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Introduction to Political Science

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Introduction to Political Science by Dr. Estamada

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Introduction to Political Science

  1. 1. THE STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Dr. Diosdado P. Estimada
  2. 2. Topic OutlineTopic Outline What is Political Science? Activity no. 1 --- How Well Do You Know Political Science? Activity no. 2 --- Case Analysis Activity no. 3 --- Case Analysis Why Study Political Science? Activity no. 4 --- Group Dynamics Scope of Political Science Interrelationship with other Studies Activity no. 5 --- Fishbowl Self-Assessment Questions
  3. 3. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion What is Political Science? Etymology: - “Political” comes from the Greek word “polis” (city; sovereign state) - “Science” comes from Latin word “scire” (to study/know) Thus, in simple terms: - Political Science is the systematic study of the state and government
  4. 4. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion Three Stages of Development Political Science, as a discipline, may be chronologically divided into three overlapping stages of development, namely; the charismatic stage, the metaphysical stage and the modern stage (Deldacan, 2005).
  5. 5. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion Three Stages of Development 1. The Charismatic Stage is inspired with divine right of leaders. They were believed to have been appointed by divine providence. Thus, all actions headed by the leader were deemed as prompted by god or some kind of supernatural being.
  6. 6. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion Three Stages of Development 2. Metaphysical Stage the state was treated as human institution and no longer divine. The creation of state was an ultimate attainment of human association. This stage was profound by the Greeks, such that of Aristotle and Plato.
  7. 7. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion Three Stages of Development 3. Modern Stage the state was still considered as a human institution but it was deemed capable of being improved by rulers and subjects according to certain principles and laws.
  8. 8. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion  According to Robert Dahl, the term “political science” is simply defined as the systematic study of politics, “which will mean a systematic analysis to discover in the confusing detail whatever principles may exist of wider and more general significance” (Ayson and Reyes, 1993).
  9. 9. Topic DiscussionTopic Discussion  The systematic study of politics is distinguished from the practice of politics. The student of politics or political scientist may serve as an adviser to the political practitioner.  The political practitioner is a politician. But of course, the same person may at the same time be a political scientist and a politician.
  10. 10. Activity no. 1 = Things to PonderActivity no. 1 = Things to Ponder Concepts How Well Do You Understand Political Science, Politics, Politico or Political Scientist?
  11. 11.  Let’s try to test how much you know about them. Choose one among the listed concepts and describe it as you wish. For instance you choose politics. Then describe politics in two letters from A to Z. Explain your answer with a sentence(s).  For example: A = Arts, politics is an arts because through strong personal charisma, excellent communication, great sense of humor and the like, you can convert No to Yes or Yes to No  S = Science, politics is a science because it investigates, analyzes, collects data, conducts research and the like before making report, finding, conclusion or recommendation.
  12. 12. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  13. 13. Activity no. 2 = Case AnalysisActivity no. 2 = Case Analysis Case Situation: Mr. X writes a book on political science entitled: “Teaching and Learning Philippine Government and New Constitution”. He teaches this subject in several colleges and universities. He makes researches to gain as much as possible reliable knowledge about facts of politics.   Question: Is Mr. X a political scientist or a politician? Support your reasons.  
  14. 14. Activity no. 3 = Case AnalysisActivity no. 3 = Case Analysis Case AnalysisCase Analysis Case Situation Niccolo Machiavelli served as secretary of the of the Republic of Florence for many years, and in diplomatic missions to Popes, Emperors and Kings. After that period, he ended his career in government and wrote two masterpieces: The Prince and The Discourses which made him popular up to this day.   Question: Analyzing the above case situation, was Machiavelli a politician or a political scientist or both? Substantiate your answers.
  15. 15. Why Study Political Science?Why Study Political Science? There are several reasons why we should study political science, they are: 1.Business of Everyone. Our present generation is now the age of politics in which government has become business of everyone. From the time we are born to the time we die, we are all part of the government. Our birth, marriage, children, residence, school, licensure examination, and even death must be registered with the government.
  16. 16. Why Study Political Science?Why Study Political Science? 2.Educate Student for Citizenship. Political science equips them with knowledge about their rights, duties and obligations in a democratic milieu. Intelligent and responsible citizen makes a democratic nation strong and stable. Ignorance of the civic right, duties and obligations weakens the national foundation and causes its collapse.
  17. 17. Why Study Political Science?Why Study Political Science? 3. Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Government-- the “good” citizen knows how his government operates, what his rights and obligations are, who his elected representatives are, and what they stand for. 4. Broadens Man’s Cultural Background– it is not enough to know about social, natural and other sciences, we must also know something functions of state, law, justice system, local government, public finance and even international relations, etc.
  18. 18. Activity no. 4 = Group DynamicsActivity no. 4 = Group Dynamics Procedure: 1. Divide the class into small groups. Assign a discussion leader and a secretary. Let all members of the group share their responses. The secretary summarizes the responses. 2. The discussion leader will share to the plenary the group’s consensus. 3. The facilitator makes a synthesis of each group’s report, integrates this and uses it as motivation.
  19. 19. Activity no. 4 = Group DynamicsActivity no. 4 = Group Dynamics Finally, ask the students to reflect and answer the following questions: 1. How come political science becomes business to everyone? 2. What do you do for the government and what the government do for you? 3. How do you perceive the Philippine political system? and 4. What do you know about your government and the laws?
  20. 20. The Scope of Political ScienceThe Scope of Political Science The scope of political science means the categories or specialized fields included in its study and usually divided into the following topics: 1. Political Theory  history of political ideas  political theory and methodology
  21. 21. The Scope of Political ScienceThe Scope of Political Science 2. Political Institutions  the constitution  national government (executive, legislative and judiciary)  local government  public administration  comparative political institutions
  22. 22. The Scope of Political ScienceThe Scope of Political Science 3. Parties, Groups and Public Opinion  political parties and election  pressure groups and associations  public opinion 4. International Relations  international politics  international organizations  international law
  23. 23. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Political Science and History --- The bond between the political scientist and historian is obvious in the observation that “history is past politics and politics presents history”. The political scientist frequently adopts a historical approach and employs knowledge of the past when he seeks to interpret present and probable development in political phenomena. (E.g. The centralization of government in the Philippines, can be traced back to the barangay government in pre-Spanish where all powers of government were centered on the local executive, the Datu).
  24. 24. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Political Science and Economics --- Economics is a study of the production, distribution, conservation and consumption of resources. It is in this essence, that political science receives energy from economics. By employing economic approach, a student of political science gains an insight into economic conditions of the state.
  25. 25. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Also, political scientist regularly adopts an economic approach when seeking to interpret matters related to public financial policies, and government regulation of business.
  26. 26. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Psychology is a study of human and animal behavior. The study of political behavior of man is an example of how political science used psychology in their theories about politics.
  27. 27. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Political Science and Accountancy --- Accountancy is the discipline which ensures that public revenues are lawfully, effectively, efficiently, and economically spent through proper auditing procedures and due diligence. Political science ensures that public resources including billions of tax revenues are spent to satisfy public interests and public welfare. Political science decides how much budget is needed to finance a local, regional or national development program. Accountancy ensures that the budget does not end into private pockets and private accounts.
  28. 28. Relationship of Political Science toRelationship of Political Science to other Disciplinesother Disciplines Political Science and Sociology --- Society is the life of sociology. Demographics like population growth rates, mortality, fertility, employment and unemployment life expectance and the likes are necessary requisites for politicians and policy makers to formulate quality legislation.
  29. 29. Activity no. 5 Fish Bowl Procedure: 1. The teacher directs the class to form two circles: an outer and an inner one, both of which must be of equal in the number of participants. 2. The participants in the inner circle move clockwise, while those in the outer circle move counter-clockwise as they dance with music. 3. Once the music stops, the participants in the inner circle face those in the outer circle. 4. The partners are then asked to talk on the topic to be announced by the teacher. Example: Tell me the importance of political science in your life as a student and as a citizen. Other examples: the relationship of political science with history or
  30. 30. B. Concepts of State and GovernmentB. Concepts of State and Government
  31. 31. The Meaning and Nature ofThe Meaning and Nature of the Statethe State Dr. DIOSDADO P. ESTIMADA Faculty, CAS
  32. 32. Topic OutlineTopic Outline The Concept of State and Government Elements of a State The Inherent Powers of the State Activity no.6 (case analysis on police power) Activity no.7 (case analysis on eminent domain) Activity no.8 (case analysis on taxation) Some Theories on the Origin of States How is State Distinguished from Nation?
  33. 33. Topic OutlineTopic Outline How is State Distinguished from Government? What is the Concept of Government? The Nature of the Present Philippine Government Forms/Types of Government Experimented in the Philippines Brainstorming Guessing Games  
  34. 34. Meaning of StateMeaning of State  According to James Garner, a state is a community of persons more or less numerous occupying a definite territory completely free of external control and possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants renders habitual obedience.  The above definition of Garner, mentions four essential elements of the state: people, territory, government, and sovereignty.  
  35. 35. Elements of State     STATE People Territory Government Sovereignty
  36. 36. Elements of a StateElements of a State 1.People - The mass of the population living within the state.
  37. 37.  They are human beings, male and female, who live together for a common end, notwithstanding differences in race, color, religion, or culture.  They must be sufficiently numerous to assure continued existence as a collective body otherwise the ends of the union may be frustrated.
  38. 38. Note: Community of persons, more or less numerous” means that the people as an element of a State “should be neither too small nor too large: enough to be self-sufficing”. For example, the Vatican City under the Pope is the smallest State with eight hundred thirty six (836) citizens as of July 2012; the island Republic of Nauru with nine thousand three hundred seventy eight (9, 378) citizens as of July 2012; the Philippines with an estimated ninety seven million six hundred thousand (97.6 million) people this year 2012; and China with an estimated one billion, three hundred forty three million two hundred thirty nine thousand and nine hundred twenty three citizens (1, 343, 239, 923) as of July 2012.
  39. 39. Elements of a StateElements of a State 2. Territory - demarcated area that rightly belongs to the population
  40. 40.  The space on earth occupied by the state must be more or less fixed to settle eventual disputes on jurisdiction: the territorial unity, however, need not be a geographical one; it is sufficient that it be juristic (recognized by law) in character.  Hence the territory may be "integrated territory" (geographically united) or “dismembered territory"(geographically disunited as in the case of colonies beyond the seas.)
  41. 41. Elements of a StateElements of a State 3. Government - Refers to the agency to which the will of the state is formulated, expressed, and carried out.
  42. 42. Government is the machinery or the instrument by which the power in a state expresses its will and exercises its functions; it is the framework of political institutions, departments, and offices, by means of which the executive, judicial, legislative and administrative business of the state is carried on.
  43. 43. Element of a StateElement of a State 4. Sovereignty it is defined as the supreme and final legal authority of the state to enforce its will on its members by coercive sanctions, if necessary, which must not be subject to any like power.
  44. 44. Two aspects of SovereigntyTwo aspects of Sovereignty 1. Internal Sovereignty -- It is the supreme or absolute power of a state to enforce its will on the people within its territory. 2. External Sovereignty -- means independence of a state from control by any other state. It is the power of an independent state to control and direct its external affairs such as the authority to enter into treaties with other states, to wage war, and to receive and send diplomatic missions.  
  45. 45. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Case Situation A perusal of the Charter of the United Nations will reveal that only states are qualified to become members of the organization. The Philippines, was represented by the Commonwealth government, was accepted as an original member of the United Nations. Question: Was the Philippines a state at that time?
  46. 46. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Answer: NO. During the Commonwealth period, the Philippines had some sort of internal and external sovereignty but it was not yet a state for it was still under the control of the United States of America.
  47. 47. Activity no. 6 = Case AnalysisActivity no. 6 = Case Analysis Case Situation: The Republic of China (POC) is an island 100 mi (161 km) off the Asian mainland in the Pacific. After the defeat of its armies on the mainland, the Nationalist government of Generalissimo Chiang Kai- shek retreated to this island and formed The Republic of China (Taiwan).Chiang dominated the island and maintained strong armies in the hope of eventually recovering the mainland. Beijing viewed the Taiwanese government with suspicion and anger, referring to Taiwan as a breakaway province of China.
  48. 48. Activity no. 6 = Case AnalysisActivity no. 6 = Case Analysis Question: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) treated Taiwan under the “One China Policy” as one of its provinces. Is Taiwan under the “One China Policy” a state?
  49. 49. Activity no. 6 = Case AnalysisActivity no. 6 = Case Analysis Answer: Though the PRC under the “One China Policy” treated the island of Formosa, now Taiwan, as a mere province of China mainland, Taiwan is a state because it exercises both internal and external sovereignty, the PRC has no control over the machinery and administration of the government in Taiwan.
  50. 50. Inherent Power of the StateInherent Power of the State Every State exercises three fundamental and inherent powers, namely: 1. Police Power It is the inherent power of the State to regulate liberty for the promotion of the general welfare. As pointed out by (Garcia and Pinzon) this is the most pervasive, least limitable, and most demanding of the three powers. This concept is based on the premise which says “the welfare of the people is the supreme law” (salus populi est suprema lex).
  51. 51. Inherent Power of the StateInherent Power of the State The power is plenary and its scope is vast and pervasive, reaching and justifying measures for public health, public safety, public morals, and the general welfare (Nachura, 2002).
  52. 52. Inherent Powers of the StateInherent Powers of the State 1. Police Power It is defined as the power of promoting public welfare by restraining and regulating the use of liberty and property. “Salus Populi Est Suprema Lex” which means “The Welfare of the People is the Supreme Law”
  53. 53. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Case Situation: Under the Constitution, the workers have the right to strike. Under the Labor Code however, the Secretary of Labor is given the authority and discretion to determine what industries are indispensable to the national interest and thereafter assume jurisdiction over disputes in said industries, which in effect prevents the workers to go on strike. Question: Is the provision of the Labor Code violates the Constitutional Rights of Workers to Strike?
  54. 54. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Answer: No. It does not interfere with the worker’s right to strike but merely regulates it, when in the exercise of such right, national interest will be affected. The assumption of jurisdiction is in the nature of police power measure. This is done for the promotion of the common good considering that a prolonged strike or lockouts can be inimical to national economy.
  55. 55. Inherent Powers of the StateInherent Powers of the State 2. Power of Eminent Domain  This refers to the inherent power of the state to take or expropriate private property for public use upon payment of just compensation to the owner.
  56. 56. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Case Situation:  The Government of Quezon City enacted an ordinance requiring private cemeteries to reserve 6% of their total areas for the burial of paupers.  Question: Is the ordinance a valid exercise of power of eminent domain?
  57. 57. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Answer:  No. It is not valid. There was here taking of private property for public use but without payment of just compensation in violation of the principles governing eminent domain.
  58. 58. Inherent Powers of the StateInherent Powers of the State 3. Power of Taxation  It is the power of the State to demand from the people their proportionate share on contribution in the maintenance of the government.  The power of taxation proceeds upon the theory that the existence of government is a necessity, but it cannot continue without means to pay its expenses, and that for these means it has a right to compel all its citizens and property within its limits to contribute
  59. 59. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Case Situation:  In connection with the recovery of the ill- gotten wealth of the Marcoses, the PCGG entered into a Compromise Agreement with the Marcoses whereby the latter will be granted exemption from all forms of taxes over the properties to be retained by them.  Question: Is the Compromise Agreement Valid?
  60. 60. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Answer:  No. The power to tax and to grant exemptions is vested in the Congress and, to a certain extent, in the local legislative bodies. The PCGG has absolutely no power to grants tax exemptions even under the cover of its authority to compromise ill- wealth cases.
  61. 61. State Distinguished from NationState Distinguished from Nation  Nation should not be confused with the State as they are not the same.  The State is a political concept, while Nation is an ethnic concept. A nation is a group of people bound together by certain characteristics such as common social origin, language, customs and traditions, and who believe that they are one and distinct from others.
  62. 62. State Distinguished from NationState Distinguished from Nation  A state may consist of one or more nations and conversely, a nation may be made up of several states.  Examples:  Arab Nation is divided into several states, such as: Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and others.  The United States is a melting spot of several nationalities.
  63. 63. State Distinguished from NationState Distinguished from Nation  United State of America is a federal republic comprising of fifty states and one federal district.  They are states of Nevada, California, Utah, Arizona, Nebraska, Texas Indiana, Florida, Montana, Colorado, Maine, Kentucky, Georgia, New York etc. and Washington D.C.
  64. 64. State Distinguished from NationState Distinguished from Nation  Question:  How would you classify Philippines in terms of two concepts? –that is state is a political concept, while nation is an ethnic concept.  Answer:  Philippines is a STATE composed of one Nation.
  65. 65. The Concept of Constitution
  66. 66. Topic OutlineTopic Outline o The Meaning of Constitution Nature and Purpose of a Constitution The Supremacy of Constitution The Self-Executing and Non-Self Executing Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality Ways of Amending the Constitution Brainstorming Guessing Games
  67. 67. Topic OutlineTopic Outline The Meaning of Constitution  The term constitution refers to “that body of rules and principles in accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised.”  As implied by the definition, it covers both written and unwritten constitution.
  68. 68. Topic OutlineTopic Outline  With particular reference to the constitution of the Philippines, it may be defined as a written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited and defined, and which these powers are distributed among the several departments for their safe and useful exercise for the benefit of the people.
  69. 69. Topic OutlineTopic Outline Nature and Purpose of Constitution  To prescribe the permanent framework of a system of government  To assign to the several departments their respective powers and duties
  70. 70. Topic OutlineTopic Outline Supremacy of Constitution  It is a supreme law to which all other laws must conform (e.g. ordinances, national law). In other words, our Constitution is supreme over ordinance or national law.  The principle of supremacy of the constitution equally applies where there is conflict between international law, treaties and the Philippine Constitution. 
  71. 71. Topic OutlineTopic Outline Supremacy of Constitution  Under the 1987 Constitution, the Judiciary is empowered to declare the law unconstitutional, whether domestic or international. This is equally applies to treaties.
  72. 72. Case AnalysisCase Analysis  Under the 1987 Constitution foreign merchant vessels cannot exercise both right of innocent passage and involuntary entrance in the internal waters of a state.  Since the Philippines constitutionally treats waters within the archipelagic baseline as internal waters, foreign merchant vessels can neither exercise right of innocent passage nor the right of involuntary entrance.  However, under the UN Convention on the law of the Sea, foreign merchant vessels may exercise right of involuntary entry in the waters within the archipelagic line. Question: How can a court resolve this conflict?
  73. 73. AnswerAnswer This conflict between the Constitution and the international law should be resolved by a Philippine court in favor of the supremacy of the former over the latter. However, the rule differs if the matter is to be considered by an international forum, which would be more inclined to sustain the supremacy of international law.
  74. 74. Non-Self Executing and Self ExecutingNon-Self Executing and Self Executing Provisions of the ConstitutionProvisions of the Constitution  
  75. 75. Non Self-Executing and Self ExecutingNon Self-Executing and Self Executing Non-Self-Executing They do not confer rights nor impose obligations. Their mandate can only be realized by the enactment of laws. They are sleeping provisions and can only be awakened by legislation. Self-Executing The Self-Executing Provisions– They are complete and operative without the aid of supplementary or enabling legislations.
  76. 76. Case AnalysisCase Analysis After serving three consecutive terms as Mayor of Pateros, Atty. Pepino Kapco was succeeded by his brother Atty. Sendo Kapco, who also served three consecutive terms. Groomed to become Mayor, Atty Voya Kapco, son of incumbent Mayor at that time, filed a certificate of candidacy for mayoralty race in Pateros. Atty. Mikeguel immediately filed a petition with the Comelec to disqualify Att. Voya on the ground of violation of the rule against political dynasties.
  77. 77. ContinuationContinuation Article II, Section 26 of the Constitution states: “The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit dynasties as may be defined by law. Question: Will the petition against the “Kapco Dynasty” in Pateros prosper?
  78. 78. AnswerAnswer NO. The policy of the state against political dynasty is non-self-executing provision of the Constitution. Congress must first pass a law defining political dynasty and prescribing penalties for violation thereof such as disqualification of a member of a political dynasty to run for elective office. Without an implementing law on political dynasty to wake up such policy, it will remain a sleeping provision of the Constitution.
  79. 79. The Self-Executing Provisions– They are complete and operative without the aid of supplementary or enabling legislations.
  80. 80. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Under the 1987 Constitution, specifically, Article III, Section 19 which states that “ Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, that Congress hereafter provides for it. Question: Is Article III, Section 19 of the Constitution a self- executing provision?
  81. 81. AnswerAnswer With respect to the rule on the non-imposition of death penalty, the same is self-executing. After the affectivity of the 1987 Constitution but before the enactment of the Death Penalty, the court of law cannot impose death penalty. No legislation is required to make the provision prohibiting the imposition of death penalty operational.
  82. 82. ContinuationContinuation With respect to the imposition of death penalty in cases involving heinous crimes, such constitutional rule is a non-self-executing provision because of the phrase “the Congress hereafter provides for it. Thus, Congress must pass an implementing law to define heinous crime and impose death penalty if there is compelling reason to do so.
  83. 83. Effects of the Declaration ofEffects of the Declaration of UnconstitutionalityUnconstitutionality Orthodox View Under this view, an unconstitutional act is not a law, it is inoperative, as if it has not been passed. The declaration of unconstitutionality by the court of law is given retroactive. Modern View Under this view, the court will simply refuse to recognize the law as if it had no existence. In sum, the effect of declaring a law unconstitutional is prospective rather than retroactive.
  84. 84. Case AnalysisCase Analysis Congress passed a law authorizing City and Municipal Mayors and Provincial Governors to solemnize marriage. For 20 years, there were approximately 500,000 marriages solemnized by Mayors and Governors. However, records will show that the law was unconstitutional for lack of majority approval of the Senators. Question: What will be the effect on the said 500,000 if the court declared it unconstitutional?
  85. 85. AnswerAnswer If the court will follow the Orthodox View, then the law is null and void from the very start. The nullity of the law will make the 500,000 marriages invalid and millions of children born out of those invalid marriages will be illegitimate. Because of the harsh and absurd effect of applying the Orthodox View, the court will simply refuse to recognize the law following the modern view
  86. 86. ContinuationContinuation Thus, from the day the court declared the law unconstitutional, Mayors and Governors cannot anymore solemnize marriages. However, the 500,000 marriages solemnized by Mayors and Governors prior to the judicial declaration of unconstitutionality of the law will remain valid. Only marriages solemnized by Mayors and Governors after the said declaration are null and void.
  87. 87. ______________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 41 2 3 4 55 66 77 88 9 109 10
  88. 88. Essential Parts of a ConstitutionEssential Parts of a Constitution 1. Constitution of Government It is a portion of the Constitution that establishes the main branches of government, defines the powers of the government and assigns them to the said branches. Under the Philippine Constitution, the following belong to this category: a. Executive art VII b. Legislative Art VI c. Judiciary art VII d. Constitutional Commission e. Local Government f. Accountability of Public Officers
  89. 89. Essential Parts of a ConstitutionEssential Parts of a Constitution 2. Constitution of Liberty It is a portion of the Constitution which lays down the individual’s basic rights and freedom, which are a protective shield against abuses of government. Under the Philippine Constitution, the following belong to this category: a. Bill of Rights art III b. Citizenship art IVc. Suffrage art V d. Declaration of Principles and State Policies art II f. National Economy and Patrimony
  90. 90. Essential Parts of a ConstitutionEssential Parts of a Constitution 3. Constitution of Sovereignty It is a portion of the Constitution which provides the process for the exercise of people’s sovereign power to approve, amend, revise the constitution Under the Philippine Constitution, the provision of amendment or revision under Article XV11 belong to this category.
  91. 91. Process of Constitutional AmendmentsProcess of Constitutional Amendments (Ways of Amending the Constitution)(Ways of Amending the Constitution)
  92. 92. ARTICLE XVIIARTICLE XVII
  93. 93. ARTICLE XVIIARTICLE XVII AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONSAMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS  Section 1. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by: (1) The Congress, upon a vote of three- fourths of all its Members; or (2) A constitutional convention.  Section 2. Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein.  No amendment under this section shall be authorized within five years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five years thereafter.
  94. 94. ARTICLE XVIiARTICLE XVIi AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONSAMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right.  Section 3. The Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members, call a constitutional convention, or by a majority vote of all its Members, submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention.  Section 4. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the approval of such amendment or revision.
  95. 95. ARTICLE XVIiARTICLE XVIi AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONSAMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS  Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the certification by the Commission on Elections of the sufficiency of the petition.  
  96. 96. Thank YouThank You

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