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Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing

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UAVs are a disruptive technology bringing new geographic data and information to many application domains. UASs are similar to other geographic imagery systems so existing frameworks are applicable. But the diversity of UAVs as platforms along with the diversity of available sensors are presenting challenges in the processing and creation of geospatial products. Efficient processing and dissemination of the data is achieved using software and systems that implement open standards. The challenges identified point to the need for use of existing standards and extending standards. Results from the use of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement set of standards are presented. Next steps in the progress of UAVs and UASs may follow the path of open data, open source and open standards.

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Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing

  1. 1. ® Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing UAV-g 2015 August 2015 George Percivall Chief Engineer and CTO gpercivall@myogc.org Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  2. 2. OGC ® Common Approach for UAS Data Geoprocessing •  UAVs bring new geographic information to many application domains •  UASs similar to other geographic imagery systems so existing frameworks are applicable •  But challenges unique to UASs exist in processing and creation of geospatial products •  Challenges motivate use of existing standards and extending standards Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  3. 3. OGC ® UAS frameworks similar to previous geographic observing system frameworks Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium ! UAS Production Process (USGS) Figure 1. The frameworks of application from UAVs II. PROJECT WORKFLOW OF IMAGE DATA ACQUISITION overall workflow for the acquisition of UAV images will be Image matching and mosaicking Flight planning Autonomous flight Flight trajectory Data processing Environment and agriculture Terrain extraction 3D visualization Monitoring of hazards Data acquisition Photography Classification Applications UAVs Framework for research on UAVs (Ma)
  4. 4. OGC ® Challenges with UAS technology •  Image distortion with inexpensive digital cameras •  Sensors have low or no metadata which hinders use of sensor data •  Limited accuracy of the exterior information: position, orientation •  Need for smooth, fast workflow: raw to classified imagery •  Requirements for accountability increase requirements on provenance in data processing Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  5. 5. OGC ® Challenges motivate the use of standards •  Diversity of alternatives in UAVs show a lack of standardization at all levels: sensors, platforms, processing •  To advance, UASs need to increase use of existing standards and in some cases new standards will need to be developed. •  Standards for geographic observations are quite mature and UASs benefit from using them Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  6. 6. OGC ® What is a Standard? •  “An agreed way of doing something” © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium EC: Practical standards guide for researchers - en
  7. 7. OGC ® What is a Standard? •  “An agreed way of doing something” • Standards are distilled wisdom of people with expertise in their subject matter and who know the needs of the organizations they represent – people such as manufacturers, sellers, buyers, customers, trade associations, users or regulators. • Standards are knowledge. They are powerful tools that can help drive innovation and increase productivity. They can make organizations more successful and people’s everyday lives easier, safer and healthier. © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium EC: Practical standards guide for researchers - en
  8. 8. OGC ® What is an OGC Standard? •  Document; Established by consensus; Approved by OGC membership (balance of interest, all members have vote) –  Provides, rules, guidelines or characteristics –  Implementable in software •  Open Standards are not the same as Open Source software –  OGC/OSGeo Paper on Open Source and Open Standards: http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_and_Open_Standards •  OGC standards are Open Standards –  Freely and publicly available –  No license fees –  Vendor neutral Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium 8
  9. 9. OGC ® OGC  Sensor  Web  Enablement   Copyright © 2014 Open Geospatial Consortium Webcam Environmental Monitor Airborne Imaging Device Health Monitor Vehicles As Sensor Probe Satellite-borne Imaging Device • Sensors  connected  to  and  discoverable  on  the  Web   • Sensors  have  posi9on  &  generate  observa9ons   • Sensor  descrip9ons  available       • Services  to  task  and  access  sensors   • Local,  regional,  na9onal  scalability   • Enabling  the  Enterprise    
  10. 10. OGC ® OGC Sensor Web Enablement Standards Discover and Task Sensors Access and process Observations •  Sensor Model Language (SensorML) •  Observations & Measurements (O&M) •  Sensor Planning Service (SPS) •  Sensor Observation Service (SOS) •  Catalogue Service •  Sensor Alert Service (SAS) •  PUCK Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  11. 11. OGC ® Visualization / Decision Tools and Applications GeoAPI OpenLS SLD SE Data Models and EncodingsWMC FE GML GeoXACML KML CityGML OpenGeoSMS IndoorGML GeoSparql WaterML GeoPackage NetCDF GMLJP2 OGC Services Architecture Other Data Processing Services OpenMIWPSTJS WCPS Geospatially Enabled Metadata Discovery Services CSW OpenSearch Geo ebRIM WMS WMTSWFS Simple Features Access Access Services Geospatial Feature Data Geospatial Browse/Maps Geospatial Coverage Data WCS Other Services Workflow, Alerts, Security Sensors Puck SOSSPS O&MSensorML Sensor Web Enablement Discover Task Access Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  12. 12. OGC ® Copyright © 2014 Open Geospatial Consortium 12 Empire Challenge OV-1
  13. 13. OGC ® Tigershark UAV in Empire Challenge 2008 •  On-demand geolocation and display of HD video from Tigershark UAV •  Client: – UAH Space Time Toolkit •  Services: – SOS – Tigershark video and navigation (ERDAS) – SOS – Troop Movement (Northrop Grumman) – SensorML – On-demand processing (Botts, Inc.) – Virtual Earth – base maps
  14. 14. OGC ® Tigershark UAV-HD with SWE processing OpenGL SensorML-enabled Client SLD Tigershark SOS JP2 NAV Tigershark SOS offerings served in O&M: (1) time-tagged video frames (in JP2) (2) aircraft navigation (lat, lon, alt, pitch, roll, true heading) SensorML process chain (using CSM frame sensor model) geolocates streaming imagery on-the-fly Source: Mike Botts
  15. 15. OGC ® NASA and US Forest Service UAS missions •  Ikhana UAV with multispectral sensor •  Fire intelligence to management teams •  Web access to geospatial processing services Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium Source: Ambrosia, G., Sullivan, D., Buechel, S., GSA Special Paper 482
  16. 16. OGC ® Framework for UAS using OGC SWE •  UAV challenges –  sensors publish data in unpredictable manner. –  proprietary access to data •  Need to integrated data stream web publishing •  Framework to simplify integration in an interoperable way using OGC SWE standards Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium Source: Rieke, M., Foerster, T., Broering, A. 14th AGILE International Conference
  17. 17. OGC ® Framework to combine UAS with other sensors •  Precision farming: variety of vendor-specific sensor systems, control units and processing software •  SWE-based infrastructure: control, access, transmission and storage of of sensor data for web services •  Field trial proved applicability of the infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium SWE infrastructure for precision farming (Source: Geipel)
  18. 18. OGC ® Using SensorML to manage UAS complexity •  Manage proliferation of sensors on UAV platforms –  Mission planning: after the most appropriate UAV is determined, it is time to choose which kind of sensor will be accompany to the UAV. •  Using SensorML to manage specifications –  Platforms: helicopter, quadcopter, blimp and airplane –  Sensors: micro analog, HD camera, lowlight and thermal camera –  In a database to support processing, e.g., MATLAB, BPEL Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium Figure 23: System 1 and 2- Cameras with Quad copter and Cameras with Blimp For instance, in a mission that happens at night and if it takes a lot of time and it must be fast, the UAV will probably be an aero plane with these four UAV and the camera must be thermal or low light camera from five camera sensors. Figure 24: System 3 and System 4-Cameras with aero plane and cameras with helicopter Source: C. Avci,, Halmstad University
  19. 19. OGC ® OGC Point Cloud Working Group •  Established in July 2015 •  Focus on all types of point clouds: LiDAR/laser, bathymetric, meteorologic, photogrammetric…
  20. 20. OGC ® Common Approach for UAV Data Geoprocessing •  Open standards provide alternatives to “stove-pipe” vertical integration of data collection, database management, analysis, portrayal and user interface. •  Pick and choose components that work well together because of open standards – “plug and play” •  Efficient processing and dissemination of the data achieved using software and systems that implement open standards •  Gain full benefit of the explosion of UAV platforms and sensors that will be interchangeable based on open standards Copyright © 2015 Open Geospatial Consortium
  21. 21. OGC ® For  Details  on  OGC  Standards…           OGC Standards –  Freely available –  www.opengeospatial.org/standards George Percivall gpercivall at opengeospatial.org @percivall 21  

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