Water issues


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Water issues

  1. 1. Emerging compounds: A concern for water and wastewater utilities* ALTHOUGH MORE RESEARCH NEEDS atcr utilities have come under increasing scrutiny as the agen- cies responsible for controlling human exposure to pharma- O BE C O N D U C T E D R E G A R D I N G ceuticals, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and other com- pounds of emerging concern (CECs) in drinking water. For THE E F F E C T S OF C D M P Ü U N D S example, a recent investigation by the Associated Press (Donn DF E M E R G I N G C O N C E R N , (.r al., 2008) reported on the presence of pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of 24 major US metropohtan areas. This report prompted public IT IS L I K E L Y THAT T H E S E concern and put additional pressure on water utilities to respond to what was presented as a threat to pubhc health. C D M P D U N B S R E P R E S E N T T H E NEXT Most CECs are likely benign to humans at the concentrations detected R E A L M DF R E G U L A T O R Y C O N C E R N . in the environment and in drinking warer. They continue to be of concern, however, because some of the compounds that have been detected are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs can have effects on the human endocrine system at extremely low concentrations, although no risk to humans has been demonstrated from exposure to HDCs in drink- ing water. EDCs have, however, been implicated in adverse effects in aquatic organisms that are exposed to wastewater in the environment. There is also evidence that some CECs that are not EDCs demonstrate toxicity with more traditional endpoints toward aquatic organisms (such as growth inhibition or change in behavior), even at enviornmentally relevant concentrations. There is also evidence that some CECs that are not EDCs demonstrate toxicity with more traditional endpoints toward aquatic organisms, even at environmentally reievant concentrations.50 NOVEMBER 2008 | JOURNAL AWWA • 100:11 | FONO & MCDONALD
  2. 2. Although more research needs to ent classes such as pharmaceuticals, with low levels detected in almost allbe conducted regarding the effects of personal care products, detergent samples. As a testament to the atten-CECs on human and aquatic health, metabolites, plasticizers, bromi- tion this topic has been attracting,it is likely that these compounds rep- nated flame retardants, and pesti- the resulting article was the mostresent the next realm of regulatory cides. Additionally, individual com- downloaded article ever published inconcern and that their removal will pounds within a class can have E.nvironmental Science and Technol-drive the research agenda and the significantly different toxicities and ogy {Kolpin et al, 2002).selection of water and wastewater removal rates within wastewater David Sedlak, a professor at thetreatment processes in the future. treatment plants (WWTPs) and in University of California at Berkeley the environment. and the principle investigator of anCECs ARE UBIQUITOUS CECs have been detected in sur- Awwa Research Foundation-spon-DOWNSTREAM OF WASTEWATER face waters and groundwater down- sored occurrence survey of phar-DISCHARGES stream or downgradient of wastewa- maceuticals in wastewater effluent, Although many CECs have been ter discharges. Much of the early has been researching the fate andpresent in the environment for occurrence survey work was con- transport of CECs over the pastdecades, concern about their possible ducted in Europe—particularly Ger- decade. "At this point, its noteffects on humans and vi/ildlife is many and Switzerland—where high whether we can find them. We seebeing driven by improved analytical population densities and low per them everywhere. The questiontechniques that are able to detect capita water use result in relatively now is whether theyre havingthem at increasingly lower concen- high concentrations of CECs in adverse effects on wildlife popula-trations. In general, these com- wastewater and receiving waters. tions, and wbat can we do aboutpounds are present at trace concen- Even illegal drugs such as cocaine it," Sedlak said.trations (i.e., parts per trillion or are detectable in some surface watersless) in complex mixtures. that are affected by wastewater CECs IN WASTEWATER ADVERSELY (Zuccato et al, 2005). AFFECT AQUATIC ORGANISMS CECs encompass a large numberof compounds (Table 1). Com- There has been, and continues to There has been growing attentionpounds can be grouped either by be, a significant amount of investiga- during the past several years fromtheir intended use—such as phar- tion into the presence of CECs in the the public and the scientific andmaceutical products or surfac- environment in North America. Eor wastewater communities on thetants—or by their potential envi- example, Kolpin and colleagues potential ecological effects of traceronmental or human health effects. (2002) at the US Geological Survey constituents. For example, duringFor example EDCs, which interfere (USGS) performed a survey of trace the past two years, significant mediawith human or animal hormonal organic contaminants in US surface coverage was given to reports thatfunction, sometimes even at very waters and detected 82 of 95 indi- up to 100% of the male smallmouthlow levels, comprise trace constitu- vidual CECs on their analyte list. bass in some sections of the Chesa- TABLE 1 Trace constituents in wastewater Typical Concentration Potential Ecological Class of Compound in Effluent or Human Health Effects Examples rharmaceuticals Up to 1 vg/L líndocrincdisruptinjí Antibiotics, painkillers, caffeine, birth-control pill, antiepileptics Personal care products Up to 1 Mg/L Bioaccumulative, endocrine disrupting Soaps, fragrances, triclosan Detergent metabolites Up to 18ü|jg/L Bioaccumulative, endocrine disrupting Ocylphenol, nonyiphenol Plasticizers Up to Kl)jg/L Weakly endocrine disrupting Phthalate esters, bisphenol A Perfluorooctane surfactants Up to 1 pg/L None at envi ron mentally relevant Stain-resistant coating for clothing concentrations and furniture Brominated flame retardants Up to 30 mg/L Bioaccumulative, suspected Polyhrominated diphenyl ethers endocrine disruptors Disinfection by-products Up to 1 pg/L Carcinogenic N-mt rosod imethyla mi ne FONO a MCDONALO I 100:11 • JOURNAL AWWA I NOVEMBER 2008 51
  3. 3. Intersex fish have been found downstream of wastewater discharges Ovary worldwide. This figure (mature) illustrates fish testes that also contain ova (Nash etal, 2004). peake Bay watershed are intersex THE SPOTLIGHT ON WATER ined. Neither of tbese types of exper- (Associated Press, 2Ü06). UTILITIES IS DRIVEN BY HUMAN iments provides conclusive evidence Wildlife are exposed to CECs and HEALTH CONCERNS about the human health effects of EDCs in effluent-dominated streams Potential human health effects exposure to parts-per-triliion levels of or by eating plants or animals in which resulting from exposure to CECs are Pharmaceuticals in drinking water. these substances have bioaccumulated. harder to detect than effects on wild- The constituents of greatest Aquatic organisms have a greater risk life. Humans are exposed to pharma- potential concern to humans are the than humans because they have greater ceuticals and endocrine-disrupting EDCs mentioned previously, exposure. Although many of these chemicals rhrough various routes. For because of possible effects at very compounds undergo natural attenua- example, fat-soluble compounds such low concentrations. They also pose tion in the environment because they as flame retardants or PCBs can be a disproportionate threat to fetal are being constantly discharged, consumed by eating aquatic animals development and young children organisms that are exposed to them in which they have bioaccumulated, because they interfere with normal experience a "pseudopersistence." and water-soluble compounds such developmental chemical signals in Recent research has examined the as most Pharmaceuticals for humans the body. Therefore, it is not just effects of CECs and EDCs on wildlife can be consumed in drinking water. the level of exposure of EDCs that both in the lab and in the field. In This latter route is of concern to the cause concern, it is also the timing many species this research has shown drinking water industry. of the exposure during the develop- a causal relationship between expo- Research is just beginning to ad- ment of humans and animals. sure to human and synthetic hor- dress questions about effects of The potential human health ef- mones, plasticizers, and detergent chronic low-level exposure, including fects of EDCs are being studied by metabolites and the induction of an possible synergism and other toxico- many groups, including the US Envi- egg protein in male fish, for example. logical factors associated with these ronmental Protection Agency Intersex fish found downstream of compounds. It is difficult to predict (USEPA). The endpoints of exposure WWTPs have been linked to estroge- the effects of chronic exposure to to Pharmaceuticals and HDCs in nicity in wastewater discharges (Har- extremely low concentrations of a water that are being considered by ries et al, 1996). contaminant; generally, tests are done researchers include endocrine system Most significant, in a seven-year with higher concentrations than effects, neurological problems, re- study in the Experimental Lakes occur in drinking water, using other productive and developmental ab- Area in northern Ontario the popu- mammalian species, and the effects normalities, and cancers. lation of fathead minnow exposed to are extrapolated to lower concentra- Many researchers point out that a low but constant concentration of tions using a dose-response curve. A the quantity of estrogens that may the hormone found in birth control safety factor is then applied to be consumed in reclaimed water is pills ultimately collapsed (Kidd et al, account for the differences between tiny compared with phytoestrogens 2007). Although these specific results humans and the test species. Some and estrogenic hormones naturally cannot be immediately extrapolated toxicity studies are conducted by present in the human diet. In fact, to other species and watersheds, exposing human tissue cultures in risk assessments that have been per- there is cause for concern. vitro to the compounds being exam- formed on drinking water to date52 NOVEMBER 2003 1 JOURNAL AWWA • 100: FONO S MCDONALD
  4. 4. have not shown an unacceptable rate of the compounds as well as crine Disrupter Screening and Testingrisk to humans (Snyder, 2007). their behavior and effects in the Advisory Committee (EDSTAC),However, most researchers currently environment once introduced. In whose members include representa-agree that there are many unknowns Canada, a similar requirement is tives of academia, industry, publicregarding possible synergistic effects under consideration. health interests, water providers, andand long-term chronic exposure to The United States has already various state and federal agencies.low levels of complex mixtures of banned the use of some known endo- In its 1998 final report, EDSTACthese compounds. crine disruptors, such as PCBs, DDT, recommended a priority-based tiered screening system to evaluate chemi- cals for endocrine-disrupting effects. A, However, this program has received little funding, and the past 10 years have seen little progress on tht- ilthough many of these compounds undergo natural screening of suspected EDCs. So far, neither the USEPA nor attenuation in the environment, hecause they are heing regulators in other countries have released any guidance about the constantly discharged organisms that are exposed to them effects of relevant levels of most trace constituents in drinking water. experience a "pseudopersistence." US regulatory action at the federal level has been delayed until more research has been done because mostREGULATORY REQUIREMENTS and chlordane. However, these com- existing data on listed man-madeFOR CECs ARE ON THE HORIZON pounds were banned because of their chemicals focus on cancer risks, and carcinogenic effects rather than their CECs are generally present at con- Regulations can control the input estrogenic effects. In 1996, Congress centrations too low to trigger con-of CECs into the environment and passed new legislation requiring the cerns about carcinogenicity.drinking water in two ways: • by restricting which chemicals USEPA to determine whether certain In response to the Associated Presscan be marketed and therefore make substances may have an effect in article on pharmaceuticals in drink-their way into the waste stream and humans that is similar to effects pro- ing water, a hearing on "Pharmaceu- • by setting wastewater effluent duced by a naturally occurring estro- ticals in the Nations Water: Assessingand drinking water concentration lim- gen or other such endocrine effects. In Potential Risks and Actions toits for individual compounds or bulk response, USEPA developed the Endo- Address the Issue" was held in Aprilparameters such as estrogenicity. So far, regulators have been moreinclined to pursue the first option FIGURE 1 CEC removal during membrane filtration improves as pore size is reducedbecause toxic effects can more read-ily be shown in the parent product, Cryptosporidium and I— Colloidal particles —| I— Giardia —rather than diluted in wastewater ordrinking water. I — Bacteria —| European countries are furtheralong than the United States in phas-ing out endocrine disruptors. Nor-way, for example, has banned theproduction, import, distribution,and most uses of nonylphenol andoctylphenol ethoxylates. These aresurfactants that have been shown tocontribute significant estrogenicityto rivers downstream of industrialwastewater discharges. Additionally,the European Union requires thesubmission of Environmental Risk 0.001 0.01 10.0Assessments (ERAs) to gain marketapproval for new pharmaceuticals. Slze—fimThese ERAs focus on the removal CEC- compounds of emerging concern FONO & MCDONALD I 100:11 • JOURNALAWWA I NOVEMBER 200ii 53
  5. 5. release of suspected endocrine dis- ruptors to the environment to pro- tect aquatic habitats. In the future, it is likely that drinking water criteria will be developed for some CECs. Therefore, master planning studies Of the advanced treatment for both water and wastewater facil- technologies, ozonation ities would be advisable to address removes the greatest the possibility of new regulations percentage of compounds when making long-term (10- to of emerging concern, 20-year) plans. for the lowest unit cost. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND PILOT TESTING ARE LEADING TD CEC REMOVAL SOLUTIONS Both water and wastewater treat- 20Ü8 by the Senate ment can provide a barrier that pre- s u b c o m m i t t e e on vents the introduction of CECs into Transportation Safety, drinking water. However, for the Infrastructure Security, protection of aquatic life, the pre- and Water Quality. ferred barrier is removal during Although not resulting wastewater treatment. Although in immediate regula- most wastewater treatment plants tory action, this hear- are not specifically designed to re- ing demonstrates that move trace constituents, the major- the issue has caught the ity of these compounds are removed attention of US sena- at least partially during conventional tors, which may provide impetus for ments for endocrine disruptors and wastewater treatment. further regulatory developments. pharmaceuticals as well as CEC One of the most effective ways of US state regulators are beginning indicator compounds or surrogates increasing the removal of trace con- to move ahead with adopting crite- in recycled water and groundwater stituents during biological wastewa- ria, absent a federal mandate to do recharge projects. ter treatment is to increase the sludge- so. Several states, such as Massachu- The link between CECs in waste- retention time to at least 1.5 days or setts and California, have adopted water and adverse ecological effects more. Under these conditions Clara water quality criteria for perchlo- is stronger than is the link between and C authors (2005) ft)und that O rate, a CEC that is found in rocket CECs in drinking water and human most pharmaceuticals, surfactants, fuel and other explosives that has health effects and therefore has and plasticizers are removed to below been shown to interfere with fetal attracted more attention for possible the limit of detection. Concentrations development at extremely low con- regulation at the federal level. The of human estrogens are reduced by centrations. Massachusetts intends USEPA (2008) recently released a 90-100% with high sludge-retention to use the process it developed to draft white paper concerning the times. In fact, removal rates depend regulate perchlorate to move ahead development of criteria for CECs. In more on the sludge-retention time with examining possible limits for a this document, USEPA acknowledges than on the treatment technology, list of 100 pharmaceuticals and per- the difficulty of adopting criteria for because trace constituents are re- sonal care products. constituents with nontraditional moved equally in an activated sludge endpoints related to endocrine dis- process such as a membrane bioreac- Other agencies, although not yet ruption and begins to detail a frame- tor. For treatment plants with excess ready to set drinking water limits work to address this challenge. capacity, sludge-retention times can for CECs, are beginning to require be increased by changing operating that they be monitored in anticipa- Euture regulatory action is likely procedures without additional capi- tion of possible future require- as research progresses, and, once tal investment. ments. For example, the California officially identified, industrial chem- Department of Public Health icals and personal care products that Several advanced treatment tech- (CDPH) updated its Groundwater are strong endocrine disruptors will nologies have been shown to be effec- Recharge Reuse Draft Regulations probably be phased out of use. In the tive for removing trace constituents Criteria in August 2008 to include meantime, wastewater treatment from wastewater. Filtration through project-specific monitoring require- facilities could be regulated for granulated activated carbon (GAC),54 NOVEMBER 2008 I JOURNAL AWWA • 1 Q0:11 I FONO & MCDONALD
  6. 6. advanced oxidation, and membrane oxide and either a low- or medium- With respect to advanced oxida-treatment have all been studied to pressure UV lamp. tion, both UV/peroxide and ozona-determine how well they remove Ozonation is often put forth as a tion are good treatment technologiestrace constituents. Table 2 provides a good technique for oxidizing trace for trace constituents. Both, also pro-summary of the removal efficiencies contaminants in wastewater. Al- vide disinfection for wastewater, andfor CECs by different technologies. though ozone reacts preferentially improve its aesthetic qualities. How- An advanced oxidation technique with some compounds depending on ever, several analyses have shownthat is being studied for removing their structure, it can also react with that ozone can provide removal at atrace constituents is the irradiation natural organic matter to form lower cost (Ternes et al, 2007).of filtered wastewater with ultravio- hydroxyl radicals and indirectly oxi- In general, trace constituentlet (UV) light after hydrogen perox- dize a greater number of constituents. removal is poor during sand filtra-ide has been added. This process Hormones are among the compounds tion. However, with chemical addi-generates free hydroxyl radicals that that react well with ozone, as do most tion prior to sand filtration, Salvesonreact quickly and nonspecifically pharmaceuticals that have been et al (2007) showed that the increasedwith organic constituents in waste- tested. Ozone is effective at oxidizing particle size can improve removal towater. In a study by Rosenfeldt et al some of the most frequently detected 70% for some of the more hydro-(2004), two common hormones in trace constituents, such as carbam- phobic compounds such as hor-wastewater were more than 95% azepine {an antiepileptic drug), caf- mones. This can be an economicalremoved from lab water with a con- feine, cotinine (a nicotine metabolite), treatment strategy for WWTPs thatcentration of 15 mg/L hydrogen per- and atrazine (a pesticide). already practice sand filtration. TABLE 2 Summary of CEC removal by a suite of treatment technologies = > 90% Removed • = 4O-7O»fi Removed • = < 40X1 Removed Coagulation/ Softening/ RO Classification AS AC BAC O3/AOPS UV Flocculatlon Metal Oxides NF Pesticides • • • • • Industrial chemicals • • • Steroids • • • Metals • • • • • • Inorganics • • • • • • • Organometailics • • • • • Antibiotics • • • • Antidepressants • • • • •: Anti-inflammatory • • • • • I.ipid regulators ^ÊÊ0 X-ray contrast media • • • • Psychiatric control Syntiietic musks • • • • • • • r Sunscreens • • • Antimicrobials • • • Surfactants/detergents • • • • • Adapted from Snyder et al. 2IX),i AS—activated :iiiidge. AC—activated carbon. BAC—biological aaivated carbon, CEC—compounds of emerging concern, NF—nanoñltratlon, O,/AOP—Ozone/advanced oxidation processes, RO—reverse osmosis, UV—ultraviolet irradiation FONO & MCDONALD I 100;lt • JOURNALAWWA 1 NOVEMBER 2008 55
  7. 7. In membranefiltration,water and cost of advanced treatment can be persistent or toxic pharmaceuticals wastewater are pushed through tiny counted in carbon dioxide emissions when there is another compK)und that pores at high pressure to reject par- as well as dollars (Jones et al, 2007). could have the same benefit without ticles that are not desired in the per- Therefore, source control is being a toxic effect. meate. Microfiltration (MF) and looked at as an alternative for reduc- Thus far, source control efforts nanofiltration (NF) have progres- ing the concentrations of CECs in the have focused on pharmaceutical sively decreasing pore sizes and environment and in drinking water. take-back programs. Several states require increasing pressure for opera- Although the potential for CEC bave initiated such programs with tion, with reverse osmosis (RO) hav- reduction in wastewater is much great success—as measured by the ing the smallest pore size and the smaller for some compounds quantity of unused drugs that have highest pressure. through source control than through been recovered. Although most drugs MF rejects relatively fewer com- advanced treatment, it is an immedi- enter the water cycle via human pounds than NF or RO because ate step that can be taken by local excretion, these programs can re- move a portion of the loading to WWTPs and have additional benefits such as reducing accidental prescrip- tion drug poisoning and misuse. Source control efforts require edu- ost researchers currently agree that there are many cational campaigns to inform and engage the public. Because the South- unknowns regarding possihie synergistic effects ern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) has led or been involved with much and long-term chronic exposure to low levels of complex of the scientific work related to the low-level detection, treatment, and mixtures of these compounds. health effects associated with phar- maceuticals and EDCs in drinking water supplies, tbe agency has been most trace constituents are smaller governments and utilities that does at the forefront of communication than the MF membranes pore size, not require facility upgrades or about this topic. "By educating the although some hydrophobic com- changes in operational procedures. public about the proper disposal of pounds are excluded through ad- Source control can include the fol- all types of chemicals—from house- sorption. NF performs better than lowing measures: ho!d solvents and piesticides to unused MF with most compounds because • Pharmaceutical take-back pro- Pharmaceuticals—utilities are en- NF membrane pores are small grams to prevent the practice of couraging their customers to become enough to reject many compounds flushing unneeded or expired pills. It stewards of both their water resources based on size, but NF is expensive. is estimated that a maximum of 8% and the environment," said J.C. RO removes most compounds with of pharmaceuticals are flushed down Davis, the senior public information a very high efficiency except for the toilet and that removing this coordinator at SNWA. NDMA, which is small, polar, and source would lead to an approxi- Source separation is another behaves like a water molecule. mately 9% reduction in surface alternative that could be considered However, although RO removes water loading (Tischler et al, 2007). to reduce CECs in wastewater. The most constituents to below the limit • Ecoiabeling of household and most feasible means of achieving this of detection, its capital and operat- personal care products ro encourage goal is to provide onsite advanced ing costs are extremely high. consumers to choose products with treatment to hospital wastewater, nonpersistent, nontoxic ingredients. which is a significant point source of SOURCE CONTROL Regulatory oversight would be pharmaceutical discharges to waste- IS AN AHRACTIVE OPTION needed to allow products to claim water treatment plants. FOR REDUCING EDCs ecofriendliness on their labels. IN THE WATER CYCLE • Reduction of over-and unnec- LOOKING AHEAD Cash-strapped utilities may not essary medication. This has already AND MOVING FORWARD have the means to implement been recommended to prevent the Members of the public will con- advanced treatment to remove unreg- development of antibiotic-resistant tinue to demand that the issue of ulated constituents from their waste- bacteria and could also help reduce CECs in the environment and in water or drinking water. Addition- concentrations of CECs drinking water be addressed by their ally, with recent focus on climate • Requiring ERAs for new phar- utilities, even in the absence of regu- change and carbon footprints, the maceutical products and phasing out latory guidance. A coherent ap-56 NOVEMBER 2008 I JOURNAL AWWA • 100:11 I FONO S MCDONALD
  8. 8. proach for treatment and control of human health? Only then can we her masters and doctorate degreesCECs, as well as a communication make intelligent, rational decisions in environmental engineering fromstrategy, is necessary to assure the that protect the health of this coun- the University of California atpublic that the issue of pharmaceuti- trys municipal water customers." Berkley. She was awarded thecals in drinking water is being consid- CECs are an issue for both water Graduate Student Research Paperered and addressed by tbeir water and wastewater utilities. AWWA Award from the American Chemi-purveyors and that aquatic life is being members and member utilities should cal Societys Environmental Chem-protected by wastewater dischargers. encourage cooperation among water istry Division and has had articles Clearly, there is the need for more and wastewater organizations, such published in Environmental Chem-research and continued research fund- as AWWA and WEE, to provide lead- istry and Technology and Watering until the risks from CECs are ership and dialog for the develop- Environment Research. At Carollounderstood and addressed. Shane ment of standards and mutual poli- she has worked in an advisorySnyder, a scientist at the SNWA, who cies to prevent and treat CECs in the capacity on projects to treat emerg-has contributed significantly to water cycle. ing contaminants in drinking waterknowledge about the treatment and and wastewater. She also has pro-effects of CECs, emphasizes the need ABOUT THE AUTHORS vided support for other firms thatfor continued research. "As a scien- need an emerging contaminant Lorien]. Fonotist, I recommend we focus on component to their environmental (to whom corre-research related to health effects from impact reports. She is a member of spondence shouldtrace pharmaceuticals with a lesser the Water Environment Federation be addressed) is anemphasis on occurrence, in order to and has participated in drafting its engineer with Car-determine whether there is in fact a literature reviews and Technical olio Engineers,problem to solve. The critical ques- Practice Updates on emerging 2700 Ygnacio Val-tion we must address is not Do they contaminants. H. Stephen ley Rd., Ste. 300,exist? but rather, At what concentra- McDonald is a partner withtion are these compounds harmful to Walnut Creek, CA 94S98; Carollo Fjtgineers. lfono@carollo.com. Fono received REFERENCES Synthetic Estrogen, PNAS. Snyder, S.A., 2007. Relative Risks of Estrogens 104:21:8897. in Reuse Water. Proc- 22nd Annual Associated Press, 2006, Intersex Fish Are WaterReuse Symposium, Tampa, Fla.. Found at High Rate in a Region. New Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T; Thur- York Times. man, E.M.; Zaugg, S.E.; Barber, L.B.; & Snyder, S.A.; Westerhoff, P; Yeomin, Y; Sed- Buxton, H.T., 2002. Pharmaceuticals, lak, D.L., 2003. Pharmaceuticals. Per- Clara, M.; Strenn, B.; Gans, 0.; Martinez, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewa- sonal Care Products, and Endocrine Dis- E.; Kretizinger, N.; Kroiss, H., 2005. ter Contaminants in US Streams, ruptors in Water: Implications for the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuti- cals, Fragrances and Endocrine Dis- 1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance. Water Industry. Envir Engrg. Sei.. rupting Compounds in a Membrane Envir Sei. & Technol., 36:6:1202, 20:5:449. Bioreactor and Conventional Waste- Ternes, I ; Joss, A.; & Siegrist. H.. 2007, Con- Nash, J.P, Kime, D.E.; Van der Ven, L.T.M,; water Treatment Plants. Water Res., taminants of Emerging Concern^A Wester, P.W.; Brion, F; Maack, G.; 39:19:4797. Challenge for Urban Water Manage- Stahlschmidt-Allner, P.; & Tyler, C.R., Donn, J,; Mendoza. M-; Pritchard, J., 2008, AP 2004. Long-term Exposure to Environ- ment. WEF Special Symposium on Com- Prove Finds Drugs in Drinking Water. mental Concentrations of the Pharma- pounds of Emerging Concern, Provi- Associated Press, New York. . ceutical Ethynylestradiol Causes dence, R.I. Reproductive Failure in Fish. Envir. Tischler, L, et al. 2007. Potential Releases Harries, J.E,; Sheahan, D.A,; Jobling, S,; Mat- Health Persp.,U2T.V2B. of Unused Medicines in Landfill Leachate. thiessen, P; Neall, P; Routledge, E.J.; Sumpter, J-P; & Tylor, T., 1996. A Survey WEF Special Symposium for Compounds Rosenfeldt, E.J. & Linden, K.G., 2004. Degra- of Estrogenic Activity in United Kingdom of Emerging Concern. Providence. R.I. dation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemi- Inland Waters. Envir. Toxicol. & Chem., cals Bisphenol A, Ethinyl Estradiol, and USEPA, (US Environmental Protection 15:11:1993. Estradiol During UV Photolysis and Agency), 2008. Draft White Paper: Advanced Oxidation Processes. Envir Aquatic Life Criteria for Contaminants of Jones, OAH.; Green, RG.; Voulvoulis, N,; & Sc/.A7ec/ifïD/., 38:20:5476- Emerging Concern—Part I: General Lester, J.N., 2007. Questioning the Excessive Use of Advanced Treatment Challenges and Recommendations, Salveson, AT., Atapattu, K.P.; Linden, K.; to Remove Organic Micropollutants USEPA Office of Water, Washington, Robinson, K.; Bowman, R.; Thurston- From Wastewater, Envir. Sei. & Technol.. Enriquez, J.; & Cooper, R., 2007. Inno- Zuccato, E.; Chiabrando, C; Castiglioni, S.; 41:14:5085. vative Treatment Technologies for Calamari. D.; Bagnati, R,; Schiarea, S.; & Kidd, K.A.; Blanchfield. PJ.; Mills, K.H.; Reclaimed Water—Ozone/Hydrogen Fanelli, R,. 2005, Cocaine in Surface Palace, V.P; Evans, R.E.; Lazorchak, Peroxide Pilot Test Report at DSRSÜ. Waters: A New Evidence-Based Tool to J.M.; & Flick, R.W., 2007. Collapse of a Proc. 22nd Annual WateReuse Sympo- Monitor Community Drug Abuse. Environ Fish Population After Exposure to a sium, Tampa, Fla. Health. 4:14, FONO S MCDONALD I 100:11 • JOURNALAWWA I NOVEMBER 2008 57