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Ecological succession


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Slides based on the Notes of Learners, Grade 11, South Africa

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Ecological succession

  2. 2. QUICK RECAP  Feeding levels in the community  Competition ◦ Ecological niche  Predation  Symbiosis ◦ (Mutualism, Parasitism, Commensalism)  Social organization and behaviour ◦ Herds and Flocks ◦ Division of labour ◦ Hunting in packs ◦ Dominant breeding pairs
  3. 3. The beauty of Nature  Plant growth & Diversity  Animal Biodiversity  Biomes  Ecosystems & Interactions
  4. 4. Outcomes  Determine the differences between primary and secondary succession  Identify which organisms are pioneers  Identify when a community has reached its climax  Understand that a pioneer community can become a secondary succession  Understand that a secondary succession does not necessarily come from primary succession
  5. 5. ECOLOGY CAN BE DEFINED AS  the process by which a plant or animal community successively gives way to another until a stable climax is reached. OR  Development of a community over time which involves species in one stage being replaced by different species
  6. 6. TWO TYPES OF SUCCESSION Do u spot the difference?
  7. 7. PRIMARY SUCCESSION  Change in a species composition over time in a habitat that was not previously inhibited by organisms EXAMPLES -Sand Dunes -New Ponds or Lakes -Bare Rock surfaces ( Volcanic rock or scraped clean by glaciers) NO SOIL EXISTS WHEN PRIMARY SUCCESSION BEGINS!
  8. 8. SECONDARY SUCCESSION  Change in a species composition that takes place after some disturbance removes the existing vegetation EXAMPLES -Abandoned agricultural fields or open areas produced by forest fires. Changes depend on variety of environmental factors: Did the moisture, temperature or wind change?
  9. 9. COMPARING THE TWO  PRIMARY SUCCESSION ◦ No Soil after disturbance ◦ No organism previously ◦ Takes a longer time  SECONDARY SUCCESSION ◦ After a disturbance that removed vegetation ◦ Depends on environmental factors
  10. 10. SUCCESSION TAKES PLACE AS FOLLOWS 1. The animals that first inhabit a open or disturbed area = pioneers. 2. The pioneer species usually alters the environment in such a way that conditions become more favourable for a new specie to move in. 3. The Pioneers are usually replaced by annual plants and then herbaceous perennial followed by shrubs and trees 4. The last species to appear is referred to as the CLIMAX SPECIES
  11. 11.  The plant and animal population change, since the introduction of new plant species creates habitat and food for new animal species  Each animal specie present becomes food for a new animal specie  At a certain time , no further changes can take place In the composition of the community.
  12. 12.  The community is said to have reached a climax and the community is regarded as STABLE  The only thing that could cause change is another disaster or disturbance like a ….  Forest fire  Deforestation
  14. 14. VIDEOS
  15. 15. HOMEWORK Complete the worksheet Due next period
  16. 16. References  https://croteaubio.files.w uccession-worksheet.pdf