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Primary vs. secondary research ig


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Primary vs. secondary research ig

  1. 1. Secondary and Primary Data Collection <ul><li>Secondary: </li></ul><ul><li>Published information available from other sources that has already been gathered. This information is relevant to the problem at hand. Either internal or external to an organisation. Start by collecting this type. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary: </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected for the first time, by a method other than secondary research, to answer specific questions. Primary data comes from the researcher for the purpose of the specific purpose it hand. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Group Task 1 <ul><li>In groups of 5 or 6 identify the advantages and disadvantages of using secondary and primary research. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to report you findings to the group. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Research <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately available </li></ul><ul><li>Will provide essential background and help to clarify or refine research problem – essential for literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data sources will provide research method alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Will also alert the researcher to any potential difficulties. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Research <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently outdated – e.g. census data </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially unreliable – not always sure where information has come from </li></ul><ul><li>May not be applicable – may not totally answer your research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of availability – i.e. no data available or very difficult to obtain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Primary Research <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable and usable – if done right </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and reliable – can answer your direct research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date – as you have collected the data </li></ul>
  6. 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Primary Research <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Not immediately available – takes time to define problem, sampling frame, method and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Not as readily accessible </li></ul>
  7. 7. Primary Research Methods & Techniques <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interview (intercepts) </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>In-house, self-administered </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone, fax, e-mail, Web </li></ul>Quantitative Data Primary Research Experiments Mechanical observation Simulation Qualitative Data Case studies Human observation Individual depth interviews Focus groups
  8. 8. Primary Research Methods <ul><li>Experimental (e.g. test marketing) </li></ul><ul><li>Observational (human and mechanical) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey (mail, telephone, personal interview, in-house self-administered, online) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups (groups of 8 to 12 people with moderator trying to reach a consensus of opinions) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Group Task 2 <ul><li>Make a list of the advantages & disadvantages of the following research methods as applied to the leisure/travel and tourism sectors: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>In-House, Self-Administered Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Online Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Interviews (including focus groups) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>High response rate </li></ul><ul><li>Great flexibility (ability to adapt/explain questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Can show or demonstrate items </li></ul><ul><li>Fuller explanations can be given </li></ul><ul><li>Very timely data </li></ul><ul><li>Body language can emphasize responses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Interviews <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of interviewer and interviewee bias </li></ul><ul><li>Personal nature of questions (e.g., age or income) </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents not relaxed (put on the spot) </li></ul><ul><li>Time may not be convenient for respondents </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>No interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent questions (for all respondents) </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of respondents can be included </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents can choose the most convenient time to answer </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mail Surveys <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Low response rates (relative to other survey types) </li></ul><ul><li>Junk mail syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal nature </li></ul>
  14. 14. Telephone Surveys <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More flexibility compared to mail surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker but will cost you some money (telephone bill) </li></ul><ul><li>High response rates </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews tend to be a lot shorter </li></ul><ul><li>More obtrusive than mail </li></ul><ul><li>Greater difficulties in rapport building - Researchers cannot study behaviour or body language </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance calls are expensive </li></ul>
  15. 15. In-House, Self-Administered Surveys <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Completed on-sight by customers within the premises of a leisure and travel organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Generate low response rates </li></ul>
  16. 16. Online Surveys <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relative speed and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Large and growing audience </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Uses graphics and visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Technical skills and time required to develop and analyse questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>May deter visitors from your website. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sources of Secondary Research Information for Leisure and Travel External <ul><li>Library – books, journals, newspapers, CD-roms, directories. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet – on-line computer searches e.g. Data bases, periodicals (Emerald) and newsletters, demographic data (GIS). (URLs and Search engines) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations and societies (also available on internet). </li></ul><ul><li>Census – also government data on internet </li></ul><ul><li>Published company accounts </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sources of Secondary Research Information for Leisure and Travel Internal <ul><li>Sales invoices – e.g. memberships or flights sold </li></ul><ul><li>Usage figures – e.g. leisure centre </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel records – e.g. staff turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Sales people – e.g. expense accounts, call reports </li></ul>
  19. 19. Task 3 – Collecting Secondary Data/Information <ul><li>Group 1 - Log on to the internet and collect data/information from the worksheet provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 – Go to the library and collect data/information from the worksheet provided (once you have found the data/information please put the source back in its original place). </li></ul>