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Theories	
  of	
  Poten-al	
  and	
  
the	
  Crea-on	
  of	
  Inequality	
  
Danny	
  Dorling	
  
King’s	
  College	
  Lon...
Meet	
  Toby	
  
Morris	
  
Toby	
  is	
  a	
  illustrator	
  I	
  have	
  never	
  met,	
  but	
  his	
  work	
  increase...
Meet	
  Richard	
  and	
  Paula	
  
	
  
A	
  huge	
  range	
  of	
  factors	
  will	
  influence	
  what	
  happens	
  to	...
Of	
  course	
  individual	
  effects	
  are	
  of	
  very	
  small	
  importance	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
  societal	
  
...
Society	
  maQers	
  most	
  –	
  we	
  did	
  not	
  have	
  to	
  work	
  two	
  jobs	
  per	
  person	
  un-l	
  recent...
Of	
  course,	
  issues	
  like	
  school	
  and	
  family	
  maQer	
  most	
  -­‐	
  but	
  individual	
  factors	
  do	
...
Societal	
  factors	
  mater	
  most.	
  And	
  history:	
  grades	
  are	
  only	
  a	
  recent	
  inven-on.	
  
There	
 ...
When	
  it	
  comes	
  to	
  people,	
  the	
  word	
  poten&al	
  has	
  come	
  to	
  mean	
  very	
  different	
  
thing...
Circumstances	
  maQer	
  and	
  are	
  influenced	
  by	
  where	
  you	
  live.	
  More	
  parents	
  are	
  more	
  o[en...
However,	
  more	
  compelling	
  evidence	
  suggests	
  that	
  we	
  
have	
  the	
  poten-al	
  to	
  think,	
  dream	...
Some	
  genes	
  might	
  give	
  you	
  a	
  slight	
  edge	
  over	
  other	
  people	
  for	
  something,	
  but	
  
yo...
When	
  you	
  look	
  at	
  varia-on	
  in	
  how	
  we	
  behave	
  and	
  what	
  we	
  are	
  capable	
  of,	
  you	
 ...
Inequality	
  is	
  created,	
  maintained	
  and	
  defended	
  
by	
  the	
  theory	
  that	
  different	
  people	
  are...
Does	
  this	
  
map	
  have	
  
much	
  to	
  
do	
  with	
  
‘ADHD’	
  at	
  
all,	
  as	
  
implied	
  
by	
  the	
  
h...
Look	
  at	
  the	
  equa-on	
  in	
  the	
  paper,	
  and	
  then	
  at	
  a	
  map	
  
of	
  what	
  geographers	
  (iro...
There	
  is	
  currently	
  a	
  huge	
  gulf	
  between	
  cartoonists	
  taking	
  their	
  readers	
  on	
  a	
  tour	
...
Sparking	
  debate	
  about	
  income	
  gaps,	
  the	
  damage	
  they	
  do,	
  and	
  how	
  to	
  narrow	
  them	
  
I...
Children	
  aged	
  15/16	
  1993-­‐99	
  by	
  school	
  type	
  &	
  GCSEs	
  
Charts	
  are	
  drawn	
  in	
  propor-on...
A	
  great	
  deal	
  of	
  the	
  differences	
  
between	
  people	
  is	
  due	
  to	
  how	
  they	
  
are	
  treated.	...
 “the	
  difference	
  between	
  a	
  lady	
  and	
  a	
  flower	
  girl	
  is	
  not	
  how	
  she	
  behaves,	
  but	
  h...
Children	
  are	
  labelled	
  in	
  ways	
  that	
  
cause	
  terrible	
  damage	
  both	
  at	
  the	
  top	
  
and	
  b...
Very
difficult 6%
Difficult to
manage 15%
Coping 48%
Living
comfortably
31%
Source: Derived from ONS (2006) Social Trends ...
Income
Standard of
living
High
High
Standard of living
threshold
Income
threshold
Asset wealthyAsset wealthyAsset wealthy
...
Studies of depression in adolescent girls in North America, 1984–2010 (see table 7,
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1980
1982
...
Bell	
  curves	
  are	
  
fabricated	
  
Label
'None'
'Limited'
'Barely adequate'
'Simple'
1.0 0.9 1.1 -2.1
-0.6 -0.2 0.1 ...
Rate of prescribing antidepressants by NHS Board: Defined Daily Doses per 1,000
population (aged 15+), Scotland, 1992–2014...
Selected measures of inequality and healthy behaviour – all countries for which
data exists on all measures, latest compar...
Poten-al	
  is	
  about	
  
Poli-cs	
  
“The	
  idea	
  that	
  poverty	
  is	
  
passed	
  down	
  from	
  genera-on	
  
...
Let’s	
  end	
  with	
  Toby	
  Morris	
  again.	
  Here	
  we	
  see	
  Toby	
  reaching	
  the	
  boQom	
  of	
  his	
  ...
Much	
  more	
  can	
  be	
  achieved	
  by	
  co-­‐opera-on	
  than	
  by	
  compe--on.	
  
We	
  all	
  have	
  skills	
...
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Theories of Potential and the Creation of Inequality

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Danny Dorling, Annual Education Lecture, King's College London, June 23rd 2015.

Published in: Education
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Theories of Potential and the Creation of Inequality

  1. 1. Theories  of  Poten-al  and   the  Crea-on  of  Inequality   Danny  Dorling   King’s  College  London   June  23rd  2015  
  2. 2. Meet  Toby   Morris   Toby  is  a  illustrator  I  have  never  met,  but  his  work  increases  my  poten-al.     You  can  see  it  at:  h"p://thewireless.co.nz/ar3cles/the-­‐pencilsword-­‐on-­‐a-­‐plate    
  3. 3. Meet  Richard  and  Paula     A  huge  range  of  factors  will  influence  what  happens  to  Richard  and  Paula,     not  least:  chance.  But  how  they  look  will  also  maQer  –  we  could  study   iden-cal  twins  if  we  were  interested  in  how  much  looks  maQered.  
  4. 4. Of  course  individual  effects  are  of  very  small  importance  compared  to  the  societal   factors  shown  above  –  but  people  are  obsessed  by  individuality.     However,  you  cannot  have  a  control  group  of  iden-cal  twins  who  do  not  look  similar,   so  in  these  cases  ‘twin  studies’  cannot  be  made  independent  of  ‘looks  studies’.  
  5. 5. Society  maQers  most  –  we  did  not  have  to  work  two  jobs  per  person  un-l  recently.       But  if  you  want  know  why  individualist  aQributes  (like  looks)  maQer  as  well  as  society,     consider  how  o[en  unarmed  black  Americans  are  shot  by  the  police.     hQp://www.theguardian.com/us-­‐news/2015/jun/01/black-­‐americans-­‐killed-­‐by-­‐police-­‐analysis    
  6. 6. Of  course,  issues  like  school  and  family  maQer  most  -­‐  but  individual  factors  do   too.  Skin  colour  is  a  special  case,  but  what  about  sex,  and  height,  and  weight,   and  hair  colour,  and  the  prominence  of  cheekbones  and  chin,  and  distance   between  the  eyes?  They  affect  our  snap  judgments  about  how  intelligent   people  are  and  what  they  might  or  might  not  be  good  at,  but  also  affect  our   more  considered  judgments:  See  Study  of  June  8th    2015:  hQp://www.ioe.ac.uk/newsEvents/ 113498.html  or  a  John  Hade  video:  hQps://www.youtube..com/watch?v=rzwJXUieD0U  
  7. 7. Societal  factors  mater  most.  And  history:  grades  are  only  a  recent  inven-on.   There  will  also  be  numerous  correla-ons  between  physical  characteris-cs  and   expected  performance.  And  expected  performance  will  affect  actual   performance,  see  the  Rosenthal–Jacobson  study  (telling  teachers  children  are   able  then  helps  teaching)    h"ps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmalion_effect  
  8. 8. When  it  comes  to  people,  the  word  poten&al  has  come  to  mean  very  different   things  to  different  readers.  The  UN  Conven3on  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  states   that  “educa-onal  establishments  should  be  well  funded  and  governments  should   take  all  necessary  steps  to  create  an  environment  where  all  children  can  grow  and   reach  their  full  poten&al.”  One  reac-on  to  this  use  of  that  phrase  at  that  point  is   to  cast  doubt  on  the  idea  that  many  children  have  much  poten-al  and  to  then   suggest  that  just  a  few  need  to  be  sought  out  and  specially  nurtured.    
  9. 9. Circumstances  maQer  and  are  influenced  by  where  you  live.  More  parents  are  more  o[en   sick  in  areas  of  depriva-on.  They  are  no  internships  in  other  areas,  whether  you  can  afford   to  take  an  internship  or  not.     From  very  early  on  in  life,  through  to  young  adulthood  all  kinds  of  factors  are  at  play  that   determine  who  wins  and  who  loses  monetarily.  The  most  monied  get  most  ‘educated’  and   get  the  highest  grades.  But  what  kind  of  an  educa-on  is  that  really,  and  for  what  end?      
  10. 10. However,  more  compelling  evidence  suggests  that  we   have  the  poten-al  to  think,  dream  and  become  beQer   than  this.  But  that  poten-al  is  collec-ve,  not   individualis-c,  and  will  not  be  fully  realized  while  we   are  so  diverted  by  the  search  for  the  ‘golden  child’  –   the  mythical  individual  with  the  greatest  inherent   poten-al  of  all.     THE RICHEST 1% WOULD OWN THIS
  11. 11. Some  genes  might  give  you  a  slight  edge  over  other  people  for  something,  but   you’re  likely  to  not  be  so  good  at  something  else.  This  is  what  you  would  expect   from  evolu-on.  There  are  no  super-­‐genes.  Some  genes  can  cause  gene-c  disorders   that  result  in  handicaps,  and  that  is  why  those  genes  are  rela-vely  rare.   Advantageous  genes  are  common  precisely  because  they  are  advantageous.    And:    “Although  the  striking  visual  similarity  of  iden3cal  twins  reveals  the  gene3c  penetrance  of   facial  appearance,  a  comparison  of  gene3cally  iden3cal  irises  reveals  just  the  opposite  for  iris   pa"erns:  the  iris  sequence  is  an  epigene3c  phenotypic  feature,  not  a  genotypic  feature.”   hQp://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~jgd1000/gene-cs.html  
  12. 12. When  you  look  at  varia-on  in  how  we  behave  and  what  we  are  capable  of,  you   realize  that  our  poten-al  is  frequently  limited  by  our  culture.  In  many  cultures  in   Africa  most  people  become  fluent  in  several  languages,  in  England  it  is  an   excep-onal  ability  –  much  less  excep-onal  in  much  of  Europe.  So  to  improve   language  skills,  we  shouldn't  strive  to  iden-fy  children  with  excep-onal  language   ability  at  an  early  age,  but  look  at  what  we  are  doing  that  inhibits  language  ability.      The  same  can  be  said  for  musical  ability  and  mathema-cal  ability.  
  13. 13. Inequality  is  created,  maintained  and  defended   by  the  theory  that  different  people  are  of  greatly   different  worth;  that  their  children  have  hugely   varying  poten&als;    that  inequality  is  inevitable;     and  that  all  is  roughly  for  the  best  in  the  best  of   all  possible  worlds  –    we  should  not  expect   greater  equality  to  be  possible  –    just  a  liQle   fairer,  sor-ng  out  by  merit.   Those  who  think  gene-c  influences  are  very   important  know  that  geography  maQers   too.  But,  if  you  are  interested  in  debunking   myths  see  Figure  2  of  this  paper  to  see  how   liQle  they  really  do  know  (they  are  not   mapping  what  they  think  they  map):  “Visual   analysis  of  geocoded  twin  data  puts  nature  and  nurture   on  the  map:  Molecular  Psychiatry  (2012)  17,  867  –  874.      
  14. 14. Does  this   map  have   much  to   do  with   ‘ADHD’  at   all,  as   implied   by  the   highlight-­‐ ed  text,   or  is  it   showing   some-­‐ thing   else?    
  15. 15. Look  at  the  equa-on  in  the  paper,  and  then  at  a  map   of  what  geographers  (ironically)  call  popula3on   poten3al.  
  16. 16. There  is  currently  a  huge  gulf  between  cartoonists  taking  their  readers  on  a  tour  of   the  current  extremes  of  economic,  social  and  educa-onal  inequali-es;  and   researchers  trying  to  measure  inherent  poten-al  in  case  some  level  playing  field   were  ever  established  and  in  case  we  are  ever  locked  in  individual  boxes  in  future   and  can’t  cooperate  (the  Matrix  Movie  nightmare)  –  in  reality,  rather  than  in  The   Matrix,  you  are  truly  more  clever  together…  
  17. 17. Sparking  debate  about  income  gaps,  the  damage  they  do,  and  how  to  narrow  them   IS  NZ  FAIR  COMPETITION?:    MANUREWA  INTERMEDIATE     SCHOOL  ENTRY   It  doesn’t  take  a  great  deal  of  imagina-on   to  beQer  see  what  maQers,  but  a  Cyril  Burt   inspired  educa-on  is  not  keen  on   imagina-on:     See:  h"p://www.inequality.org.nz/  
  18. 18. Children  aged  15/16  1993-­‐99  by  school  type  &  GCSEs   Charts  are  drawn  in  propor-on  to  total  numbers  of  children  aQending  each  type  of  school  and  shaded  by  the  shares   awarded  par-cular  grades  -­‐  Data  source:  Analysis  of  na-onal  school  league  tables  for  Britain  1993-­‐00   Figure  3.5  Educa-on…the  sor-ng  out  of  children  (form  the  book  ‘The  Popula-on  of  the  UK’)   Selec-ve  schools  tell  their  pupils  that  they  are  more  clever  than  other   children.  The  children  have  no  way  of  knowing,  so  believe  it.  They  are   trained  in  exam  passing  (a  useless  skill  in  later  life),  which  is  said  to  prove   their  extra  cleverness.      
  19. 19. A  great  deal  of  the  differences   between  people  is  due  to  how  they   are  treated.     When  people  treat  you  as  dumb,  you   feel  dumb,  you  act  dumb.    When  they   smile  at  you  as  they  serve  you  it  is  easy   to  begin  to  feel  superior.       There  is  a  quote  from  Pygmalion   (which  became  My  Fair  Lady):     “the  difference  between  a  lady  and  a   flower  girl  is  not  how  she  behaves,  but   how  she's  treated.”       The  'Pygmalion  effect'  is  an  example  of   a  self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy,  as  happens   with  selec-ve  educa-on.  This  involves   spending  much  more  money  on  the   supposedly  more  poten-ally  clever.       It  turned  out  that  the  sor3ng  hat  lies…   There's  nothing  hidden  in  your  head       The  Sor3ng  Hat  can't  see,       So  try  me  on  and  I  will  tell  you       Where  you  ought  to  be.  
  20. 20.  “the  difference  between  a  lady  and  a  flower  girl  is  not  how  she  behaves,  but  how   she's  treated.”  (George  Bernard  Shaw,  16th  Nov.  1913)…  “Children  from  poorer   families  perceived  by  teachers  as  less  able,  says  study”  The  Guardian,  June  9th  2015   There  is  also    ‘a  “voluminous”  literature  regarding  differences  in  experiences   between  sexes’  in  how  people  are  treated  and  react.  Sadly  it  is  not  know  by  those   who  write  papers  3tled  (see  p.600):  “Demonstra3ng  the  Validity  of  Twin  Research   in  Criminology”,  Criminology,  52,  4,  588-­‐626,  2015,  doi:  10.1111/1745-­‐9125.12049   …these  studies  are  ‘silly’  (not  valid).  By  ‘silly’  I  mean  ‘fraught  with  problems  ‘….        
  21. 21. Children  are  labelled  in  ways  that   cause  terrible  damage  both  at  the  top   and  boQom  of  many  socie-es   25%‘effective’ (down 1%) 20%‘barely adequate’ (down 1%) 28%‘simple’ (up 1%) 3%‘none’ (up 1%) 11%‘developed’ (unchanged) 2%‘advanced’ (unchanged) 11%‘limited’ (unchanged) Notes: ‘None’implies none as can be measured.‘Limited’implies possessing very limited Figure 1: Children in the Netherlands ranked by ability (%) according to the OECD, 2012 (showing changes since 2006) Children  are  damaged  by   -red  stressed  carers,  by   family  rela-onship   breakdowns  and  s-ll   some-mes  by  illness,   accident  or  tragedy.  They   can  be  disadvantaged  by   the  month  in  which  they   are  born,  where  there  is  a   school  system  which  is   compe--ve  at  an  age   when  a  few  months   difference  can  be   significant.  A  compe--ve   school  system  is  very   destruc-ve.  Repeatedly   judging  some  children  as   failures  is  highly  damaging.    
  22. 22. Very difficult 6% Difficult to manage 15% Coping 48% Living comfortably 31% Source: Derived from ONS (2006) Social Trends (No 36), London: Palgrave Macmillan, table 5.15, p 78, mean of 1984, 1994 and 2004 surveys. Note: Respondents were asked‘Which of the (above) phrases comes closest to your feelings about your household’s income these days?’. Excludes those who did not answer. Figure 11: Households’ability to get by on their income in Britain, two decades before the crash, 1984–2004 The  different  likelihoods  of  being  able  to  achieve  different  things  depends  on  where   you  live,  which  country,  which  town  and  which  part  of  that  town.  This  is  something   that  we  can  map  and  the  maps  show  drama-c  differences.  There  are  also  drama-c   differences  depending  on  whether  children  are  being  brought  up  in  households  that   describe  themselves  as  'living  comfortably',  just  'coping',  'difficult  to  manage'  or  'very   difficult  to  manage’.     What  sort  of  upbringing  can  you   give  children  if  you  are  that   stressed?  How  many  rows  and   tensions  occur  just  over  money?   What  psychological  damage  does   that  do  to  children?  
  23. 23. Income Standard of living High High Standard of living threshold Income threshold Asset wealthyAsset wealthyAsset wealthy Not poor Rising Vulnerable Poor Core poor Exclusively wealthy Low Low Not poor Poor Vulnerable Rising KEY Source: Adapted from David Gordon’s original and much replicated drawing. See publication details of various of the works (where earlier versions appear) at the Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research, University of Bristol (www.bris.ac.uk/poverty/). Note: It is because a change in income usually precedes changes in standard of living, that we tend to spiral anti-cockwise within this figure, sometimes just in small eddies. Figure 8: Circling from exclusion to inclusion and back again (model) When  you  ask  people  who  have  achieved     what  they  aQribute  their  success  to;  those   that  are  not  so  conceited  as  to  say  “it  must   be  my  genes”,  o[en  men-on  chance  events   they  could  not  have  planned.    
  24. 24. Studies of depression in adolescent girls in North America, 1984–2010 (see table 7, -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Source: Re-analysis of Costello, E.J. et al (2006)‘Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression?’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol 47, no 12, pp 1263-71. The data shown above are for those studies where the children lived in the USA, the US territory of Puerto Rico, or Canada. The final study was published in 2012 by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and based on combined data from the 2008 to 2010 SAMHSA National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Note: Each circle represents a study; the area of the circle is drawn in proportion to study size. An additional very recent study has been added to the figure which was not included in the first edition of this book. Figure 21: Adolescent girls assessed as depressed (%) as reported in various studies in North America, 1984–2010   Achievement  and   failure  have  liQle  to   do  with  innate   poten-al,  but  far   more  to  do  with   circumstance,   which  is  why  it  is,  to   a  certain  extent,   predictable.       Given  this  and  that,   the  likelihood  is  so   and  so.  But  also   there  are  the   unpredictable   events.  The  teacher   that  you  happened   to  like,  even  if  many   children  didn't.    
  25. 25. Bell  curves  are   fabricated   Label 'None' 'Limited' 'Barely adequate' 'Simple' 1.0 0.9 1.1 -2.1 -0.6 -0.2 0.1 -2.1 -0.6 -1.4 1.2 1.7-0.2 0.7 1.8 -0.1 Nether- landsOECD UK USA 0.0 2.0 3.0 -1.0 1.0 -2.0 % change 2006–2012 (note, scale = 2x above) 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 OECD Nether- lands UK USA ‘None’ ‘Limited’ ‘Barely adequate’ ‘Simple’ ‘Effective’ ‘Developed’ ‘Advanced’ 2012 Source: Data originally given in OECD (2007) The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), OECD’s latest PISA study of learning skills among 15-year-olds, Paris: OECD, derived from figures in table 1, p20. Updated using http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014024_tables.pdf (see Figure 1 notes) Figure 2: Distribution of children by ability, according to the OECD, 2012 (%) There  is  no  point  in  searching  for   supposedly  brilliant  children.  Any   group  on  which  you  spend  more   -me,  money  and  effort  is  likely  to   do  beQer.  Look  first  at  poverty   and  depriva-on  and  try  to  reduce   inequality.  Look  next  at  educa-on   and  study  what  happens  in  other   countries  where  they  achieve   beQer  results.  Should  we  start   formal  educa-on  later  and  have   less  tes-ng,  fewer  exams  and  less   selec-on?  A  much  higher   propor-on  get  into  university  now   than  ever  got  into  grammar   schools  with  the  eleven  plus  exam.     People  are  rarely  handed  great  innate  ability.  
  26. 26. Rate of prescribing antidepressants by NHS Board: Defined Daily Doses per 1,000 population (aged 15+), Scotland, 1992–2014: 92- 93 94- 95 96- 97 98- 99 00- 01 02- 03 04- 05 06- 07 08- 09 10- 11 12- 13 13- 14 Scotland 19 26 37 48 62 76 84 88 97 112 123 130 Ayrshire & Arran 19 26 37 51 65 81 90 95 107 123 136 145 Borders 20 26 35 43 54 68 78 84 93 110 123 132 Dum. & Galloway 21 27 39 48 64 78 83 85 92 105 118 125 Fife 21 26 36 47 60 74 80 84 93 109 121 129 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 Source: NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (2007) NHS quality improvement Scotland: Clinical indicators 2007, Glasgow: NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, Table 1.1, p. 12. Updated using: ISD Scotland (2015) Better Information, Better Decisions, Better Health: Data Tables, NHS Scotland (http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Prescribing-and- medicines/Publications/data-tables.asp?id=1309#1309) Note: The NHS uses financial years when reporting on prescribing rates. The measure shown is what is called standardised defined daily doses (the commonest amount prescribed in mg/day for each anti-depressant drug) per 1,000 people aged 15+. In the first edition of this book the latest data available was for 2005–6. Figure 25: The rate of prescribing anti-depressants by the NHS in Scotland, 1992–2014.People  are  becoming   more  and  more  anxious   over  -me,  especially  in   the  most  unequal  of   countries  where  they   are  most  o[en  judged.  
  27. 27. Selected measures of inequality and healthy behaviour – all countries for which data exists on all measures, latest comparable data: Proportionofthepopulationwhocycleorwalk toworkastheirmainformoftransport 0% 20% 40% 60% 10% 30% 50% 0 5 10 15 Inequality: Income share of the best-off one percent of the population (% all income taken by this group) 20 25 Netherlands Denmark Sweden Finland Germany Norway France UK Japan Canada IrelandAustralia US Source: Paris Top income dataset figures as accessed in January 2015, cycling and walking for Japan http://www.tokyobybike.com/2013/10/how-many-japanese-cycle-to-work.html Note: The figures for Japan are only for workers, not students, and are low because the train is the main means of transport for so many in Japan. Area proportional to population. Figure 26: Healthy behaviour and income inequality, walking and cycling 2006-2010, affluent countries. New  possibili-es   emerge  when   and  where   people  work   together  and   control  the   richest  in  their   socie-es  so  that   the  rich  take  a   smaller  share  of   the  cake.     One  possibility  is   not  having  a  car-­‐   bound  culture.   That  is  collec3ve   cleverness.  How   did  the  Dutch   manage  it  if  they   are  really  as   portrayed  by  the   “IQ”  tests?  
  28. 28. Poten-al  is  about   Poli-cs   “The  idea  that  poverty  is   passed  down  from  genera-on   to  genera-on  in  our  genes  is   the  last  refuge  of  scoundrels.   For  a  conserva-ve  elite,  it  is   clearly  convenient  to  claim   that  welfare  and  educa-on   spending  make  no  difference   because  poor  people  are   intrinsically  feckless.  It  also   allows  them  to  imagine  their   own  wealth  and  status  is  part   of  the  natural  order.     No  wonder,  then,  that   Michael  Gove  and  his  adviser   Dominic  Cummings  began   cour-ng  the  gene-c   determinists.”   See  more  at  “No  genes  for  literacy   Posted  on  February  28,  2015  by  reclaimschools   hQp://reclaimingschools.org/2015/02/28/no-­‐genes-­‐for-­‐literacy/  
  29. 29. Let’s  end  with  Toby  Morris  again.  Here  we  see  Toby  reaching  the  boQom  of  his  ‘tower   of  inequality’,  published  worldwide  in  April  2015.  Toby  wants  to  know  what  to  do:   hQp://thewireless.co.nz/ar-cles/the-­‐pencilsword-­‐inequality-­‐tower   Here  is  what  not  to  do:   “Policymakers  and  educators  don’t  need  gene-cs  to  help  them  make  a  beQer   environment  for  all  our  children.  What  is  lacking  is  the  poli-cal  will.”   Steven  Rose,  TES,  24/1/,2014          hQps://www.tes.co.uk/ar-cle.aspx?storyCode=6395645   The  word  ‘genes’  features  26  &mes  in  The  Second  edi&on  of  ‘Injus&ce’    
  30. 30. Much  more  can  be  achieved  by  co-­‐opera-on  than  by  compe--on.   We  all  have  skills  and  abili-es,  and  just  being  cheerful,  pleasant  and   kind  are  some  of  the  most  valuable  abili-es  of  all.     We  all  need  to  help  each  other  –  because  none  of  us  are  that  special.     And  we  can  so  easily  get  things  so  very  wrong  due  to  the  fact  that  we   do  not  vary  greatly  in  ability  (poten-al  or  realized)…    and  we  can  also   get  things  right  by  repeatedly  asking  for  help.     Thank  you  for  your  pa-ence  (and  help!)   The  End  

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