New high and dry n staffs


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  • Note the line of trees delineating the right bank and turbulent nature of a river at full capacity.
  • Water begins to recede from the Jennings Brewery in the centre of Cockermouth.
  • But this is not an exra-ordinary amount of rainfall…
  • Wealth of people Technical ability of a country Education Age Rural Urban
  • The sooner you can claim the better, as approved trades people can then start putting your house back in order...
  • So its low lying, but it does have a system of flood defenses to stop flooding from the sea and from the river Hull
  • New high and dry n staffs

    1. 1. " I saw a woman [on the news] crying in her flooded front room. I thought, if anything, you're making it worse love…"   Jimmy Carr
    2. 3. About me...
    3. 4. Who lives in a house like this ?
    4. 7. One in six houses in the UK is at risk from flooding... Environment Agency , June 2009
    5. 8. “ For every £1 further we can spend, we would be able to save the country £6 in repair costs.” Mark Tinnion Regional Flood Risk Manager Environment Agency
    6. 9. The most-threatened region is the South East Environment Agency , June 2009
    7. 10. Global Flooding Events
    8. 11. Closer to home ? November 2010
    9. 12.
    10. 13. Insurance... <ul><li>2013 </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement between Government and Insurance companies to share the cost across all households in the UK is due to run out </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 million properties at risk from insurance </li></ul><ul><li>If agreement doesn’t continue, policies could rise by 4x or some properties would not be insurable... </li></ul>
    11. 15. The Barker Crossing: Cockermouth Image by Mark Ollis
    12. 16. Family Jackson A tale of four generations
    13. 17. Celia and Alexy <ul><li>Both are students at St Bees School </li></ul><ul><li>Celia is in the Upper sixth and takes Geography as an option </li></ul><ul><li>Alexy is in Yr 11 and will be doing her GCSEs, she is considering Geography AS </li></ul>
    14. 18. Location <ul><li>Both live in Cockermouth </li></ul><ul><li>So do their parents … </li></ul><ul><li>(Understandably) </li></ul><ul><li>And their grandparents … </li></ul><ul><li>(and their parents…) </li></ul>
    15. 19. The shop Grandfather Jack & Aunt Vanessa
    16. 20. Overflow <ul><li>Upstream the River Cocker had topped its banks </li></ul>
    17. 21. Escape <ul><li>The Gote Bridge slowed the flow cutting off the escape route </li></ul>
    18. 22. Main Street <ul><li>Water starts to fill Main Street: people carry on regardless </li></ul>
    19. 23. Picture from “The Times” newspaper
    20. 24. At Vanessa’s house things were more serious – the garage
    21. 25. The car had floated up to the roof, crashed open the doors and headed off down river – it was later found under a lorry
    22. 26. Image sourced by Liz Smith from ‘The Independent’s website
    23. 27. The livelihood <ul><li>Passed from generation to generation the antiques had been removed but replaced with mud, the whole shop smelt of paraffin. </li></ul>
    24. 28. The stock and office, destroyed
    25. 29. Photographs by Jean Wilson Commentary by Celia Jackson Text by Mark Ollis, geographer, St Bees
    26. 30. Pakistan Monsoon Floods 2010
    27. 31. “ a slow motion tsunami” Ban Ki-Moon
    28. 33. Floods
    29. 34.
    30. 35. Key Case Study Yorkshire Floods 2007
    31. 36. On Monday the 25 th of June 2007, just after 6am, heavy rain started to fall across Yorkshire...
    32. 37. 12 hours later, it was still raining...
    33. 38. 6 am
    34. 39. 8.30 am
    35. 40. 2.00 pm
    36. 41. 6.00 pm
    37. 42. With thanks to Tom Coulthard
    38. 43. Rivers broke their banks: the Don, the Sheaf, the Rother, the Ryton, the Hipper... Was this mainly a fluvial flooding event (from rivers) or a pluvial event (from rain) ?
    39. 44. Some areas had a month’s rainfall in an hour !
    40. 45. For information...
    41. 46. The wettest June on record Source: Met Office
    42. 47. What caused it ? <ul><li>25 th of June: torrential rain fell over a large area: the equivalent of the contents of over 20 Olympic sized swimming pools every second fell on the city of Hull </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 weeks before the 25 th were very wet, and the water table was close to the ground surface ( antecedent conditions ) </li></ul>
    43. 48. 20 - 30 000 feet high Jet Stream: aircraft pilots use them for long haul flights... ‘Ribbon’ of wind – speeds of between 100 and 300 miles per hour Form where cold polar air meets warm tropical air. ‘Steer’ depressions What caused it ?
    44. 49. Polar Front Jet Stream Source: Metcheck
    45. 50. Why so much rain ?   <ul><li>More low pressure systems  </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air, so greater evaporation from ocean </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, a month’s worth of rain fell in 24 hours in some parts of the country.   </li></ul>
    46. 51. Jet Stream again...
    47. 52. Why was this a hazard ? <ul><li>Something becomes a hazard when it does one or both of the following things: </li></ul><ul><li>endangers life and damages property or the environment </li></ul><ul><li>threatens human societies and their welfare </li></ul>
    48. 53. Hazard Risk Equation <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard x Vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk = Capacity </li></ul>
    49. 54.
    50. 55. Primary or Secondary ? Primary : Immediate – as a direct consequence of the hazard Secondary : Follows later – an indirect (but connected) consequence of the hazard.
    51. 57. Nadine lived in this caravan for almost 2 years....
    52. 58. Google Earth file – pulls in videos and images...
    53. 60. Resilience
    54. 61. Notice anything ?
    55. 62. “ They’re called flood plains because they flood...” Philip Eden Royal Meteorological Society
    56. 64. Flood Resilient Home
    57. 65. The resilient Kings Arms
    58. 66. Why are floods not natural hazards ? Flickr user: Chris Malcolm
    59. 67. Environment Agency
    60. 68. Let’s design an app for them....
    61. 69. 1. Check your insurance cover, and where your policy is... There were 165 000 insurance claims after the floods.
    62. 70. 2. Know how to turn off gas, electricity and water. Flickr user: earthfromtheground, Amir. S
    63. 71. 3. Prepare a flood kit of essential items: a ‘ready bag’ <ul><li>Important documents e.g. Passport, driving license and </li></ul><ul><li>important phone numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Home and car keys </li></ul><ul><li>Toiletries and personal first aid kit </li></ul><ul><li>A wind-up or battery radio </li></ul><ul><li>Spare batteries </li></ul><ul><li>A torch or a candle and matches </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Cash and Credit cards </li></ul><ul><li>Spare clothes and blankets </li></ul><ul><li>Bottled water and any easy food, e.g. tinned food or biscuits . </li></ul>
    64. 72. 4. Know who to contact and how Flickr user: absolutwade
    65. 73. 5. Think about what you can move now. 6. Think about what you would want to move to safety during a flood. Have a flood plan
    66. 74. Have a go yourself
    67. 75. For the future ... <ul><li>Flooding will inevitably happen again... </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of flooding can increasingly be mitigated against by personal or local administrative intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Recent flooding cannot be directly attributed to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>The current round of spending cuts threatens investment in flood defences </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding in the UK affects far fewer people than many floods in other parts of the world </li></ul>
    68. 77.
    69. 78. The 2007 floods in Hull Prof. Tom Coulthard Geography Department, University of Hull
    70. 81. Post 2001 (Humbercare) Station Pre 2001 Post 2001 Saltend N/A 22 East Hull 26 10 West Hull 32 8 Bransholme 5.4 5.4 Total(m 3 s -1 ) 63.4 45.4
    71. 82. What caused the 25 th June 2007 floods? <ul><li>Pumps and drains could not cope with volumes of water </li></ul><ul><li>Too much water falling on the city for the network of drains, sewers and pumps to cope with </li></ul><ul><li>Like a bath with the plug left in… </li></ul><ul><li>The water had no-where else to go </li></ul><ul><li>Were the pumps and sewers correctly designed? </li></ul>
    72. 83. Flooding was largely at the ends of the sewer network
    73. 84. <ul><li>Hull has the largest number of households and people affected by the summer floods for any one area in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 8600 households were damaged by the June floods, home to over 20 000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Of these, 6 300 were forced to live in alternative accommodation with over 1400 people living in caravans. </li></ul>The immediate impact
    74. 85. People: <ul><li>Amazing local response </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul>
    75. 86. <ul><li>Schools as a social hub to the community: their closure can have a high social and economic cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents were forced to take time off work, resulting in millions of pounds in lost earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Can have a greater impact on some groups, for example lone parents. </li></ul>
    76. 87. Medium/long impacts: For Hull <ul><li>Council targets and infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost > £100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of £326 per resident. </li></ul><ul><li>Council largely self insured </li></ul><ul><li>Targets: Education, re-cycling, crime, social indices </li></ul><ul><li>House prices? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it set Hull back from its development plan? </li></ul>
    77. 88. Medium/long impacts for people: <ul><li>Temporary accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended family - stresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split up homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental - Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>How long will the legacy last? </li></ul>
    78. 89. 1. Multiple Agencies involved in design and operation of system individual Landowners
    79. 90. 2. No ‘Pluvial’ Flood Warning System <ul><li>EA Floodline only warns of River and Tidal flooding </li></ul><ul><li>No predictive system to forecast for the impacts of ‘pluvial’ flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for warning from these events? </li></ul>“ The Environment Agency provides flood warnings online 24 hours a day. From this page you can view warnings in force in each of our eight regions covering England and Wales. You can also search for your local area and its current warning status using the panel on the right. The information is updated every 15 minutes. “
    80. 91. 3. Design limitations for urban drainage <ul><li>Design standards are only for a 1 in 30 year event (river defences 1 in 100, coastal 1 in 200!) </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 30 only suitable where there are ‘alternative watercourses’ (OFWAT) </li></ul><ul><li>No back up of contingency in the design </li></ul><ul><li>Bransholme relies on ONE pumping station, it failed </li></ul>
    81. 92. <ul><li>Are we able to cope with more large storm events? </li></ul><ul><li>Are our urban drainage systems designed for a previous climate, not our new one? </li></ul><ul><li>Is 1 in 30 year levels of protection enough? </li></ul><ul><li>What about climate change? </li></ul>
    82. 93. The Pitt Review Individuals Businesses