminess in reduced fat products • Restore boundary lubrication: • Emulsion sensitized to coalescence (increase solid fat content, adjusted emulsifier mix, OSA starch) • Specific lubricating emulsifiers • Reduce acidity and astringency (polyphenols) • Restore viscosity: • Smaller droplet size • Similar thinning behavior during oral processing • Thickeners, compatible with saliva (polysaccharides, resistant starch) • Small particles (size below detection limit) • Restore flavour: • Flavor rebalancing • Controlled release Together to the next level21
  22. 22. TIFN project team:UnileverDSM Raymond SchipperCSM Anne HelbigVION Man MinekusFrieslandCampina Lex OosterveldNIZO food research Erika SillettiTNO Esther Bomhof,WUR George van Aken Digestion GASTRO-INTESTINAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMULSIONS Together to the next level
  23. 23. Engineered sensory and dietary functionality of dispersed fat Develop fundamental knowledge on the oro-gastro-intestinal behaviour of food emulsion systems and how this behaviour relates to physiological responsesPhysical chemistry Oral/Gut Biochemistry Structural Behaviour in oral- Adsorbed layer component gastro-intestinal Droplet size tract Fat type Continuous phase Physiological responses Physiology B-1007: Engineered sensory and dietary functionality of dispersed fat
  24. 24. Line up of experimental models withincreasing complexityIn vitro,in vivo Tongue cupmouthmodel Belly Quintet In vitro gastricArtifical and intestinalmouth models TinyTIM Artificial digestion model Pig Model MRI pH STAT of stomach Animal Model Human Studies Human subjects In silico modeling B-1007: Engineered sensory and satiating functionality of dispersed fat
  26. 26. What is the problem with fat digestion?Triglycerides are insoluble in water and thereforecannot be detected and absorbed directly • Lipases are water soluble and can only be active at the oil/water interface → efficient lipolysis requires large O/W interfacial areas (small droplet sizes) • Adsorbed layer of emulsifiers and lipolytic products (fatty acids, monoglycerides) may hinder lipase activity • For saturated C12 and longer, the lipolytic products (fatty acids, monoglycerides and diglycerides) are insoluble solids • Unsaturated long chain monoglycerides (e.g. C18:1) form cubic liquid crystals
  27. 27. Role of bile in the small intestine• Bile removes emulsifiers from the interface• Pancreatic lipase hydrolyses triglycerides into pancreatic lipase fatty acids and sn-2 monoglycerides by lipases• For saturated C12 and longer, the formed fatty acids, monoglycerides and diglycerides are insoluble solids carboxyl ester lipase• Unsaturated long chain monoglycerides (e.g. C18:1) form cubic liquid crystals Bile Bile solubizes the insoluble lipolytic micelle products into micelles
  28. 28. Fat digestion: main enzymatic processes Stomach Gastric lipase Portal (<10%) vein to liver Small Small intestinal intestine wall Serum albumin transporter Pancreatic lipase (almost complete) chylomicron Bile micelles lymph Together to the next level28
  29. 29. Effect of the lymphatic route• Long chain MUFA, SAFA and vitamins bypass the liver• Primarily used by the body for energy (muscles) and stored in adipose tissue
  30. 30. Nerve membraneRouting of fatty acids - overview Functional liver lipids FA glucose Portal veinC11:0 and shorter Main ω-3 DHA bloodω-6 PUFA serum VLDL stream albuminω-3 PUFA glucose LDL chylomicronsOleic acidC12:0 and longer Lymph vessel Energy Conjugated double bonds: CLA supply Muscles Adiposites
  31. 31. Regulated stomach emptying of nutritious liquids: Roughly constant nutrient release to the small intestine duodenum jejunum ileum Pylorus absorptive cells Stomach Stomachintake activity emptying area concentration absorbable nutrients bile pancreas - - + + I-cells detect nutrients (mainly duodenum, jejunum)Regulated gastric emptying at 1-2 kcal/min• Corresponds to 1440 - 2880 kcal/day, similar to the advised daily caloric intake
  32. 32. Regulated small intestinal residence time (ileal brake) • Compensates for a high caloric entry into the intestine or slow enzymatic hydrolysis • Normal condition: nutrients reach ileum but not colon duodenum jejunum Ileum Absorptive cellsintake Stomach Pylorus Transit speed bile pancreas - L-cells detect nutrients (ileum and COLON)
  33. 33. Computer modeling Fed by: physiological literature in vitro studies (in vitro gastric, Simfyd, tiny TIM)Together to the next level
  34. 34. In-silico model absorptionIntake(water,protein,fat, Funduscarbohydrateas a function Corpus pylorusof time) Antrum Duodenum FFA FFA Jejunum 1 FFA Jejunum 2 Gastric Enough calories Nutrient density in Jejunum 3 FFA Ileum 1 volume in my stomach ... chyme FFA time to stop eating! FFA Ileum 2 I-cells L-cells FFA CCK PYY, GLP1, Ileum 3 Fullness oxymodulin oxymodulin FFA Ileum 4 oxymodulin FFA Ileum 5 Hunger Total Insufficient calories FFA Ileum 6 Colon absorbable • Potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin in my gut...nutrients secretion • Reduce glucagon I should eat! Together to the next level avoid high blood sugar
  35. 35. Examples 1. Emulsions that cream in the stomach 2. Emulsions that sediment in the stomach Together to the next level35
  36. 36. Increase fullness during eating by improvingthe emulsion stability in the stomach Bulk fat and many emulsions and are unstable in the stomach (low pH, enzymes) and separate a fat–rich creamed layer . Consequence: an energy poor lower phase empties fast, quickly reducing the volume of the stomach 8 12 Fullness Hunger 7 10 6 5 8 Simulation of an emulsion of 40 g reference a.u. a.u. 4 fully creamed fat layer 6 reference fat and 200 g water; effect of fat 3 fully creamed fat layer 2 4 floating as a creamed layer 2 1 0 0 0 200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 800 time (min) time (min) Effect gastric instability of an emulsion *Marciani et al., British Journal of Nutrition (2009), 101, 919–928
  37. 37. Approach: induce sedimentation in stomachCollaboration with Alan Mackie (IFR) for in vivo testing Van Aken et al., Food Hydrocolloids (2011) 5 % triolein, 1 % WPI, 1 % caseinate• Expected to improve satiety during and shortly after the meal, reducing meal size. 9 12 Full fat milk 8 Fullness Hunger 10 7 reference 6 8 5 sedimented fat layer 6 Simulation of an emulsion of a.u. 4 a.u. 3 4 reference 40 g fat and 200 g water; sedimented fat layer 2 1 2 effect of fat sedimentation, 0 0 leading to an initial emptying of 0 200 400 600 800 -1 0 200 400 600 800 time (min) -2 time (min) a 25 % fat emulsion
  38. 38. Relevance: suggestions fromexperiments and simulationThin liquid high-calori drinks:• Tend to be over-consumed because of quick emptying before regulated emptying is activated. (less fullness during the meal)• The initially fast-emptying nutrients are quickly absorbed, do not contribute to longer term hunger reduction.(Semi-)solid high-calori food:• Is emptied slowly, regulated by caloric content and slowed down further by gastric “erosion” of food lumps• Physiological estimation of calories in reserve in the stomach and small intestine is more accurate.
  39. 39. Challenge • Combine the concepts and techniques developed for sensory perception, digestion and satiety of food emulsions to construct highly liked food emulsions that are more satiating • Solutions highly dependent on product type Together to the next level39
  40. 40. Thank you! george.vanaken@nizo.com
  41. 41. george.vanaken@nizo.com Creating the future together Together to the next level Together to the next level41