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New PC Geographies (Post Coronavirus) - version 7.0


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New PC Geographies (Post Coronavirus) - version 7.0

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New PC Geographies (Post Coronavirus) - version 7.0

  1. 1. New Geographies : New Curriculum  PC (Post Coronavirus) School Geographies  A provocation & some curriculum making ‘Geography, like all dynamic areas of disciplinary thought, is  in a constant state of becoming’.  (Lambert & Morgan, 2010)    Alan Parkinson  V7.0   Late June 2020  Cover image source and copyright: Brian Stau er ism-protectionism-trump    All Alan Parkinson’s text shared under CC license - other material copyrighted. 1
  2. 2. Moments of crisis, such as the one we are living, are deeply painful in ways that                                cannot be underestimated. The social and emotional impacts of Covid-19 will                      be felt even after we return to normal global health conditions. We will emerge,                            albeit more slowly, from the unprecedented economic paralysis. The question                    is how we emerge: whether we return to the ways of the past or whether we                                derive valuable lessons, to emerge wiser and better equipped to continue to                        deal with our longstanding emergency of climate change.    The coronavirus tragedy has shown that we are only as safe as the most                            vulnerable among us and that cross-border threats require global, systemic                    solutions, as well as individual behaviour changes. Over the past few weeks,                        governments and businesses have acted swiftly to mandate drastic, but                    necessary measures to stem the coronavirus, keeping people indoors,                  grounding air travel, cancelling events and closing borders. Citizens, equally,                    are uniting to shift their behaviour en masse, by working and teaching their                          children from home, washing their hands more frequently, protecting the                    elderly, and helping neighbours shop for food.  The Covid-19 pandemic has unleashed humanity’s instinct to transform itself in                      the face of a universal threat and it can help us do the same to create a livable                                    planet for future generations.  Christiana Figueres, former chair of UNFCCC    Source of the quote: ng-climate-chanhttpsge  Pestilence is so common, there have been as many plagues in the world  as there have been wars, yet plagues and wars always find people  equally unprepared.  Albert Camus ‘La Peste’ (1947)  “The lesson for people to understand is this is the year of living differently. Not, ‘OK, it’s over’. You haven’t just been let out of school. You have done well. You have really brought down your numbers. So, now is the moment to celebrate that by being super careful.” Dr Margaret Harris, WHO, June 23rd 2020 2
  3. 3. The powerful front cover of the New York Times for 24th May 2020 3
  4. 4. Contents - Contents p. 4 Introduction p. 7 Thinking through the changes p. 14 Geographical themes and possible changes p. 17 Physical Geography topics 1. Landscape processes and change p. 17 2. Land use p. 18 3. Weather and climate / air quality / weather hazards p. 19 4. Tectonics p. 20 5. Our relationship with nature / Ocean Plastics p. 21 6. Plate Tectonics p. 25 7. Biodiversity p. 26 8. Water Cycle and Hydrological Processes p. 26 At the interface between physical and human 9. Climate Change p. 27 Human Geography topics 10.Urbanisation p. 28 a) Urban spaces and hierarchies (and the return of communities) b) LIC urban areas c) Sounds of the city d) Future city centres and urban design e) The role of neighbourhoods f) Urban resilience g) Desire lines h) Recovery from the Coronavirus 11. Employment: primary, secondary and tertiary p. 42 a) Retail & the changing High Street b) Gig Economy c) Agriculture d) Service sector e) Garment workers f) Supply chains g) Remittances h) Corporate social responsibility i) The death of the Office as a workplace 4
  5. 5. j) The social contract k) Games Industry booming l) Droning on m) After the furlough ends... 12.Development and Inequality p.62 including #BLM p.70 13.Changing leisure time and working hours p.71 14.Demographics p.72 a) Natural increase - a baby boom or bust? b) Migration c) Non Covid-19 mortality d) Twentysomething issues e) Population pyramids 15.Globalisation & Geopolitics p.74 16.Carbon footprints p.77 17.Tourism - a changed industry p.79 a) Tourism closing down b) Tourism reopening again 18.Crime p.86 19.Transport p.87 20.Geographies of Convenience p.91 21.Sustainable Development Goals p.92 22.Food Security, Food Banks & the importance of diet p.93 23.Superpowers: Hard and Soft Power p.97 24.Sense of Place p.99 25.Energy p.99 26.New communities p.100 27.Surveillance (link to D3 Erasmus project) p.100 28.Geography of Disease p.102 29.Borders p.106 30.Van lifers - modern nomads p.106 31.The ultimate ‘postcode lottery’ p.107 32.The island mindset p.108 33.Geographies of the Anthropocene p.109 34.GDP - time for another measure of the economy? p.109 35.Culture p.111 36.The Earth Project p.111 37.Politics p.112 38.Overseas Aid p.112 Geographical Skills and Tools 39.Fieldwork p.113 5
  6. 6. 40.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) p.115 41.Statistical Literacy p.116 Pedagogical Approaches and thinking incl. DPSIR p.117 ★ DPSIR ★ Erasmus Projects - D3 and GI-Pedagogy ★ Geographical Enquiry ★ Image stimulus ★ Critical Thinking ★ Group Work in Teams - new ways of working PC Curriculum Making - some early thoughts p.122 ★ A curriculum for learning outside the classroom ★ Do we need a curriculum of recovery? ★ Teaching about Covid-19 - GeographyalltheWay ★ International perspectives ★ NEAs An early update for the Specifications? p.132 A better world ahead? p.134 Profiting from the pandemic? p.141 Reading list and References incl. ‘Slowdown’ p.143 Appendices p.152 - Lockdown Dérive by Claire Kyndt Testimonials p.155 6
  7. 7. Introduction Welcome to V7.0 of this document, which has been re-edited and had substantial additional content blended in during the middle part of June 2020, as home learning continued for many and we headed towards an unusual summer break. Some colleagues returned to their classrooms for the first time in months, and planning went ahead for the return. Meanwhile, some borders reopened, shops reopened, beaches were rammed, 2m became 1m+ and we waited for the 2nd spike. I’ll continue to embolden what I think is particularly valuable content, which may then feed into a final ‘resource’ outcome from this project. Some key trends and areas are starting to emerge now. I’ve been in touch with several people during the last couple of weeks, including an Awarding Body, and have been asked to start to put some ideas down in a form which can be used to ‘update’ teaching for GCSE Geographers. I’ve also been thinking about where I can factor some of these ideas into my KS3 curriculum. I’ll mark these in the document from now on, so that you can see where my writing is going to be focussed. To mark them I’m going to make use of one of the new UNOCHA icons for the Covid-19 response. When you see this icon, it is marking an area of the document which I’m starting to write up as a new resource: The full set of icons can be downloaded from here: If you have seen earlier versions of the document, you will notice perhaps there are several new sections added to this version in response to particularly insightful pieces I’ve come across, very often from academic geographers. It’s good to see in the long tradition of academic geographers informing the school subject that this may be a feature of the next phase of curriculum development. There’s also a continued shift towards possible contexts for some curriculum making and outputs from academic geographers. Steve Brace led me to an article written by George Monbiot, which was published in ‘The Guardian’ on May 12th, where he refers to some elements of the Geography curriculum that many geography students current and recent will be very familiar with: “No one is embarrassed when a “well-educated” person cannot provide even a rough explanation of the greenhouse effect, the carbon cycle or the water cycle, or of how soils form.” Of course, anyone currently learning GCSE geography is familiar with those things and George is in danger of joining others at this time who are providing unwanted advice to teachers on how to do our jobs - something that we are the experts at. George was doing some ecology teaching with his daughter, and his ideas are here: natural-world-ecology?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_Twitter 7
  8. 8. The title of the article suggests that we need to rethink everything, starting with education: This document makes a start on thinking about what that might look like for geography education at least. Pandemics may well end up being the mother of invention as with previous global crises: As those who’ve read previous versions of the document will know, the idea to produce it came about from some thinking through the weeks of lockdown about the eventual return to school and teaching back in the classroom at some future point. I created a post on LivingGeography on March 13th, with the title ‘The Eve of the War’ connecting to a section in HG Wells ‘War of the Worlds’ where ordinary life carries on as normal although the Martians were already here. This was a strange week, and lockdown happened at the end of it. I started thinking in particular about what I/we (as a subject community) will be teaching in Geography when we return (in the Autumn term?). While writing my biography of every Geographical President on my GA Presidents Blog at I’ve encountered numerous occasions where the subject has changed in response to particular global events or new ways of thinking. This pandemic will have an impact on many geographical topics, and places that are studied at all key stages, and may result in another ‘turn’ in the subject. For the GCSE and ‘A level (and equivalent) exam specifications, they will remain as they are - there have been no plans to change them, no consultations on those changes, and probably no desire to either. The assessment plans for 2021 will also have to change in some way and this may lead to other longer-term changes to the nature of assessment generally, and not just in geography. One issue is that some elements of the geography in these specifications will have changed out of all recognition by the time we return, as will many of the topics taught lower down the school. Our own motivation for continuing to select those same subjects to devote curriculum time to will also change. In my final week at school before I self-isolated in mid-March, I was teaching what had previously seemed to be ‘important’ topics but was constantly thinking as each day passed “this doesn’t really matter anymore…” or rather that the context had changed and meant 8
  9. 9. they were not as significant. This is significant as a choice to teach a particular topic at KS3 means a decision not to teach something else. It also has a bearing on the powerful knowledge students are introduced to, and then encouraged to explore further. To give one example, jobs which we previously thought of as being important to protect in the garment industry may well be swept away by the cancellation of contracts, and the contraction of the industry. The close confinement of sweatshop workers would also increase their vulnerability to the virus, and stories soon started of desperate workers travelling to find work and having to face impossible decisions: to continue working, or to starve. It was also a reminder that some people in the UK, who may have voted for political decisions which tried to stop migrants from making the effort to escape war zones, were now struggling to cope with the fact that the pubs were shut and they might have to stay at home and read a book, or were fighting over toilet roll and preventing those who had worked all day to save lives from buying the basics for themselves. Here then is a chance to challenge the status quo. It may also be a time to explore a stronger connection with the idea of the Anthropocene. This virus emerged as a result of human lifestyles and was transmitted rapidly by our globe-trotting lives and access to cheap air travel. The document also shows the impact of human decisions, political and otherwise on the extent to which certain human-defined areas of the planet (we’ll call them countries) were impacted. What we are likely to be teaching when we return will need to be adjusted. I’m already thinking that I want to ‘firm up’ the geography in what I teach, and reflect the changes that will have happened during school closure/lockdown and remove some of what could be called the more ‘trivial’ geographies that are in the National Curriculum and other school based curricula which (I and others) have developed over recent years. John Morgan has previously referred to these as ‘zombie geographies’ - they refuse to die and are still found in curriculum documents: _10t_3.pdf A few themes have emerged over the last few weeks in the growing number of items I've been reading for what may also become some ‘new geographies’ or even new theories of the way that things work in future economies and society. I started to pull together some thoughts and ideas in the first phase of this work (versions 1-6 ish and now with version 7 onwards will move towards the creation of some new curriculum materials for the return to school in some format for a new PC Geography curriculum. These ideas are also feeding into a book that I am currently writing on why geography matters. I am not an academic geographer, and I know that geography academics in their different geographical specialist areas are also currently thinking about their own area of expertise and how it may change their teaching too. I’ve come across some of those ideas, but I would 9
  10. 10. love to hear from you if you have started developing your own ideas in this area and have made a start on your own thinking, or have identified some of these stories emerging in the media, or via your own social media contacts. There is a free editorial in the RGS’ ‘Transactions’ which has some of these emergent ideas: - PDF The climate emergency will require even more concerted global action, and this must be a major element of the new curriculum. With the cancellation of COP26 which the UK was due to host, this has built in further delays into the world getting together to solve this crisis which is far more ‘visible’ and urgent to many. Also, will we actually want to teach about Coronavirus (preferring to try to forget it about it, particularly if our family or friends have been touched by tragedy, and inevitably those of our students and colleagues). Is it too raw for a while to be an object of study, or is it something that we just should be teaching? Just as earthquake drills are taught and practised in earthquake-prone areas, perhaps we will need to cover pandemics and their spread so that we are ready to act more promptly if there are further similar events in the future. Lessons are being learned currently, so should these lessons also be learned (and taught)? I do not intend teaching about Covid-19 as a topic, at least in the short term. What about some of the other topics we’ve traditionally taught which are also potentially problematic for some students and colleagues. Should we be more empathetic, and focus on more positives? I’ll explore that idea too. It’s worth remembering that the risk of Pandemic influenza has always been there. Do we use this to explore topics like resilience, and disaster management - the Sendai Framework perhaps. Another thing to consider is the student voice as well. Will there be students who are happy with the way that they have been learning and want to avoid a return to what they had before? Or will the majority crave a return to teacher-led instruction and someone telling them what to do - even the rest that comes from listening to the teacher talking, which means you can sit there and do nothing for a few minutes, and the move away from screens. John Morgan has talked about the NZ situation and the rise of ‘disruptive education’. n/ He quotes Andreas Schleicher: ‘You’re going to have a lot of young people who have experienced different forms of learning in the crisis, learning that was more fun, more empowering. They will go back to their teachers and say: can we do things differently?’  But concludes: A genuinely ‘disruptive’ approach to schooling, I conclude, would pay much more attention to what students’ learn, rather than where and how they learn. He talks about the changing nature of the public’s view of teachers and the curriculum and concludes. 10
  11. 11. Now, more than ever, we require ‘disciplined understanding of disciplines’: making sense of Covid 19 – a triple crisis of public health, economy, and social continuity –requires frameworks for understanding the ‘ways of the world’ These can come from Geography of course. Well worth reading.  I was reminded by someone who posted a section of Hans Rosling’s essential ‘Factfulness’ book - what a huge pity it is that Hans is not here to guide our response and work with WHO as he did during the Ebola outbreak that he helped with in 2015. However his son Ola came out with some useful thoughts in the last week or so, and they are included in this 4th version of the document and later. Hear Hans talking so clearly about the work here: In it, he describes a number of things that we should be concerned about and Pandemic is in there alongside Global Warming, as those who have read ‘Factfulness’ may remember. There’s also an understanding of the risk of Pandemics in the Government’s own Risk Register - something I referred to previously in a unit we taught called ‘Risky World’, which I guess will be one we reevaluate next time round. Here’s an image taken from the 2017 version of the document, which Brendan Conway reminded me of recently, which has pandemics illustrated at the top of the intensity scale. And yet knowing this, few preparations were made, and vital equipment wasn’t stockpiled when it should have been. edition Image copyright: Lives were lost needlessly as a result: -lives-top-scientist-says?utm_term=Autofeed&CMP=twt_b-gdnnews&utm_medium=Social&u tm_source=Twitter#Echobox=1591528858 There has been a lot talked about the climate crisis, and the actions of Greta Thunberg and others to popularise and publicise the desperate need for change have started to galvanise young people, and geography is the appropriate place for this to happen in the school curriculum. I’d like to see more personal action being part of the Geography curriculum: practising what we are preaching perhaps. Our lockdown means an end to many of the practices that 11
  12. 12. we have become used to: easy consumption, take-away coffees, pub lunches, air travel, clothes shopping etc. Geography is firmly back on the agenda, as outlined in this essential Wired piece by David Wolman: - not that it ever went away, or had vengeance in mind of course..   Pandemic throws the importance of space back into sharp relief. We’re thinking  about it at the smallest scale, navigating supermarket aisles or converting  closets into serviceable home o ces.   Erik Steiner  The theme was also picked up by Forbes is-a-key-part-of-the-coronavirus-fight/ The curriculum needs to be considered as a process, and a continual work in progress. My curriculum is always changing from year to year in an iterative fashion. Rosalind Walker reminds us of this in this well written piece: k/ Dylan Wiliam spoke at an event organised by ResearchED about the current overloading in the curriculum. He said, quoted in the TES: "There is no doubt that there’s far too much stuff in our curriculum – I’ve wondered about why this is, and my conclusion is that curriculum developers cannot bear the thought that any children might have spare time on their hands. So they actually make sure there’s enough stuff in the curriculum for the fastest-learning students to be occupied all year. And so there’s far too much for most students - some teachers just teach the curriculum, they metre it out and they go from beginning to end and 20 percent of the kids get it and the rest don’t – I think that’s logically consistent but immoral.” "When the curriculum’s too full, you have to make a professional decision about what stuff you’re going to leave out, and the important point here is that not all content is equally important.” So perhaps now is the time to drop some of that ‘trivial’ stuff I mentioned earlier to make space for greater thinking about futures and a changed world. At the same time, we are waiting for a vaccine, which may well be the most rapidly produced in medical history - a good thing. Bill Gates, writing in ‘The Economist’ set out some important things to consider including the fact that we have a long way to go. mics “When historians write the book on the covid-19 pandemic, what we’ve lived  through so far will probably take up only the first third or so.   The bulk of the story will be what happens next.”  12
  13. 13. There have been 2 editorials in RGS journals on the Pandemic: Progress in Human Geography by Noel Castree, Louise Amoore, Alex Hughes, Nina Laurie, David Manley, and Susan Parnell There are several questions asked in this document. This one is particularly relevant: How might attempts to make sense of COVID-19’s geographies affect the way we do Geography and define ‘progress’ in the discipline? As part of this, are there older approaches, ideas or methods that might usefully be revisited? Conversely, what might we need to invent in order to address absences in our cognitive and normative tool box? The journal Transactions of the IBG had a different approach. They have a virtual edition from May 2020 which is worth exploring by those who want a higher level analysis of the geographical connections. Impressively, the Summer 2020 issue of ‘Geography’ - the GA’s journal - also included an introductory piece on the impacts of Covid-19, written by Steve Puttick, which was very well written and ties in perfectly with the spirit of this document’s creation, talking about the link with the geographical concept of scale: The movement between scales is dizzying, from              measurements in micrometers, through hyper-connected          international travel infrastructure to millions of            infections, hundreds of thousands of deaths, and trillions                of dollars. And from the global dashboards through                which we view the charting of infections, deaths,                recoveries, and forecasts, back into the space-times of                13
  14. 14. our homes, where – at the time of writing, at least – most of must stay. COVID-19 has                                    brought the deeply unequal nature of our world into sharp relief as these experiences                            of ‘staying home’ continue to mean wildly di erent things across all-too-common                      gendered, racialised, and classed fault lines   Image copyright: Geographical Association Download a digital copy here - join the GA: This has also been described in the Conversation piece here as a ‘sliding doors’ moment: we can go one way or the other hange-earths-trajectory-137838 With that in mind, it’s time to get on with the geographical thinking and curriculum making for Post-Corona Geographies. Thinking through the changes One of the prompts that initially got me started on the production of this document was a tweet from Helen Young: the original GeographyGeek. I wondered whether there were indeed studies going on, although fieldwork is going to be difficult - data collection via Google Form etc. could be possible, and I’ve used some myself. There was also a Guardian article by Adam Tooze on the link with the economy which was one of the first I added into v1.0 of this document. siness-life-death This piece by Neal Lawson provided further ideas at this early stage of v1.0: y 14
  15. 15. I was also really interested in this piece by Stuart Dunn on the Digital Humanities - he works in the field of GIS which also connects with the GI Pedagogy ERASMUS project that will be mentioned later in the document. vid-19/ Stuart’s post led me to an existing roundup of posts in the same field as this document, but at a higher level of education: And some thoughts on separating the signal from the noise from Futures Further thoughts came from Paul Ganderton on the Facebook group set up to support Geography Teachers during Covid-19 by Matt Podbury: Follow Paul Ganderton here: for a lot more on this topic. It’s worth saying that thanks to my employment and the excellent librarian Dr. Jones at my school I have subscriber access to The Times and Sunday Times, New Scientist, The Economist and the Wall Street Journal. This means I have included reference to some articles which you may not have full access to. GA eConference 2020 Teachmeet I used the production of this booklet as my theme for the Teachmeet which formed part of the GA’s eConference 2020 which replaced the face-to-face event due to take place in Surrey from 16th-18th of April 2020. I put together a quick 2 minute LOOM video for use in the event. You can see the link to the video here and watch if you like: Here’s another LOOM video - this time for the Discover the World Education Teachmeet which was held in early June - a variation on the GA one as a different audience. Ben Hennig and Tina Gotthardt at WorldMapper have been tracking the cases and producing regularly updated maps and animations. Check in for the latest maps and animations. They are all shared under CC license. You are also able to support their work if you feel able to. 15
  16. 16. The latest update was added on the 8th of June 2020 Images copyright: Worldmapper - shared under CC license Also check out some aerial images: ove 16
  17. 17. Geographical Themes and possible changes These ideas are currently presented separately, but in reality, a piece of work in a classroom would need to connect several of these together, and bring in appropriate questions, analysis of text and images and some sort of final presentation format and review. There would be options to create separate elements for GCSE units. A: Physical Geography themes 1. Landscape processes These will largely be unchanged of course, and may be our refuge with memories of the landscapes we can visit when we are allowed out, of mountains we want to climb and places we want to return to after an absence. Several of us may well be making a list of the places we intend visiting as soon as we are able. Rivers have continued to behave as always for the last few weeks, and waves have reached the shore as usual. Rivers will still flow downhill, and waves will still hit the coat every few seconds. The landscape can be one permanence in our lives, and in the curriculum… I’m working on a unit on the development of The Fens as a consequence, to encourage people to get out into this landscape explained so well by Francis Pryor in his recent book. Watch this space for links to that new unit. Landscapes being reclaimed by the wild. Goats are reclaiming the streets of a Welsh village - coming down from the Great Orme into Llandudno. s-town Ghost town to goats town - the new kids on the block etc. were the headlines. html Spanish officials sprayed a beach with bleach. Not sure if that would speed up chemical weathering in the area ch-with-bleach-coronavirus Coastal Management Many sand dune ecosystems need management including fencing to avoid trampling of the marram that holds them together. The Maspalomas Dunes on Gran Canaria are apparently recovering their natural look after years of damage from tourist visitors: Isolation caused by relief 17
  18. 18. The mountains of Wales may have helped Ceridigion have the lowest rates of infection in Wales "Ceredigion has at least in part been protected by its geography," agreed Prof Michael Woods of Aberystwyth University. "We know the coronavirus spreads primarily through close contact between people and the lower population density in rural areas makes it more difficult. The relative remoteness also means fewer people here were travelling back and forth to places with high numbers of cases like south Wales, the West Midlands and Merseyside." 2. Land Use I would be interested to see how the landscape is changed as a result of decisions made now and in the period when we are able to move around again. e.g Agricultural use of land. This Tim Lang book - this came out March 2020 - has it already been overtaken by events? ● Forestry land left unmanaged. ● Reduction in construction projects. ● Floodplain development reduced. ● Housing densities questioned. Will the UK’s land-use as recorded by Daniel Raven Ellison in his wonderful ‘The UK in 100 seconds’ be different if he was to remake it in a few years’ time? A debate started about opening access to golf courses for open space, which connects with ideas of public and private land ownership, and rights of way. 1eca40f84593cdc35621d7b79271f2 Dan mentioned this on his Twitter feed as well, showing how much land was being taken up by golf courses which were closed at the time. Public space is going to prove valuable as town centres reopen: There was a similar theme to many stories regarding people travelling to rural areas. Rights of Way which run close to farms have been chained off, and some politicians have been forced to resign for breaking lockdown (whereas some people kept their job). 18
  19. 19. - this also relates to the use of second homes in rural areas and the impact on rural communities, but gives the story a different dynamic. Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this story. This I think will become more significant when the lockdown lifts, as people will head to places like Devon and Norfolk, for example, bringing the virus with them into areas with relatively low population density. There were signs that locals weren’t happy about this in many locations with hand made signs going up. 3. Weather and Climate / Air Quality / Weather Hazards We could consider the short term impact in carbon reduction and whether it might help any country towards meeting carbon emission and air quality targets. Europe’s air is certainly getting clearer: (video on this link) Skies have emptied of planes - will we (be able to) go back to flying when this is all over? Will there still be the same number of airlines / competition for flights / cheap flights? ate-change Car pollution also briefly halved according to this study: of-the-lockdown-laws-1000392.html#.XsPS74VSs_8.twitter In India, there were visual signs that the air was clearing as well: s-pollution-levels-in-india-drop n-falls-lockdown-coronavirus?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other In early June however, as the lockdown eased and ‘normal’ life resumed, air quality levels rose back to pre-Covid levels in China very quickly, and Europe will soon follow suit: d-levels-and-europe-may-follow?CMP=share_btn_tw This was perhaps because people were avoiding public transport so congestion increased. d-surge-post-lockdown?fbclid=IwAR3yyTVY1ei2AwFu2UOsTQ__U1P1QwGKhC4iP_-12xC GbLIhsLONwbPEihY Can cities keep their air clean? Some blue-sky thinking is needed perhaps: p-air-clean-after-coronavirus?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is concerned about the impact of Covid-19 on the observation system. It also describes some of the effects of reduced air traffic which they have already observed, for example in flight observations of temperature and wind speed are an important part of the observation network. 19
  20. 20. erving-system Also check satellite data here: Imagine the issues of trying to deal with a disaster (I’ll avoid involving the word ‘natural’ there) with all the additional complications of the coronavirus. .html?utm_medium=social&utm_content=2020-04-18T20%3A44%3A05&utm_source=twCN N&utm_term=link Typhoon Vongfong hit the Philippines in mid-May ml There may be some short term changes to our carbon emissions, but not the long term ones required to change the climate - by which I mean decade long reductions towards net zero. Cyclone Amphan hit Bangladesh and India, forcing the evacuation of 1 million people: clone-amphan-nears and June saw the start of the Hurricane season. Sylvia Knight recorded a podcast for the RGS-IBG, which included a section on links between the weather and Covid-19 - listen here: ather,/ d-covid-19-dr-sylvia-knight 4. Tectonics and disasters The lack of human activity has reduced a lot of the background noise which seismometers have to be calibrated to ignore / account for 20
  21. 21. mologists-find?CMP=share_btn_tw s-earth-seismic-vibrations There are also fears that other hazards such as earthquakes may happen, and people will be unable to help each other for risk of infection. This is a real fear as we move into Hurricane season as mentioned previously, and Cyclone Amphan has battered Kolkata. Ilan Kelman seminar on his book: Disaster by Choice “A situation requiring outside support for coping” 5. Our relationship with Nature... The closure of so-called ‘wet-markets’, which are found all over the world and not just in China, for the sale of ‘bush meat’ and other animals needs to be stopped to avoid another pandemic emerging in the future. We have seen another outbreak at a market in China in mid-June as a reminder of this possibility. At the root of the problem is a social phenomenon called “human-wildlife conflict”. This is when the interests of humans and the needs of wildlife overlap in a negative way. le-to-pandemics-135191?fbclid=IwAR37QneFaWgUeG7KQ3JpEgBjEj_Ub72HTpTmzfDd58q JEf4Z3XqVFx-SZGM   In terms of food sourcing, cultural norms over bush meat and wildlife markets may now have to face more legislation if this does turn out to be the source of the outbreak iversity-chief-age-of-extinction - biodiversity A food related connection is discussed here: d-from-the-covid19-pandemic/?fbclid=IwAR0ACIcZd4HMUNsir8OdCISeDQLCHJIiuQTt5ybP M2ZsDFHoE-85fHCK2YM There is also a suggestion we may see more wild flowers. Council services are being cut, and focussing on the vital services, so verge cutting etc. may be stopped. The people with the closest link with nature perhaps are the indigenous peoples such as those who live in the rainforest areas such as the Amazon Basin, who live in harmony with the forest - they are its guardians in many respects - and who practice their faming techniques which many students will have learned about. This article suggests the virus may lead to the extinction of some of these groups: Worth remembering that tackling some issues with landscapes may also reduce risk of future pandemics - image from UN 21
  22. 22. Image copyright: UN This relationship is explored in this piece from the 7th of May on our ‘promiscuous treatment of nature’. l-lead-to-more-pandemics-scientists?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other There has also been an increase in fly-tipping as council recycling centres are closed. 6613641 Many people are also looking for jobs to do, and clearing out their houses and wanting to do DIY which has created extra waste. Some councils are also burning recycling as there are fears over virus contamination of card etc. Costing the Earth on BBC Radio 4 had some thoughts in an episode hosted by Tom Heap Tom Heap talks through the environmental issues emerging during the coronavirus pandemic and asks what the legacy might be. He's joined by climate change expert Dr Tamsin Edwards from King's College, London to examine the effect of the lockdown. With millions of people now working from home, planes being grounded and fewer cars on the roads, what level of environmental improvement has there been, and will that be reversed once our lives return to normal? With the help of experts from the fields of climate change, remote working, ecology and environmental standards, we track the changes in air pollution and global temperature. What will the return to ‘normal' look like? With the UK aiming to be carbon neutral by 2050, Tom asks whether the pandemic can be seen as a trial run for a zero-carbon world. And, with the international climate meeting COP26 postponed, Tamsin considers how international climate targets might be affected. With contributions from Christiana Figueres - architect of the Paris climate agreement, environmental psychologist Lorraine Whitmarsh, air quality expert David Carslaw, Gina McCarthy of the Natural 22
  23. 23. Resources Defense Council, business communications specialist Jon Sidwick and Julian Newman from the Environmental Investigation Agency. This is likely to be a useful resource and you can download the programme. I like how Tamsin is introduced as a geographer and Tom also declares himself as a geographer. It mentions removal of EPA environmental protections in the USA which may lead to further pollution. The world’s oceans are now much quieter places because of the reduction in the movements of shipping with fewer passenger vehicles e.g. cross channel ferries. own-reduces-ocean-noise-coronavirus Andy Owen shared this link to some satellite imagery showing areas which were paused - changing human behaviour in certain environments. I was interested in the collapse in price of legal abalones: an unusual ‘crop’: d-by-covid-19/ On the plus side, oceans are getting quieter due to fewer vessel movements: good for cetaceans, and the cleaner water is helping animals such as seahorses in Studland Bay: own/?fbclid=IwAR2n7zF4G8X1DV_u9smH0-BSfC2Itzh9GdRffYUcMxJ2csx5fevR-X6mWDc Any thoughts that we might have come to love and appreciate nature more during lockdown were immediately dispelled when guidance meant we could travel as far as we wanted, following the Dominic Cummings scandal. People flocked to Bournemouth beach several days running, and left human waste in burger boxes or in RNLI stations. People crowded into Liverpool when their football team won the Premiership football league. And signs like this needed to go up in London’s parks: ...and Ocean Plastics 23
  24. 24. There has also been a dramatic rise in Ocean Plastics with the use of PPE / disposable gloves / endless tape and 2m distancing stickers on the floor outside premises which will degrade in the rain and sun: s-waste-ends-up-in-ocean - “more masks than jellyfish” h-the-plastic-pollution Image from LA Times article here: recycling?utm_content=buffer5ff25&utm_medium=social& ampaign=buffer&fbclid=IwAR1vgVEgkkrNRPuMqLJrhLLkPN1o3QaRh_vG7wgQUwkO93rTy w6kWGWJKB4 Image taken on the Soko Islands near Hong Kong. Sea of troubles and plastic as the “asbestos of the sea” in this article: tic-pollution Single use protective equipment has been sold in hundreds of millions and people won’t want to keep it around as it is potentially infected (at least in the short term) Just imagine the plastic and glass to produce test equipment. What about those swabs… I guess they have plastic in them. A vaccine if developed would use all the world’s glass and more to store it. Are we starting to make those vials now? I doubt it… tic-pollution Professor Stephen Scoffham wrote a piece on the changing relationship with nature for the Canterbury Christchurch University’s Expert Comment blog in early June 2020: Andrew Mitchell wrote a piece for ‘Geographical’ magazine in mid June 24
  25. 25. call-to-the-finance-sector Economists estimate the economic fallout from the Covid-19 virus pandemic could                      approach $10 trillion dollars, or around one eighth of global GDP. To prevent a                            recurrence of this crisis, we need to look less into human health, than into the                              collective blindness among regulators and within the financial sector of the huge                        dependencies the global economy has on biodiversity, and the devastating impacts                      on us all when our e ect on these dependencies, becomes increasingly unsustainable.                        Covid-19 is nature’s $10 trillion dollar bite back, and this is just the beginning.    Based on this earlier report: r-business-and-the-economy Based on the Global Risk Report Risk is also increasing as a result of contaminated waste. -line/ BBC in late June had this piece and introduced the term “anthropause” which is quite neat. The UK-led team's aim is to study what they have called the "anthropause" - the global-scale, temporary slowdown in human activity, which is likely to have a profound impact on other species. Biologgers have still been working, collecting information through this phase. Wildlife has been responding to this. People have paused: -have-learned-from-lockdown?CMP=fb_gu&utm_medium=Social&utm_source=Facebook&fb clid=IwAR2yoHHFl774GzNITzOMFwCGQKRHTtN7J1oM9JH-9YFoxgyYP3Zqs4ie6fY#Echo box=1592041558 Some don’t want to go back to their previous lives. 6. Plate Tectonics One would expect little change to the layout of countries, although Twitter user Karl Sharro suggested how the world map would change in this tweeted image with socially distanced countries: 25
  26. 26. 7. Biodiversity Given the fact tourists aren’t travelling to Thailand, there are benefits to some of the rare turtles such as the Olive Ridley who aren’t being affected quite as bad as in previous years:. -numbers-of-thailands-rare-sea-turtles Connection to work done previously for TUI with the Better World Detectives. That has all been placed in perspective now. 2020 is also the landmark year for biodiversity. That effort has been hampered by the arrival of the virus. 8. Water Cycle and hydrological processes In many cities, workers are out early spraying disinfectant. Benches, cash points and shop fronts are among touchable surfaces being sprayed with disinfectant. Councils want to reassure workers and shoppers that things are clean, but where does this disinfectant go but into drains and thus into rivers. What impact will it be having on riparian ecosystems in the long term? There was also a worrying report regarding potential mass graves in South Africa which would have an impact on groundwater supply - I suspect this would be an issue for other locations too: There are also burial plot shortages in many cities At the interface between physical and human, we have several other major issues: 26
  27. 27. 9. Climate Change - the big one! Climate Change will still need to be at the heart of the curriculum when we return, perhaps even more so. The Greenhouse: What We're Learning I’ve avoided too much on this theme as it’s a whole extra booklet by itself. The reduction in carbon emissions through industrial closedown and far fewer journeys is obvious. record-25bn-tonnes-in-2020 We’re also likely to see changes to school and hospital meals as a result of supply chains, but also the drive for less meat - one campaign here is the #20percentlessmeat campaign which has had some significant success. cut-meat-served-by-20 About a quarter of the UK’s population eats the food from these caterers in a typical working week Check out the free Harvard Online courses. This one explores the health impacts of climate change. Perhaps we at least will see an end to ‘big oil’ llapse.html?referringSource=articleShare There was a useful podcast for Earth Day 2020 discussing parallels between Coronavirus and Climate Change: WFyY2gvY25uL2Nvcm9uYXZpcnVzLWZhY3QtdnMtZmljdGlvbi9hbGwvNzIwLzIwMC8&epis ode=Mjk2YTI0ZmQ2MTNiZTcxOGRhNTQxY2EwOWM1NGZlMDEubXAz&hl=en-GB&ved=2 ahUKEwiSheWK7_7oAhXToXEKHShSCIQQjrkEegQIChAI&ep=6 Don’t forget to take Paul Turner’s Climate Change Ignorance Test 27
  28. 28. R9pQAyWaX1Q/viewform Mark Maslin’s piece too on the reports of warming climates in the future. -sahara-by-2070-137776?utm_medium=amptwitter&utm_source=twitter s-and-climate-change?fbclid=IwAR2h7IwBI8L4WCMhCcR4RJYASbuU-zmKGGlhlUNhx-tbJ HZ6asTzJZBMa1A Also check out the RGS Policy paper on Net Carbon Zero published in early May &utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=SocialSignIn For more on this, Paul Turner and Phil Bell have organised the Big Climate Teach In for the 4th of July. Videos of the event will remain online after the event has finished. B: Human Geography themes 10. Urbanisation and Urban Spaces “This was the week our cities died” is the title of this provocative piece which got me going on some thinking in this regard, and the nature of our teaching on urban models and structure. nd-more-broken-but-we-might-be-more-tender-too Melbourne is also featured here. getting-emptier-each-day-20200318-p54be7.html#comments 28
  29. 29. Daniel Whittall suggested we are seeing new iterations of ‘the city’ or ‘urban spaces’ and we will see another iteration ‘post-covid’. I guess this document is suggesting we will have another iteration of the geography specifications and agreed powerful knowledge. a) Urban Spaces and Hierarchies (and the return of communities) Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this link, which started some thinking about the way we use urban spaces and how we live within them. Those people who live in rural areas have greater options when it comes to social distancing and finding a safe space to exercise. I am fortunate, in this respect, to live in a small rural village, 8 miles from the nearest town but equally that means longer ambulance response times. Where we live is influenced by what we can afford. Lynsey Hanley has produced an essential piece of writing on the class divide here as a consequence. vide?CMP=share_btn_tw In it she references another great thinker Joe Moran, in a piece from 2004. She also talks about the value of public parks and open spaces. Space – how it’s apportioned, how it’s governed, how it’s made available to some and denied to others – is always political. The middle classes, accustomed to constant mobility while valorising the home as a place of comfort and safety, balk at the thought of being unable to up sticks at will. It seems that the Bartlett Centre of UCL is also definitely ‘on it’ with some thinking in the sort of areas that Helen wondered about earlier. “people survive difficulty by coming together as communities of care, not pulling apart in a retreat into individualism” OluTimehin Adegbeye, 2020 “Housing is a condition to the right to life” Laia Bonet, 2020 The quotes above are an entry into this piece by Catalina Ortiz and Camillo Boano on housing as the key infrastructure of care, and the difficulty for many of social distancing in some housing designs. of-care/ The piece is part of a series on Post Covid 19 Urban Futures put together by UCL - a useful blog and webinar series which will grow over time. 29
  30. 30. The Alexandra Panman blog is also excellent: ppens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ Inequalities are explored here: This gives me hope that more work like this is happening in other universities. Let me know if you spot it and we can add it in. This piece by Gaby Hinsliff suggests social pods of people as a future model. navirus-lockdown One particular urban space which may become at a premium is a space for a burial. Some cities have limited cemetery space, and that space is running out - I won’t make my usual joke here about cemeteries being ‘the dead centre of town’: I think we may also see a move to the suburbs for space rather than small expensive flats in city centres: - for those who can afford to of course. This will also connect with greater take up of home working - if you don’t need to commute into the city centre you don’t need to live in the expensive commuter belt. An exodus from London - counterurbanisation example for UK cities: ondoners-in-search-of-the-good-life b) LIC Urban areas Will the virus lead to a growing exodus from cities or will people still want to live close to services (and each other)? 30
  31. 31. Here’s a South African waste-picker on life under lockdown and the impossibility of continuing to work without risk. Diana Mitlin also picked up some of the issues facing cities in the ‘global South’ in this blogpost For those in Kibera, no work means no food, and quarantine is not an option: 20052738905.html Follow Faith Taylor’s work as she maps Covid-19 interventions in the slums of Kibera: ople-per-square-kilometre However, could the climate which has caused issues for countries for decades have been a factor in low numbers of cases? Ab1RnA9bicGHumdK_voINyA1mKCZT-eftcQ8kOWv6qI7y6TiIk The Financial Times piece here is definitely worth reading. It is free to read and not behind the paywall. The article describes the potential impacts of warmer climate, a lifestyle where people are outdoors more, measures taken by governments and also the fact that African countries have the most youthful populations - something we explore with Year 9. In this pandemic, the mask reveals far more than it hides. It exposes the world’s political and economic relations for what they are: vectors of self-interest that ordinarily lie obscured under glib talk of globalisation and openness. For the demagogues who govern so much of the world, the pandemic has provided an unimpeachable excuse to fulfil their dearest wishes: to nail national borders shut, to tar every outsider as suspicious, and to act as if their own countries must be preserved above all others.   Further reports have picked up on that same theme - the youthful nature of Africa’s population means that it has been affected much less than many were fearing. An important demographic theme to explore perhaps when looking at population pyramids. Perhaps another benefit of a wide-based population pyramid. c) Sounds of the city The virus is changing the aural map of cities. Bird song is louder. The skies are quieter. The Cities and Memory website has been collecting sounds of cities and now has a new lockdown sounds map to capture cities in these very different circumstances. - check out some of the sounds in a growing archive of entries as we moved into June. This article from Places Journal talks about the experience of the city through sound, a process called Auscultation. 31
  32. 32. An excellent read, with thanks to Stephen Schwab. Coughs and sneezes turn paranoid heads; ventilators whoosh in hospital rooms; streets go suddenly quiet, as people shelter inside. Kids home from school create a new daytime soundtrack, and neighbors gather on balconies in the evening, to sing together or applaud health workers. As physicians monitor the rattle of afflicted lungs, the rest of us listen for acoustic cues that our city is convalescing, that we’ve turned inward to prevent transmission. Urban areas may also be noisier from construction which may be allowed to continue later: sidential-areas-11987801 It also featured on Radio 3’s ‘Late Junction’ programme: d) Future city centres and urban design ld ppens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ - mentions Edward Glaeser and the importance of density, and the comments thread is also interesting. Some cities are giving over space to transport other than the car: s-and-cyclists Rachael Unsworth mused on the potential for improving things as regards transport: It included a quote from this Carbon Brief collection of views: ate-change#5mike Also efforts to reduce light pollution in future cities: 32
  33. 33. ht/601846/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign= socialflow-organic Paris is planning to give less space to cars to help with the 15 minute city idea, which was introduced by city Mayor Anne Hidalgo in February, influenced by Carlos Moreno. “ville du quart d’heure” ke-lanes/610861/ Melbourne has a similar 20 minute model. 20-minute-neighbourhoods I’m investigating the work of Carlos Moreno in this area. vers-bid-to-reclaim-post-lockdown-streets s-stores-parks/606325/ Hidalgo’s manifesto promises: A Paris to live in, a Paris that innovates, a Paris that breathes,  A Paris in common.  The World Economic Forum has published a very useful piece on how future cities will change, including its architecture and organisation. ● With city dwellers forced to stay home during lockdowns, some architects are rethinking urban infrastructure to promote a more local lifestyle and help people adapt to a post-pandemic world. ● "The benefits of a well-planned compact city include shorter commute times, cleaner air, and reduced noise and the consumption of fossil fuels and energy." ● From making city cycling safer to promoting social distancing green spaces, these are the changes we could see in the coming years. Connections are key to transmission: -of-a-second-wave-of-infection 33
  34. 34. Image source: The Economist A reminder of Tobler’s First Law of Geography - “near things are more related than distant things” - Rowan Moore on how to design better cities: er-cities Geographers started to be consulted at the end of May, with a BBC piece exploring how working from home might change the city. Paul Cheshire from the LSE and other experts are quoted in this piece: which connects with the idea of building on Green-belt land. Paul Chatterton from the University of Leeds has written a very useful blog on how Leeds could become a more sustainable post-Covid-19 city. res-how/ - ideal for OCR B Geographers. dont-know-how-yet?CMP=share_btn_tw - an excellent piece here with some good links to explore on urban futures. “It’s going to be terrible for a while,” says Sanjoy Chakravorty, a professor of  geography and urban studies at Temple University. “People have to get used to  34
  35. 35. the idea of sitting closely again. Then they have to have enough job security  and money to blow 100 quid on an evening of interpretative dance.”  But he is among those who are bullish on the prospects of a resurgence of city  life. “The modern city is indestructible,” he says. “Fires, earthquakes, bombings,  the blitz of London or the siege of Stalingrad: these cities lost population, but  then they came back.”  The high number of cases in New York have also not got unnoticed, and the impact of density is something which may be worth exploring. I can think of various tools which can be used to uncover population density in urban areas in the UK and elsewhere. Would make a good enquiry topic I think. Steve Brace shared a Directions blog post (reposted from the Conversation website) by Colin McFarlane from Durham University on this very theme on the 4th of June, on how the urban poor have been particularly badly hit: navirus-we-must-ask-who-cities-are-designed-to-serve/ e) The role of neighbourhoods Social distancing is producing more of an engagement with our personal space and place currently, and also a recognition of some simple everyday pleasures such as a walk and meeting friends or going out for a pint: ● Queueing for long periods - a chance to talk, or isolating on mobile phones ● How is this playing out in other countries? ● Spacing in supermarkets changing these everyday interactions and negotiations in aisles and pausing - speeding up our shopping and buying fewer things perhaps in the future, except the huge queues outside IKEA and McDonalds as they reopened in June 2020 suggested otherwise A useful piece from Richard Florida on CityLab in April 2020 on the ‘Geography of Coronavirus’: rural-data/609394/ CityLab also started sharing the first submissions of lockdown maps from readers: 35
  36. 36. e-art/610018/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaig n=socialflow-organic Negotiations will also happen (they already are) when meeting walkers and cyclists: 609115/ Another new CityLab piece was released on June 11th, which connected with the idea of the ‘local’ and the changing neighbourhoods as lockdown began to be lifted, and anti-racist protestors filled the streets of many cities - an extra dynamic to the existing one: e-art/610018/ Source: Daniel Pardo, Maryland Bob Lang talked about this in a Discover the World Education Teachmeet. You can watch a repeat here: Bob Lang is on from 28 minutes in talking about his work with Survey123 to explore similar ideas with students. 36
  37. 37. I’m on from 2 hours and 4 minutes in talking about this very document and the background to its formation. Channel 4 put together a series of scenes showing cities before and after - and I guess there will also need to be an ‘after after’: In some countries, houses vary in design. In Japan for example, houses are much smaller than many other countries. This Reuters piece with excellent graphics explores the issues in Tokyo for social distancing due to house design: a very pretty piece of work - thanks to Richard Allaway for this link. html Image copyright: Reuters Our health may well rely on our homes. We need a Healthy Homes Act this Geography Directions piece suggests: ealthy-homes-act/ In other urban areas, there are concerns that the closure of public parks is disproportionately affecting the poorer residents who may not have large gardens to access for exercise, compared to the more affluent. A report in the Times explored this with regards to Middlesborough. althouth the opening of public spaces in late May led to a spate of littering and fires started by BBQs as people seemed to lose all sense of what was appropriate behaviour. 37
  38. 38. Thanks to Nik Griffith for the tip-off to this report. Image copyright: The Times / Ordnance Survey Another aspect of urban spaces which has not been obvious to many for some time is the availability of public toilets. Many people who are able bodied and also able to pay to eat in a cafe or drink in a pub haven’t had to worry about finding a toilet even as public conveniences have been closed down in recent years. Now that pubs have been closed, the gaps are becoming obvious and public urination etc. have grown in recent weeks - again, this is one of those public/private conflict examples: vate-interests?utm_term=Autofeed&CMP=twt_gu&utm_medium&utm_source=Twitter#Echo box=1593253845 Community also comes from sport: Check out how Google and Apple’s social-distancing maps work: 7K1fY0HGv2v48913pq96sSt10gAWW3fOSPsQOTc3onkWEhvVPjwDI Compare Apple and Google’s maps. (You can see more of them later in this document) Also check out the Manchester Urban Institute Blog for a range of useful blog-posts including one on social distancing and parks, and one on the data which shows how our cities have changed over the last few months. an-data-to-understand-lockdown/    38
  39. 39. f) Urban Resilience Seaside and ex-industrial towns have already had a tough time economically, and they are now potentially being affected more by the virus. This Sky News piece suggests they may also be worst hit by these: t-risk-11977233?inApp=true&fbclid=IwAR1MUVtSN8Z7D2R1rkrZdf_dhkeHheEZBmWVSgo0 _U_W8w9_wgwAeMkk7cI A BBC piece from early June on how coastal resorts were faring - badly it seems: Even the city of LA, bastion of the car is apparently turning into a city of walkers l Tim Marshall took a cycle ride around London in mid-May and sent this tweet which could be useful for a ‘changing places’ topic. I’m collating images like this on a Pinterest board. We are seeing lots more of these ad-hoc adjustments to the situation: us-recovery?srnd=citylab-design There will definitely be some changes in urban areas. For this I recommend following the work of Paul Chatterton, who is Professor of Urban Futures at the University of Leeds. Twitter: @PaulChatterton9 res-how/ Events such as this Webinar show the groundswell for change in urban areas, with respect to housing (people in one-bedroom flats while houses remain empty, wealthy politicians in houses with extensive grounds preventing others from accessing parks etc. Professor Paul Chatterton will present a talk titled ‘How to build sustainable cities after COVID-19’. 39
  40. 40. The coronavirus crisis is creating a real-time laboratory of what a more sustainable urban future might be. Professor Chatterton will discuss innovations including breaking car dependency, creating socially useful production and mass urban greening. The key issue is how these temporary innovations can be locked in and scaled up after lockdown to create a ‘just recovery’ that tackles the triple social, climate and nature crises. The power of place. I referred to this in an IB Webinar I spoke in: Here’s the presentation (v6.0 and later editions) z4/edit?usp=sharing A chance to Build Back Better - here are the principles from: Thoughts on working from home Image copyright: Weall Alliance g) Desire Lines A new addition for mid-June was an article in ‘The Guardian’ on desire lines. Once again there was a lovely illustration: 40
  41. 41. Image copyright: Rose Blake / The Guardian ew-twist-to-the-unofficial-trails-we-carve People are now finding new routes to avoid others - “elective easements” as Robert MacFarlane calls them. “In a near future, some of the Covid-19 e ects on the urbanscapes will be part                              of this narrative, reminding us of the importance of human behaviour in                        shaping the city space.”  Finding these routes might form part of a fieldwork activity as well. Explore local parks to see how they have been changed. Several people got in touch to share some local examples they had seen on their lockdown exercise routes. h) Recovery from the Coronavirus On the 15th of June many non-essential shops were able to reopen and the queues started to form. Picture of Primark prompted many comments, Bicester village was rammed with no social distancing evident. Andy Beckett suggested that cities would recover because history suggests that they always do: Living in a city is often about sharing, proximity to strangers, and not worrying                            too much about hygiene – about who previously sat in your bus seat.  Some areas are going to struggle more than others. Coastal cities data: 41
  42. 42. The Centre for Towns published a report on the future for the towns, from which this chart above is taken. Small coastal towns are not as resilient as other places perhaps if tourist income dries up this summer: (PDF download) I’m also conscious that most of the links in the document are either UK or US specific so I am keen to have some other perspectives. Thanks to Rafael De Miguel González, President of EuroGeo for the link to this Spanish piece on how cities are likely to recover (translated from Spanish) through their rebirth. According to a Deloitte survey, in London half of the construction companies  are planning to reduce their projects in the face of an expected 20-30% drop in  o ce occupancy rates.  Bloomberg shared an excellent piece on our urban futures, with a nice moving image header: lity/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_content=citylab&utm_campaign=socialfl ow-organic 11. Employment: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary The Economy has changed… which jobs will disappear forever? What will the UK / global unemployment rate be like after this? It is clear that it may be higher than any point since the 1980s, possibly earlier - the 1970s and the ‘3 day week’ has reared its head. For example, ask students to analyse this cartoon and explain what its meaning is - this has become more relevant actually as the weeks have passed - particularly for those who have fallen through the cracks of the furlough scheme: 42
  43. 43. Source: Matt Kenyon/The Guardian I had an email update in early April from Kate Raworth, author of ‘Doughnut Economics’ (a speaker at the GA Conference in 2019) giving some suggestions for what they were doing around this area. Follow @KateRaworth to see what they are doing with regards to their economic thinking. They are currently working in Amsterdam to apply their doughnut model to the city. onavirus-economy This alone would be enough for a whole unit of work based on some of the starting questions which Kate outlines here: They also recorded a chat on pandemic-resistant economics here which may be of interest. 43
  44. 44. Check out recent work by Matt Podbury on the circular economy as well. Is this time for a transition to a green economy - perhaps the final chance and warning: c?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_Tweet People will also perhaps remember those companies that looked after staff by protecting them once the lockdown started, and those that didn’t. Furloughing is not going to benefit people evenly either. The BBC had a piece on which areas had the most people furloughed: This Australian piece shows how GIS can be used to see which areas of Melbourne have been worst hit financially - perhaps a model to use for an activity id-19-financial-impact-20200608-p550kb.html?fbclid=IwAR0JdmAKdccacWw8l5D1pHcRWj1 dbGm6Slud7F_Sg7Wxy0PZddTVQfcKqcM Oxfam’s campaign also reminds us how many people globally are in danger of being pushed into poverty. virus-warns-oxfam This piece also points out the gender imbalance in impact as well. Women are on the front line of the coronavirus response and are likely to be hardest hit financially. Women make up 70 percent of health workers globally and provide 75 percent of unpaid care, looking after children, the sick and the elderly. Women are also more likely to be employed in poorly paid precarious jobs that are most at risk. More than one million Bangladeshi garment workers –80 percent of whom are women– have already been laid off or sent home without pay after orders from western clothing brands were cancelled or suspended. The ILO (International Labour Organisation) is the organisation that is particularly interested in the impact on labour markets and collects statistics in that area. It’s thoughts on the 44
  45. 45. potential impacts are here, and would be useful going forward to explore the impacts in a number of industrial areas. In mid-June we also had some indicators on the jobs situation, with over 600 000 people going off the pay-roll. This has a knock-on for tax revenue of course. Perhaps if very rich people paid more tax, or large companies operating in the UK? Just a thought. What follows are some examples of particular industries which may see dramatic change. a. Retail and the changing High Street Will the High Street survive the virus? An excellent article to start off the retail section. This is a key area for many discussions: _mIKDjxqjBqsAQSK7IZw55mmlVieRXAZ6IjagQxw4AuF8o Changing retail patterns, with Tim Lang, Professor of Food Policy. “Supermarkets actually account for only about 60 percent of the food we [normally] consume,” says Tim Lang, professor of food policy at City University, London. The rest comes from your Friday fish and chips, your Saturday brunch, and all those al desko Pret lunches (oh, falafel flatbread, how we miss thee). “If 40 per cent [of the food supply] is cut off, and 60 per cent has to deal with 100 per cent, well, you’ve got stress and strains. It’s inevitable.” 45
  46. 46. “We need to be thinking very carefully about renationalising supply chains, out of resilience preparedness,” says Lang, the food policy expert. “We’ve developed, over 60 years, a culture that says, 'I can eat what I like, when I like, and it’ll be cheap forever, and I’ll overeat as well.' That culture has got to change.” Tropical fruits will disappear from shelves and seasonal fruits will become so again, thanks to hold-ups at borders due to decreased freight flights. That means no more strawberries in winter. “Coronavirus is going to take a scythe through the normality of food." This Economist Article outlines how Coronavirus rewrote our shopping lists, and also introduced the German word for hoarding: hamsterkauf. opping-list Amazon meanwhile is benefitting (although in France, they are not allowed to deliver anything other than essential items) virus-pandemic The High Street may not recover from this setback and we may end up with Amazon and similar online retailers growing their monopoly. They are taking on many more staff. Delivery drivers are bringing our purchases to the door. An excellent NYT piece suggested that we are going to see the end of the department store, as many were already struggling before this crisis, and we are not shopping in the same way. us.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage There are limited reads of articles on the New York Times, but I recommend a cheap subscription to access the pieces (charge it to your departmental budget) This had an excellent graphic referencing the classic store Macy’s. This was later broken into during the events following the death of George Floyd, which has caused other large scale change and reevaluation since early June. 46
  47. 47. Image copyright: Andrew Sondern/New York Times. There were also mentions of Hudson Yards, an exclusive shopping mall which I visited while in New York last year, which is likely to be suffering quite a lot. “The genre is toast, and looking at the other side of this, there are very few who are likely to survive.” Mark A Cohen The High St of towns and cities across the UK will also be reshaped without some changes to retail trade / rents: of-uk-high-street-mps-told Lewis Cotter has shared a resource which shows how High St. names treated their workforce and suppliers during the lockdown, and it may be that people will decide to support the companies who treated their workforce the best. It’s also worth remembering that in the UK we have a choice of stores, from Aldi and Lidl up to Waitrose and M&S for food. In most of India, people shop at stores called kirana shops. 5ac198f7bbc m These have little stock, precarious supply chains and crowded interiors which are difficult to social distance inside. There are apparently millions of these stores, and 90% of food is bought in them. This means there are few alternatives for food supplies. People in India have never seen their cities so quiet, as they are always teeming with people: WIthin a few weeks, in early May they were able to launch an online store offering deliveries and orders. Remarkable ingenuity. A growing part of the culture of the High St. was the presence of coffee shops - the independents such as Ginger in Broomhill, Sheffield or the big chains including Starbucks, Cafe Nero, Costa and others. The sudden closure of cafes has changed the way that people consume coffee, but in what ways? Jennifer Ferreira has research coffee for some years, and is now researching changing coffee consumption following the closure of cafes - one of the few research projects I’ve seen surrounding the virus: and-the-impact-of-covid-19-lockdown-restrictions/ Please help Jennifer with her research here: n-res-3 47
  48. 48. One suggestion is that cafes may move outside and use street stalls rather than the previous layouts. This may be part of a changing retail offering: from-street-stalls A Hubbub piece on our changing shopping habits - localism and the “fifteen minute city” The industry needs Govt. help, which is unlikely to be enough: ent-recovery?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other Apparently one fifth of all American retail workers have been furloughed: oughed-one-fifth-of-their-workers?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/dailychartamericanretailershavelaidoff orfurloughedonefifthoftheirworkersgraphicdetail One idea for an activity here: Centre for Cities recovery tracker for UK cities - a data dashboard: Monitor recover over the next few months May save some data now for local cities such as Cambridge and Norwich. 48
  49. 49. Of course, there will always be somebody who will find a way to exploit a situation. One expression of this is a store in Miami, which offers Covid-19 essentials in one place: ndemic-in-one-place/ Thanks to Oli Mould for the lead to this story b. Gig Economy This sector of the economy, which has grown dramatically in recent years, has been particularly affected by the virus. Uber has been badly affected - sharing a car is not felt to be safe - black cabs with screens are perhaps still relatively OK. Not sure if they have been running in London. Food delivery - most take-aways closed for months, even McDonalds and Nandos - the local fish and chip shop in the village was still open. A huge queue built up in Wakefield when Costa reopened. Uber - released an ad thanking people for staying at home: Airbnb - this has the potential to return some properties to longer term rentals and may see a change to the dominance of Airbnb in some city centres. We shall see what the appetite is for short term rents and going into a space that somebody else occupied the day before without deep cleaning between each tenant? Apparently, Portuguese owners are resisting the shift to lower rents for social housing. 49
  50. 50. Critics say the rise of Airbnb-style properties has torn the soul out of the centre of Europe's best-loved tourist cities, from Edinburgh to Barcelona. A 2018 study estimated one in three properties in central Lisbon were holiday lets, pushing local people to the outskirts as rent prices skyrocketed by 9.3% that year. The council programmes, due to launch in Lisbon in coming weeks and in Porto in September, aim to capture some properties back for renters at affordable prices. "This will increase housing stock in the city centre while also providing holiday let owners with a stable income in an uncertain time," Lisbon mayor Fernando Medina said. Picked up in this CityLab article about the longer time impact on airbnb, which is cutting staff and key staff salaries, and has continued to slim down as the weeks have gone by: out/608917/ More of us will definitely be working from home in the future. virus-future?rsf=ps%3Afacebook%3Arcanews%3Anat&fbclid=IwAR2bOkHIyJCylwXqu9921v BKB9SV_YjJkHotU_WU3PcAu6VeXmK4141TClI We see to like it according to this WEF article from early June: yees-employers/ Lives vs lives in the Spectator Taxis returning in Belfast: -a-wee-bit-of-normality-1.4277857 c) Agriculture and the Food System This is a big one… There is a need for more workers to pick food in the UK or it will rot in the fields as the season progresses. ● Will farming be changed in terms of what is grown? ● Will this see a continued need for migrant workers and visas? ● Will we need a Pick for Britain campaign in the same vein as Dig for Victory? The Fishing industry is suffering with a loss of overseas shellfish sales and closure of supermarket fish counters: s-as-covid-19-devastates-industry?CMP=share_btn_tw Singapore is almost wholly reliant on food imports (around 90% of its food) as it is so small and urbanised. It is now bringing forward plans to grow more of its own food on rooftop gardens. 50
  51. 51. ooftop-farming-plans-as-virus-upends-supply-chains-idUKKBN21Q0QY?fbclid=IwAR3qbVU_ 38ylZ9MlregwS-o5PAxQ2l1KSpixvKTjXIPWwPA__a8v7ktDSTc Only 1% of Singapore is apparently used for growing food at the moment, but that is set to increase. -singapore-eyes-food-future-idUSKCN1T00F2 Similarly, Australia has taken a fresh look at its own agricultural system to increase their self sufficiency - Sydney Morning Herald piece here: 20200412-p54j5q.html Consider this very useful model of the Food system from the Centre for Food Policy. Identify the current stresses that are being placed on elements of this model. Image source: Centre for Food Policy The Plant based sector was making good strides before the crisis. This piece is not entirely without bias but makes a few interesting points with respect to the cost of food.. The rural economy will need help to bounce back as well - will there be changes to the typical English countryside?: There is of course one very important food related link and that is the cultural issues behind the consumption of animals. In some countries, including the USA, there are so called “wet markets” where animals are sold live. The presence of these markets has been suggested 51
  52. 52. as one origin for pandemics due to hygiene and other aspects of the operation of these markets.Some Chinese cities are now banning the sale of meat from dogs and cats it seems, and there may well be other cultural changes in what meats are consumed. The consumption of ‘bush meat’ such as bats was thought to be a source for the Ebola outbreaks of 2015. op-the-wildlife-trade-campaign-a9466136.html Food production has been connected with the emergence of new viruses, as well as other issues. This is an area to develop in the curriculum I would say. animal-human-health In the middle of April we also saw a series of flights bringing Romanian fruit and vegetable pickers to the UK: 9562/ Remarkably the Daily Mail had this as its cover, after years of front covers denigrating migrant workers. All those people who wanted to ‘support their country’ and ‘take back control’ weren’t up to helping it seems when it really mattered. . Some other workers are interviewed here: One of the areas linked to this was the demand for food. Some people have been stockpiling for years in anticipation of some issues of this kind. They are called ‘Preppers’, and geographer Bradley Garrett, who is writing a book on this, has written a good piece in ‘The Atlantic’ - suggesting that we will all be doing some prepping next. I think we will be mindful of what we have in our homes, and be more aware of being ready. 52
  53. 53. His book is out in August. It may be of interest to many. It also matches the other book on the coming Apocalypse in the reading list. He’s interviewed here: kers-inside-the-world-of-preppers He cites the French Marxist Paul Virilio, who worried that as space and  distance were compressed by speed and connectivity, we would become more  vulnerable to disaster. “In other words, progress and disaster go hand in hand.”    The Guardian piece ends with another useful quote from Bradley - this book is going to be excellent: “disasters aren’t ends, but irreversible transitions … They’re always something  less than an extinction. Catastrophe, by its very nature, falls short of finality. It’s  the end of something but never the end.”  The Food System and how it has coped was also the topic of another excellent piece in ‘The Economist’ made freely available, and with another excellent illustration, this time by Cristina Spanò. d-the-challenge-of-covid-19 Keeping it cornucopius... Illustration: Cristina Spanò The piece explains that there is plenty of potential for things to go wrong still. It also points out that 80% of the world’s population relies, at least in part, on imported food, so the movement of food needs to continue - it’s always something that amazes me in a way. I pick up some beans from Kenya and think - why aren’t people in Kenya eating these? Adam Vaughan in the New Scientist warns of a potential food crisis: sis-in-decades/?utm_term=Autofeed&utm_campaign=echobox&utm_medium=social&utm_s ource=Twitter#Echobox=1589821105 The Barilla Centre for Food and Nutrition: 53
  54. 54. d-from-the-covid19-pandemic/?fbclid=IwAR0ACIcZd4HMUNsir8OdCISeDQLCHJIiuQTt5ybP M2ZsDFHoE-85fHCK2YM Sandra Diaz is quoted here: Wild animals are hunted or trapped and kept under crowded conditions in markets, often many wild species, domestic species and people very close to each other, under appalling conditions of hygiene.This gives the perfect conditions for the viruses to mutate and jump from its original hosts to new hosts, including domestic animals and people. The wildlife trade is an excellent vehicle for pathogens to spread around the world. Besides, once a virus can infect domestic animals, factory farming with its crowded conditions provide the perfect conditions for further spread and mutation. And, of course, once the virus acquires the capacity to infect people, with our massive transport of goods and travellers around the world it can go to one city to the other, from one continent to the other, extremely quickly. d) Service sector - service sector has been badly affected by the lockdown, and also certain sectors placed at increased risk of job losses. This includes food services and entertainment of course, with pubs and music venues closed. The world’s largest service industry of course is Tourism, and this is unlikely to be back to anything like normal for at least six months with many countries closing their borders to international tourists. A recalculation of the P/S/T employment mix may be needed. See Section 17 of this document for more on Tourism as a changed industry. A particular part of the service sector is the sex worker industry. They have, of course, been affected - and the German government is looking at how they might be helped to get to work - though it will he hard: 9 e) Garment workers Various campaign groups were quick off the mark to publicise the plight of garment workers. upply-chains?fbclid=IwAR0pfQvjJ4vZM6aLNZImo3N2PtTGsju4NhYljif17sQQZRxSSIApdmn 53vQ Many garment workers feared for their lives with a lack of social distancing. Fashion Revolution was an important account to follow in this area as it kept track of stories relating to garment workers and how they tried to cope. 54