Obesity

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Obesity Biochem report

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Obesity

  1. 1. OBESITY Zagada, Timothy M.
  2. 2. Obesity • Defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. • BMI of >30 • Eating more in combination with reduced activity levels has resulted in a tendency for the sustained deposition of fat. o The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended.
  3. 3. Obesity • an increased intake of energy-dense foods • a decrease in physical activity due to the o increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, o changing modes of transportation o increasing urbanization
  4. 4. Obesity Facts from WHO • Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. • In 2008; o 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. • Overall, more than one in ten of the world’s adult population was obese.
  5. 5. Obesity Facts from WHO • Nearly 43 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010.
  6. 6. Obesity Facts from WHO • Overweight and obesity are linked to more deaths worldwide than underweight. • At least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese.
  7. 7. • Obesity is preventable. How can we measure obesity?
  8. 8. Body Mass Index • A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) • Accounts for differences in body composition by defining the level of adiposity according to the relationship of weight to height. • A person’s weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). BMI = (weight in kg)/(height in meters)2
  9. 9. Body Mass Index • While it does not directly measure body fat, it is more accurate at approximating degree of body fatness than weight alone. • Allows comparisons both within and between populations.
  10. 10. Disadvantage of BMI • Very muscular individuals often fall into the overweight category o Muscle is denser than fat, it weighs more. o Using BMI to assess their weight may result in overestimating their true level of body fat.
  11. 11. Other measurements • Measure midway between the top of iliac crest and tip of lowest rib. • Hip circumference should be measured around the widest portion of the buttocks Measurement Male Female Waist circumference > 35 inches > 31 inches Waist to hip ratio > 0.95 > 0.8
  12. 12. Adipose • Functions as the major storage site for fat in the form of triglycerides o Our major fuel store is adipose triacylglycerol (triglyceride) o if we eat more food than we require for our energy needs, the excess fuel is stored (mainly in our adipose tissue), and we gain weight • Energy ingested as fat beyond that needed for current energy demands is stored in adipose tissue. • In addition, carbohydrate and protein consumed in the diet can be converted to fat
  13. 13. Adipose • The average 70-kg man has approximately 15 kg stored triacylglycerol, which accounts for approximately 85% of his total stored calories.
  14. 14. Adipose • When triacylglycerols are deposited in adipocytes, the cells initially show a modest increase in size • When its maximal size is reached, it divides. • Fat cells, once gained, are NEVER LOST. • Thus, when an obese individual loses weight, the size of the fat cells is reduced, but the number of fat cells is not affected. • The observation that fat cells are never lost emphasizes the importance of preventing obesity in the first place.
  15. 15. Anatomic differences in fat deposition • Android - Excess fat located in the central abdominal area of the body o waist to hip ratio of more than • 0.8 for women • 1.0 for men • Gynoid - Fat distributed in the lower extremities around the hips or gluteal region o waist to hip ratio of less than • 0.8 for women • 1.0 for men
  16. 16. Android vs. Gynoid • is associated with a greater risk for: o Hypertension o insulin resistance o Diabetes o Dyslipidemia o coronary heart disease • is relatively benign healthwise, and is commonly found in females. • Fat deposits are presumably energy reserves to support demands of pregnancy and lactation
  17. 17. 1 cup Veg 16 kcal 1 cup Rice 200 kcal 1 cup Ice cream 267 kcal 1 cup Mayonnaise 720 kcal
  18. 18. CASE • Height: 5’8” (172.72cm) • Weight: 250lbs (113.6kg) • Physical Activity: Sedentary • BMI: 113.6/1.72= 39.3 (Obese class II)
  19. 19. Patients Actual Caloric Intake • CHO: 590g • CHON: 135g • Fat: 115g X 4 X 4 X 9 = 2360 kcal = 540 kcal =1035 kcal 3935 Kcal
  20. 20. Patients’ Ideal Body Weight and Caloric Requirement • (IBW) Tannhausers Method o (172.72kg – 100kg) – 10% o 72.72 - 7.272 o 65.5kg ~ 66kg • Total Caloric Requirement o 66kg x 30= 1980 kcal o 2000 kcal • Actual wt/ IBW 113.6kg/66kg= 172% The patients’ wt is 72% above his IBW • Corrected Body Weight (CBW) – [(Actual BW –IBW) x25%]+ IBW – [(113.6–66) x 0.25]+ 66 – [47.6 x 0.25]+ 66 – 11.9 + 66 – 77.9kg ~ 78kg • Total Caloric Requirement – 78kg x 30= 2340 kcal – 2350 kcal
  21. 21. Caloric Distribution • CHO- 55-70% • CHON- 10-15% • Fat- 20-30% • CHO: 2350 x 60%= 1410 kcal • CHON: 2350 x 10%= 235 kcal • Fat: 2350 x 30%= 705 kcal ÷ 4 ÷ 4 ÷ 9 = 350g = 60g = 80g
  22. 22. Energy and Nutrient Requirements Actual • Calorie: 3935 Kcal • CHO: 590g • CHON: 135g • FAT: 115g Required • Calorie : 2350 kcal • CHO: 350g • CHON: 60g • FAT: 80g

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