TRY THIS:
• Put your finger on your neck and say “aah”
as loud as you can.
• Now say it as soft as you can.
• You can not ...
WHAT IS SOUND?
• Sound is
– A form of energy made by vibrations.
– When an object vibrates it causes the air
particles aro...
HOW SOUND TRAVELS?
• Sound passes through the medium as
longitudinal waves.
• When the vibrations are fast you hear a
high...
PRODUCTION OF SOUND
Sound is produced due to the vibration of objects.
Vibration is the rapid to and fro motion of an obje...
LOW SOUND AND HIGH SOUND
The pitch of sound (shrillness or flatness) depends on the
frequency of vibration.
If the frequen...
• High pitch =
high frequency
• Low pitch =
low frequency
SOUND NEEDS MEDIUM TO TRAVEL
Sound is a mechanical wave and needs a medium for propagation.
Sound travels through solids, ...
AMPLITUDE OF SOUND
• Volume control
• Loudness
• Strength of the wave ( measured in db “decibels”)
• Energy of the wave
DO YOU KNOW HOW DOES MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT CREATE SOUND
• It depends on the type of instrument.
There are four types.
– Woodw...
WOODWIN INSTRUMENTS
• Woodwinds make music by blowing on the
top of the instrument or on a reed.
STRING INSTRUMENTS
• Strings make music by plucking or
strumming the strings.
PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
• Percussion instruments make music by
striking, shaking or scraping them.
BRASS INSTRUMENT
• Brass instruments make music by buzzing
lips while blowing.
HOW DOES VIOLEIN PRODUSES
SOUND?
The body of the violein is a large hollow chamber that
functions as a speaker or amplifie...
HOW DOLPHINS COMMUNICATE
EACH OTHER
One way they do it is by making sounds. They don’t have vocal chords like we
do, but t...
Whales sing
to each
other.
Sound travels
through water
NOISE POLLUTION
Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life
is called as noise. When there is lot of noise i...
HEALTH EFFECTS
• According to the USEPA, there are direct links between noise
and health. Also, noise pollution adversely ...
SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION
• Transportation systems are the main source of noise
pollution in urban areas.
• Construction ...
SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION
• Planting bushes and trees in and around sound
generating sources is an effective solution f...
SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION
• Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the
machinery and servicing should be done to
minimi...
SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION
• Community development or urban
management should be done with long-
term planning, along wi...
HUMAN VOICE BOX
In humans sound is produced by the
voice box or the larynx. The voice box is
at the upper part end of the ...
VOICE BOX OF HUMAN
Sound travels to your ear
Sound
The air vibrates
but does not travel from
the alarm to the ear.
HUMAN EAR
The outer ear called pinna collects the sound
waves. The sound waves passes through the ear
canal to a thin memb...
Mobile phones use radio
Sound - electrical signal - radio signal - electrical signal - sound
Radio signal
Mobile
phone
bea...
TELEPHONES
The message travels through miles of wires
as an electrical signal.
microphone
loudspeaker
electrical signal
Sound travels 4 times faster through water than
through air.
There is no sound in space.
Geologists use their knowledge of...
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  1. 1. TRY THIS: • Put your finger on your neck and say “aah” as loud as you can. • Now say it as soft as you can. • You can not only hear the sound, but you can feel the vibration inside your throat.
  2. 2. WHAT IS SOUND? • Sound is – A form of energy made by vibrations. – When an object vibrates it causes the air particles around it to move. – These particles bump into particles close to them and this continues until they run out of energy.
  3. 3. HOW SOUND TRAVELS? • Sound passes through the medium as longitudinal waves. • When the vibrations are fast you hear a high pitch. When they’re slow, you hear a low pitch. High Pitch Low Pitch
  4. 4. PRODUCTION OF SOUND Sound is produced due to the vibration of objects. Vibration is the rapid to and fro motion of an object. Eg :- The sound of human voice is produced due to the vibration of the vocal cords. A stretched rubber band when plucked vibrates and produces sound. Activity :- Strike the prongs of a tuning fork on a rubber pad and bring it near the ear. We can hear a sound. If a suspended table tennis ball is touched with the vibrating prong, the ball is pushed away repeatedly. This shows that the prong is vibrating and vibrating objects produces sound. Vibrating tuning fork Table tennis ball Thread
  5. 5. LOW SOUND AND HIGH SOUND The pitch of sound (shrillness or flatness) depends on the frequency of vibration. If the frequency is high, the sound has high pitch and if the frequency is low, the sound has low pitch.
  6. 6. • High pitch = high frequency • Low pitch = low frequency
  7. 7. SOUND NEEDS MEDIUM TO TRAVEL Sound is a mechanical wave and needs a medium for propagation. Sound travels through solids, liquids and gases. Sound does not travel in vacuum. Activity:- Suspend an electric bell in an air tight bell jar. Connect the bell jar to a vacuum pump. If the switch is pressed, we can hear the sound of the bell. If air is pumped out through the vacuum pump, we cannot hear the sound of the bell. This shows that sound needs a medium to travel and sound cannot travel in vacuum. Cork Bell jar Electric bell
  8. 8. AMPLITUDE OF SOUND • Volume control • Loudness • Strength of the wave ( measured in db “decibels”) • Energy of the wave
  9. 9. DO YOU KNOW HOW DOES MUSICAL INSTRUMENT CREATE SOUND • It depends on the type of instrument. There are four types. – Woodwind – String – Percussion – Brass
  10. 10. WOODWIN INSTRUMENTS • Woodwinds make music by blowing on the top of the instrument or on a reed.
  11. 11. STRING INSTRUMENTS • Strings make music by plucking or strumming the strings.
  12. 12. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS • Percussion instruments make music by striking, shaking or scraping them.
  13. 13. BRASS INSTRUMENT • Brass instruments make music by buzzing lips while blowing.
  14. 14. HOW DOES VIOLEIN PRODUSES SOUND? The body of the violein is a large hollow chamber that functions as a speaker or amplifier for vibration. The strings are suspended above the body of the instrument by a bridge, a small maple piece of wood secured to the top of the instrument by the tension of the strings. The vibration from the strings is transferred through the bridge to the body of the instrument where the sound is then amplified.
  15. 15. HOW DOLPHINS COMMUNICATE EACH OTHER One way they do it is by making sounds. They don’t have vocal chords like we do, but they can control muscles in their blowholes to make different noises. Some of the noises they make sound like whistles and squeaks. Some of their sounds are ultrasonic, which means they are too high in pitch for people to even hear! By making all these sounds, dolphins can identify themselves to each other.
  16. 16. Whales sing to each other. Sound travels through water
  17. 17. NOISE POLLUTION Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution. Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations. It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact that we can’t see, smell, or taste it. World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being”
  18. 18. HEALTH EFFECTS • According to the USEPA, there are direct links between noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. • Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health. • High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution. • It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic attacks.
  19. 19. SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION • Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas. • Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers. • Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution. • Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.
  20. 20. SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION • Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution. • Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution. • Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing material for the walls, windows, and ceilings. • Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.
  21. 21. SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION • Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation. • Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside. • Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places. • Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas.
  22. 22. SOLUTION FOR NOISE POLLUTION • Community development or urban management should be done with long- term planning, along with an aim to reduce noise pollution. • Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.
  23. 23. HUMAN VOICE BOX In humans sound is produced by the voice box or the larynx. The voice box is at the upper part end of the windpipe. Tow vocal cords, are stretched across the voice box or larynx in such a way that it leaves a narrow slit between them for the passage of air
  24. 24. VOICE BOX OF HUMAN
  25. 25. Sound travels to your ear Sound The air vibrates but does not travel from the alarm to the ear.
  26. 26. HUMAN EAR The outer ear called pinna collects the sound waves. The sound waves passes through the ear canal to a thin membrane called eardrum. The eardrum vibrates. The vibrations are amplified by the three bones of the middle ear called hammer, anvil and stirrup. The middle ear then transmits the sound waves to the inner ear. In the inner ear the sound waves are converted into electrical signals by the cochlea and sent to the brain through the auditory nerves. The brain then interprets the signals as sound.
  27. 27. Mobile phones use radio Sound - electrical signal - radio signal - electrical signal - sound Radio signal Mobile phone beacons In the second phone the radio signal is changed into an electrical signal then into sound. In one phone the sound is changed into an electrical signal then into a radio signal. Sound - electrical signal - radio signal - electrical signal - sound
  28. 28. TELEPHONES The message travels through miles of wires as an electrical signal. microphone loudspeaker electrical signal
  29. 29. Sound travels 4 times faster through water than through air. There is no sound in space. Geologists use their knowledge of how sound travels through rocks to help them find oil fields. Whales in the ocean "sing" to each other. The sound of their song can travel a distance of 800km. Sound moves through the air at 340m per second. SOME INTRESTINGFACTS

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