World inequality and resources: thinking outside the goldfish bowl <ul><li>Danny Dorling, University of Sheffield, UK </li...
Avoiding distorted views <ul><li>In July 2004 Italian council official Giampietro Mosca of the city of Monza secured his p...
World income distribution  ($PPP)
Only ‘normal’ in log/log space
<ul><li>Imagine what the world might look like after a global environmental disaster.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is a strange l...
Urban Slums
Slum Growth
<ul><li>… three billion with only the basic sanitation of a (often communal) pit latrine available … </li></ul><ul><li>alt...
Improved Sanitation
<ul><li>… another two and a half billion without even that … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Poor Sanitation
<ul><li>… two billion living in homes as overcrowded as last seen in Victorian times  </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Overcrowded Homes
<ul><li>… well over a billion with access only to dirty water – and that they have to walk for … although millions have re...
Poor Water
Water Connected
Water Connecting
<ul><li>… A world where half the population are crowded into poorly designed cities into which a billion are moving within...
City Growth
<ul><li>Following the environmental disaster over a billion try to live at below subsistence levels … </li></ul><ul><li>. ...
The Wretched Dollar (up to $1 a day)
<ul><li>… many more than a billion and a half more in absolute poverty … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Absolute Poverty (up to $2 a day)
<ul><li>The numbers undernourished are growing … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Undernourishment in 1990
Undernourishment in 2000
<ul><li>… and within a generation we should expect those to top a billion, over half being underweight children … </li></u...
Underweight Children
<ul><li>Millions of children have to work … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Child Labour
<ul><li>… and two out of five children do not ever attend a secondary school … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Secondary Education
<ul><li>The same proportion of babies is born without a midwife or some other person with her knowledge present … </li></u...
Births Attended
<ul><li>Following the disaster it is hardly surprising that over 3 million pregnancies a year result in death at birth – a...
Stillbirths
<ul><li>A further 3 million newborn babies struggle then die in much the same places during their first week of life … </l...
Early Neonatal Mortality
<ul><li>… each year there are over ten million children dying a year before their fifth birthday – almost all where the di...
Infant Mortality
Mortality 1-4 Year Olds
<ul><li>Almost two hundred and fifty million children of these ages suffer from diarrhoea, mostly in these worse-off place...
Childhood Diarrhoea
<ul><li>Other diseases are most concentrated in impact where the environmental damage is greatest. Often these are disease...
Cholera Cases
<ul><li>… and a few thousands of deaths each year despite its susceptibility to treatment and prevention … </li></ul><ul><...
Cholera Deaths
<ul><li>More than eight million cases of tuberculosis are recorded in the disaster area annually; and 72 million cases of ...
Malaria Cases
<ul><li>… resulting in over one hundred thousand deaths a year … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Malaria Deaths
<ul><li>This is the twenty-first century environmental disaster. It is not a disaster resulting from rising carbon emissio...
Carbon Emissions 1980
Carbon Emissions 2000
Carbon Emissions Increases
Carbon Emissions Decreases
Carbon Damage
<ul><li>It is not a disaster of the greenhouse gases … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Greenhouse Gases
<ul><li>… or methane and nitrous oxide emissions … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Methane and Nitrous Oxide
<ul><li>… and nitrogen oxides … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Nitrogen Oxides
Particulate Damage
<ul><li>… it is not the result of our pumping sulphur into the air … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Sulphur Dioxide
<ul><li>…  chorofluorococarbons … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Chlorofluorocarbons
<ul><li>… even of our dumping nuclear waste … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Nuclear Waste
<ul><li>… and other hazardous waste …  </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Hazardous Waste
<ul><li>… sludge … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Sewage Sludge
<ul><li>… and general rubbish … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Waste Collected
<ul><li>This is not an environmental disaster that is the result of our depletion of the planet’s energy resources … </li>...
Energy Depletion
<ul><li>… mineral reserves … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Mineral Depletion
<ul><li>… forests … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Forest Depletion
Forests 1990
Forest 2000
Forest Growth
Forest Loss
<ul><li>Activity involving all these things contributed to the disaster, but hardly any of the tens and hundreds of millio...
Gas Depletion
<ul><li>… oil … </li></ul>
Oil Depletion
<ul><li>… water … </li></ul>
Rainfall Volume
Water Resources
Groundwater Recharge
Water Use
Water Depletion
Domestic Water Use
Industrial Water Use
Agricultural Water Use
<ul><li>… and other resources … </li></ul>
Ecological Footprint
<ul><li>… beyond the capacity of the land where we live … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Biocapacity
<ul><li>… our environmental behaviour to date was not the cause of the crisis. We did not run out of oil power and then ha...
Oil Power
<ul><li>… gas … </li></ul>
Gas Power
<ul><li>… coal … </li></ul>
Coal Power
<ul><li>… nuclear energy … </li></ul>
Nuclear Power
<ul><li>… although in places the firewood is almost exhausted … and only as much is burnt for necessity as is burn in ‘rea...
Traditional Fuel
<ul><li>This environmental disaster did not result from the World Bank failing to include the costs of this damage in thei...
Adjusted Savings
Negative Savings
<ul><li>… nor from the International Monetary Fund’s unfair influence from a bias in its internal power-structure … </li><...
International Monetary Fund
<ul><li>In the rich sixth of the world our concerns are currently transfixed by our own self interests such at we see the ...
Passenger Cars
<ul><li>… and ignore the million deaths a year that result … and that are rising rapidly … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><...
Road Deaths
<ul><li>We are obsessed over access to crude oil (320bn US$ exports per year’s worth) … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul>...
Crude Petroleum Exports
<ul><li>… or that one day soon we will not be able to fly as often and far as we do now (25bn km a year for those that can...
Aircraft Flights
<ul><li>…  and we are now as concerned by climate change as we once were by AIDS, and before that nuclear winter, and befo...
War Deaths 1945-2000
War Deaths 2002
<ul><li>… the nuclear weapons remain … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Nuclear Weapons
<ul><li>… over thirty million people have HIV … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
HIV Prevalence
<ul><li>…  and three million a year are dying of AIDS – but largely out of sight and beyond the limits of our imagination ...
Influenza Outbreaks
<ul><li>… worrying about our diets … </li></ul>
Diabetes Prevalence
<ul><li>… giving up smoking … </li></ul>
Women Smoking
Men Smoking
<ul><li>… and recycling … </li></ul>
Waste Recycled
<ul><li>Meanwhile – elsewhere acute disasters are still the experience of millions a year … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Affected by Disasters
<ul><li>… thousands are killed … </li></ul>
Killed by Disasters
<ul><li>… earthquakes … </li></ul>
Killed in Earthquakes
<ul><li>… volcanoes … </li></ul>
Killed by Volcanoes
<ul><li>… droughts … </li></ul>
Killed by Drought
<ul><li>… floods … </li></ul>
Killed by Floods
<ul><li>… storms … </li></ul>
Killed by Storms
<ul><li>… landslides … </li></ul>
Killed by Avalanches and Landslides
<ul><li>… heat waves … </li></ul>
Killed by Extreme Temperature
<ul><li>… and pestilence … </li></ul>
Affected by Insect Infestation
<ul><li>But for every death attributed to  all  such  disasters – at least one hundred more (mostly infants) die relativel...
International Food Aid
<ul><li>… in almost direct proportion to our consumption of burgers … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
International Fast Food
<ul><li>… but we no longer expect children in cities in the rich world to rely on charity (outside of the United States) …...
<ul><li>Slowly our horizons are widening: we can talk around the world … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Telephone Lines 1990
Telephone Lines 2002
Cellular Subscribers 1990
Cellular Subscribers 2002
<ul><li>… the internet explodes … </li></ul>
Internet Users 1990
Internet Users 2002
<ul><li>Most children are now literate … </li></ul>
Youth Literacy
<ul><li>…  one hundred million are at university … </li></ul>
Tertiary Education
<ul><li>… and millions of people, disproportionately the young, are willing and now able to protest in numbers never seen ...
International demonstrations
<ul><li>… and to vote … </li></ul>
Voter turnout
<ul><li>… strike … </li></ul>
Strikes and Lockouts
<ul><li>… organise … </li></ul>
Trade Unions
<ul><li>… and to understand how the world works … </li></ul>
Terms Of Trade Decline 1980-2002
<ul><li>… and does not work … </li></ul>
Total Debt Service 2002
<ul><li>The global environmental disaster is here, now … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Human Poverty
<ul><li>Billions are living in environmental conditions of our making that are the main detrimental impact on human health...
Development Decrease
<ul><li>… and where absolute incomes are falling … </li></ul>
Wealth Decline
<ul><li>Most people will never fly; more do not have access to a car with every year that passes; and material production ...
Container Ports
<ul><li>making us reliant on a single source of fuel for bulk transport, itself bulk transported … </li></ul><ul><li>. </l...
Oil Tankers
<ul><li>… to the other side of the planet … </li></ul>
Toys Imports
<ul><li>Although the product of this labour may allow near universal electricity access in China (following on from the pi...
Electricity Access
<ul><li>… it cannot result in the spreading of standards of living acquired largely as a result not of labour but of  earn...
Mercantile and Business Exports
<ul><li>… finance … </li></ul>
Finance And Insurance Exports
<ul><li>… and royalties … </li></ul>
Royalties And License Fees Exports
<ul><li>…  that are less than zero-sum in “world aggregate well-being effect” (a tiny few benefit at the expensive of the ...
Plants At Risk
<ul><li>… while the highest numbers of extinctions overall are found in the United States … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>...
Species Extinct
<ul><li>Live in fear of others for what they might take away from you and you further limit the horizons of your imaginati...
Population 2300
Final 57 Words <ul><li>“ I have three things I’d like to say today. First, while you were sleeping last night, 30,000 kids...
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World inequality and resources: thinking outside the goldfish bowl

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Lecture by Danny Dorling, first given at given at the Hay Festival/Zurich 2009

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World inequality and resources: thinking outside the goldfish bowl

  1. 1. World inequality and resources: thinking outside the goldfish bowl <ul><li>Danny Dorling, University of Sheffield, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Slideshow adapted from talks given at the Hay Festival and in Zurich in 2009, thanks to Anna Barford and John Pritchard for help with this – and all involved in worldmapper </li></ul>
  2. 2. Avoiding distorted views <ul><li>In July 2004 Italian council official Giampietro Mosca of the city of Monza secured his place in history. He confirmed that local laws had been changed to outlaw keeping goldfish in curved bowls. &quot;A fish kept in a bowl has a distorted view of reality...and suffers because of this,&quot; Mr Mosca is reported to have said. Giampietro continued: “This story about the goldfish, which has gone around Italy, seems a little irrelevant and people have mocked it a bit, but it has a very specific educational sense, especially for the little ones.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert, D. (2006). Stumbling on Happiness. London, Harper Collins. (page 171). </li></ul>
  3. 3. World income distribution ($PPP)
  4. 4. Only ‘normal’ in log/log space
  5. 5. <ul><li>Imagine what the world might look like after a global environmental disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a strange looking world. </li></ul><ul><li>A world in which over a billion are forced to live in slums … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Urban Slums
  7. 7. Slum Growth
  8. 8. <ul><li>… three billion with only the basic sanitation of a (often communal) pit latrine available … </li></ul><ul><li>although for the few with such a system in affluent countries this is usually no problem.. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Improved Sanitation
  10. 10. <ul><li>… another two and a half billion without even that … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Poor Sanitation
  12. 12. <ul><li>… two billion living in homes as overcrowded as last seen in Victorian times </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Overcrowded Homes
  14. 14. <ul><li>… well over a billion with access only to dirty water – and that they have to walk for … although millions have recently been connected to piped water in China … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Poor Water
  16. 16. Water Connected
  17. 17. Water Connecting
  18. 18. <ul><li>… A world where half the population are crowded into poorly designed cities into which a billion are moving within a generation… </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  19. 19. City Growth
  20. 20. <ul><li>Following the environmental disaster over a billion try to live at below subsistence levels … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Wretched Dollar (up to $1 a day)
  22. 22. <ul><li>… many more than a billion and a half more in absolute poverty … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Absolute Poverty (up to $2 a day)
  24. 24. <ul><li>The numbers undernourished are growing … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Undernourishment in 1990
  26. 26. Undernourishment in 2000
  27. 27. <ul><li>… and within a generation we should expect those to top a billion, over half being underweight children … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Underweight Children
  29. 29. <ul><li>Millions of children have to work … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Child Labour
  31. 31. <ul><li>… and two out of five children do not ever attend a secondary school … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Secondary Education
  33. 33. <ul><li>The same proportion of babies is born without a midwife or some other person with her knowledge present … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Births Attended
  35. 35. <ul><li>Following the disaster it is hardly surprising that over 3 million pregnancies a year result in death at birth – almost all where the disaster hit hardest … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Stillbirths
  37. 37. <ul><li>A further 3 million newborn babies struggle then die in much the same places during their first week of life … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Early Neonatal Mortality
  39. 39. <ul><li>… each year there are over ten million children dying a year before their fifth birthday – almost all where the disaster was most acute … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Infant Mortality
  41. 41. Mortality 1-4 Year Olds
  42. 42. <ul><li>Almost two hundred and fifty million children of these ages suffer from diarrhoea, mostly in these worse-off places and that is where the disease is more often fatal … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Childhood Diarrhoea
  44. 44. <ul><li>Other diseases are most concentrated in impact where the environmental damage is greatest. Often these are diseases that were common in the overcrowded and unsanitary conditions of Victorian times. Cholera is still widespread, over one hundred and fifty thousand cases a year … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Cholera Cases
  46. 46. <ul><li>… and a few thousands of deaths each year despite its susceptibility to treatment and prevention … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Cholera Deaths
  48. 48. <ul><li>More than eight million cases of tuberculosis are recorded in the disaster area annually; and 72 million cases of malaria … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Malaria Cases
  50. 50. <ul><li>… resulting in over one hundred thousand deaths a year … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Malaria Deaths
  52. 52. <ul><li>This is the twenty-first century environmental disaster. It is not a disaster resulting from rising carbon emissions … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Carbon Emissions 1980
  54. 54. Carbon Emissions 2000
  55. 55. Carbon Emissions Increases
  56. 56. Carbon Emissions Decreases
  57. 57. Carbon Damage
  58. 58. <ul><li>It is not a disaster of the greenhouse gases … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Greenhouse Gases
  60. 60. <ul><li>… or methane and nitrous oxide emissions … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Methane and Nitrous Oxide
  62. 62. <ul><li>… and nitrogen oxides … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Nitrogen Oxides
  64. 64. Particulate Damage
  65. 65. <ul><li>… it is not the result of our pumping sulphur into the air … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Sulphur Dioxide
  67. 67. <ul><li>… chorofluorococarbons … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Chlorofluorocarbons
  69. 69. <ul><li>… even of our dumping nuclear waste … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Nuclear Waste
  71. 71. <ul><li>… and other hazardous waste … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Hazardous Waste
  73. 73. <ul><li>… sludge … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Sewage Sludge
  75. 75. <ul><li>… and general rubbish … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Waste Collected
  77. 77. <ul><li>This is not an environmental disaster that is the result of our depletion of the planet’s energy resources … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Energy Depletion
  79. 79. <ul><li>… mineral reserves … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Mineral Depletion
  81. 81. <ul><li>… forests … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Forest Depletion
  83. 83. Forests 1990
  84. 84. Forest 2000
  85. 85. Forest Growth
  86. 86. Forest Loss
  87. 87. <ul><li>Activity involving all these things contributed to the disaster, but hardly any of the tens and hundreds of millions of premature deaths have been as a result of pollution -other than that from our own sewage. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>The current disaster is not the result of our rapid depletion of gas … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Gas Depletion
  89. 89. <ul><li>… oil … </li></ul>
  90. 90. Oil Depletion
  91. 91. <ul><li>… water … </li></ul>
  92. 92. Rainfall Volume
  93. 93. Water Resources
  94. 94. Groundwater Recharge
  95. 95. Water Use
  96. 96. Water Depletion
  97. 97. Domestic Water Use
  98. 98. Industrial Water Use
  99. 99. Agricultural Water Use
  100. 100. <ul><li>… and other resources … </li></ul>
  101. 101. Ecological Footprint
  102. 102. <ul><li>… beyond the capacity of the land where we live … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Biocapacity
  104. 104. <ul><li>… our environmental behaviour to date was not the cause of the crisis. We did not run out of oil power and then have to live in slums … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  105. 105. Oil Power
  106. 106. <ul><li>… gas … </li></ul>
  107. 107. Gas Power
  108. 108. <ul><li>… coal … </li></ul>
  109. 109. Coal Power
  110. 110. <ul><li>… nuclear energy … </li></ul>
  111. 111. Nuclear Power
  112. 112. <ul><li>… although in places the firewood is almost exhausted … and only as much is burnt for necessity as is burn in ‘real fires’ elsewhere for show </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Traditional Fuel
  114. 114. <ul><li>This environmental disaster did not result from the World Bank failing to include the costs of this damage in their accounts … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  115. 115. Adjusted Savings
  116. 116. Negative Savings
  117. 117. <ul><li>… nor from the International Monetary Fund’s unfair influence from a bias in its internal power-structure … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  118. 118. International Monetary Fund
  119. 119. <ul><li>In the rich sixth of the world our concerns are currently transfixed by our own self interests such at we see the car as a necessity for the tenth of people who have access … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Locally in Britain in Victorian times the richest of gazes were similarly averted. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  120. 120. Passenger Cars
  121. 121. <ul><li>… and ignore the million deaths a year that result … and that are rising rapidly … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  122. 122. Road Deaths
  123. 123. <ul><li>We are obsessed over access to crude oil (320bn US$ exports per year’s worth) … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  124. 124. Crude Petroleum Exports
  125. 125. <ul><li>… or that one day soon we will not be able to fly as often and far as we do now (25bn km a year for those that can and do) … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  126. 126. Aircraft Flights
  127. 127. <ul><li>… and we are now as concerned by climate change as we once were by AIDS, and before that nuclear winter, and before that world war, and before that revolution – before we thought we were safe from each threat. But none of these threats has really gone away. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>… The wars never ended … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  128. 128. War Deaths 1945-2000
  129. 129. War Deaths 2002
  130. 130. <ul><li>… the nuclear weapons remain … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  131. 131. Nuclear Weapons
  132. 132. <ul><li>… over thirty million people have HIV … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  133. 133. HIV Prevalence
  134. 134. <ul><li>… and three million a year are dying of AIDS – but largely out of sight and beyond the limits of our imagination now that that disease is no longer pandemic “at home”. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Now our imaginations are turned towards scares over a return of an influenza outbreak that could kill us (so we care) … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  135. 135. Influenza Outbreaks
  136. 136. <ul><li>… worrying about our diets … </li></ul>
  137. 137. Diabetes Prevalence
  138. 138. <ul><li>… giving up smoking … </li></ul>
  139. 139. Women Smoking
  140. 140. Men Smoking
  141. 141. <ul><li>… and recycling … </li></ul>
  142. 142. Waste Recycled
  143. 143. <ul><li>Meanwhile – elsewhere acute disasters are still the experience of millions a year … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  144. 144. Affected by Disasters
  145. 145. <ul><li>… thousands are killed … </li></ul>
  146. 146. Killed by Disasters
  147. 147. <ul><li>… earthquakes … </li></ul>
  148. 148. Killed in Earthquakes
  149. 149. <ul><li>… volcanoes … </li></ul>
  150. 150. Killed by Volcanoes
  151. 151. <ul><li>… droughts … </li></ul>
  152. 152. Killed by Drought
  153. 153. <ul><li>… floods … </li></ul>
  154. 154. Killed by Floods
  155. 155. <ul><li>… storms … </li></ul>
  156. 156. Killed by Storms
  157. 157. <ul><li>… landslides … </li></ul>
  158. 158. Killed by Avalanches and Landslides
  159. 159. <ul><li>… heat waves … </li></ul>
  160. 160. Killed by Extreme Temperature
  161. 161. <ul><li>… and pestilence … </li></ul>
  162. 162. Affected by Insect Infestation
  163. 163. <ul><li>But for every death attributed to all such disasters – at least one hundred more (mostly infants) die relatively quickly and quietly from largely undocumented poverty, as they did in Manchester when Queen Victoria died (in young old age). </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>We gave to charity then and we still do – doling out food aid … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  164. 164. International Food Aid
  165. 165. <ul><li>… in almost direct proportion to our consumption of burgers … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  166. 166. International Fast Food
  167. 167. <ul><li>… but we no longer expect children in cities in the rich world to rely on charity (outside of the United States) … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  168. 168. <ul><li>Slowly our horizons are widening: we can talk around the world … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  169. 169. Telephone Lines 1990
  170. 170. Telephone Lines 2002
  171. 171. Cellular Subscribers 1990
  172. 172. Cellular Subscribers 2002
  173. 173. <ul><li>… the internet explodes … </li></ul>
  174. 174. Internet Users 1990
  175. 175. Internet Users 2002
  176. 176. <ul><li>Most children are now literate … </li></ul>
  177. 177. Youth Literacy
  178. 178. <ul><li>… one hundred million are at university … </li></ul>
  179. 179. Tertiary Education
  180. 180. <ul><li>… and millions of people, disproportionately the young, are willing and now able to protest in numbers never seen before … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  181. 181. International demonstrations
  182. 182. <ul><li>… and to vote … </li></ul>
  183. 183. Voter turnout
  184. 184. <ul><li>… strike … </li></ul>
  185. 185. Strikes and Lockouts
  186. 186. <ul><li>… organise … </li></ul>
  187. 187. Trade Unions
  188. 188. <ul><li>… and to understand how the world works … </li></ul>
  189. 189. Terms Of Trade Decline 1980-2002
  190. 190. <ul><li>… and does not work … </li></ul>
  191. 191. Total Debt Service 2002
  192. 192. <ul><li>The global environmental disaster is here, now … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  193. 193. Human Poverty
  194. 194. <ul><li>Billions are living in environmental conditions of our making that are the main detrimental impact on human health. Worldwide inequalities in health are rising and living standards are polarising. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also places where general living standards are falling … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  195. 195. Development Decrease
  196. 196. <ul><li>… and where absolute incomes are falling … </li></ul>
  197. 197. Wealth Decline
  198. 198. <ul><li>Most people will never fly; more do not have access to a car with every year that passes; and material production has come to be concentrated on one side of the planet … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  199. 199. Container Ports
  200. 200. <ul><li>making us reliant on a single source of fuel for bulk transport, itself bulk transported … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  201. 201. Oil Tankers
  202. 202. <ul><li>… to the other side of the planet … </li></ul>
  203. 203. Toys Imports
  204. 204. <ul><li>Although the product of this labour may allow near universal electricity access in China (following on from the piped water)… </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  205. 205. Electricity Access
  206. 206. <ul><li>… it cannot result in the spreading of standards of living acquired largely as a result not of labour but of earnings from mercantilism … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  207. 207. Mercantile and Business Exports
  208. 208. <ul><li>… finance … </li></ul>
  209. 209. Finance And Insurance Exports
  210. 210. <ul><li>… and royalties … </li></ul>
  211. 211. Royalties And License Fees Exports
  212. 212. <ul><li>… that are less than zero-sum in “world aggregate well-being effect” (a tiny few benefit at the expensive of the majority). </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously, great environmental damage may be part of the price of social progress: 71% of the plant species of China are threatened with extinction … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  213. 213. Plants At Risk
  214. 214. <ul><li>… while the highest numbers of extinctions overall are found in the United States … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  215. 215. Species Extinct
  216. 216. <ul><li>Live in fear of others for what they might take away from you and you further limit the horizons of your imagination. See others as less deserving than you, as less civilized, less intelligent, less human, less important and you will find it very hard at all to image a world in which 9 billion people will be alive when our children’s grandchildren ask about the 21 st century’s environmental disaster … </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Conclusion
  217. 217. Population 2300
  218. 218. Final 57 Words <ul><li>“ I have three things I’d like to say today. First, while you were sleeping last night, 30,000 kids died of starvation or diseases related to malnutrition. Second, most of you don’t give a shit. What’s worse is that you’re more upset with the fact that I said shit than the fact that 30,000 kids died last night.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Campolo, quoted by Ken Leech ( + see also Cohen, G.A., If You're an Egalitarian How Come You're So Rich . 4th ed. 2002, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. </li></ul>

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