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Cambodia. Photo: Heng Ponley, Kaing Khim




                                                                                      MERYL J WILLIAMS
                                                                 @ Mekong Network for Gender in Fisheries
                                                                                    13th Annual Meeting
                                                                                    Nong Khai, Thailand
                                                                                           22 June 2012




                                           REFLECTIONS ON GENDER IN AQUACULTURE
                                                      AND FISHERIES
Outline

 NACA and AFS gender activities
       Some factual background


 Reflections on the gender and fisheries
      timeline
       Some personal views and observations
NACA gender action
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-
   Pacific

     2012 NACA Council decision*

     2010 Sustaining aquaculture by
      developing human capacity and
      enhancing opportunities for women –
      chapter in Global Conference on
      Aquaculture (with FAO, proceedings
      published 2012)**

*http://www.enaca.org/modules/news/article.php?article_id=19
      38
**http://genderaquafish.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/2012-fao-
      naca-gca-procs-expert-panel-6-3-chapter-titles.pdf
Putting Gender on the Programme of the
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia

 NACA vision, core activities suggest that
  gender should be included
   NACA is an inter-governmental body – obligations
    to address gender equity
   Women and men are important in sustainable
    rural aquaculture
   Gender is an important dimension of all core
    activities (capacity building, R&d, policy
    guidelines, fish health and genetics)
What could NACA do?

 Systematically integrate gender into
  partnership activities
 Stimulate partners to undertake gender and
  aquaculture R&D
 Generate and disseminate new evidence on
  gender and aquaculture for policy and
  practice
 Mainstream gender in the Secretariat culture
   This will include developing staff capacity on
    gender and getting gender expertise on board
AFS gender action
   Asian Fisheries Society gender action was inspired by the 1994
    Cambodia and 1996 Mekong seminars, and the 1995, 1998
    and 2001 WIF photo competitions (supported by PADEK)
   Dr M.C. Nandeesha was the instigator
      Photo: MRC “Catch and Culture” newsletter 1996: Participants at the: Seminar on the Role of
                      Women in Fisheries in Indo-China Countries , Phnom Penh, 6-8 March 1996.
Ad

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2012 06-22 ngf mekong afs and naca

  • 1. Cambodia. Photo: Heng Ponley, Kaing Khim MERYL J WILLIAMS @ Mekong Network for Gender in Fisheries 13th Annual Meeting Nong Khai, Thailand 22 June 2012 REFLECTIONS ON GENDER IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES
  • 2. Outline  NACA and AFS gender activities  Some factual background  Reflections on the gender and fisheries timeline  Some personal views and observations
  • 3. NACA gender action Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia- Pacific  2012 NACA Council decision*  2010 Sustaining aquaculture by developing human capacity and enhancing opportunities for women – chapter in Global Conference on Aquaculture (with FAO, proceedings published 2012)** *http://www.enaca.org/modules/news/article.php?article_id=19 38 **http://genderaquafish.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/2012-fao- naca-gca-procs-expert-panel-6-3-chapter-titles.pdf
  • 4. Putting Gender on the Programme of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia  NACA vision, core activities suggest that gender should be included  NACA is an inter-governmental body – obligations to address gender equity  Women and men are important in sustainable rural aquaculture  Gender is an important dimension of all core activities (capacity building, R&d, policy guidelines, fish health and genetics)
  • 5. What could NACA do?  Systematically integrate gender into partnership activities  Stimulate partners to undertake gender and aquaculture R&D  Generate and disseminate new evidence on gender and aquaculture for policy and practice  Mainstream gender in the Secretariat culture  This will include developing staff capacity on gender and getting gender expertise on board
  • 6. AFS gender action  Asian Fisheries Society gender action was inspired by the 1994 Cambodia and 1996 Mekong seminars, and the 1995, 1998 and 2001 WIF photo competitions (supported by PADEK)  Dr M.C. Nandeesha was the instigator Photo: MRC “Catch and Culture” newsletter 1996: Participants at the: Seminar on the Role of Women in Fisheries in Indo-China Countries , Phnom Penh, 6-8 March 1996.
  • 7. Five symposia on women/gender 1998: Asian WIF (Chiang Mai) 2001: Global WIF (Kaohsiung) 2004: Global GAF (Penang) 2007: 2nd Global GAF (Kochi) 2011: 3rd Global GAF (Shanghai)
  • 8. More AFS gender action  Website http://genderaquafish.org/  GAF symposia materials  Glossary of terms  Posts on  Research resources  New reports, studies  News, events  Facebook page  Alerts to posts  Additional links, interactions, notices  Google Group  News items, alerts  Options for discussion  EVERYONE IS WELCOME TO JOIN AND CONTRIBUTE!
  • 9. Influence and impacts  Reach to experts globally is growing  Networks, organizations, researchers use the social media outlets  Slowly improving the quality of research papers (peer review)  First to break the news of high HIV/AIDS rates in fishing communities (2001 symposium)
  • 10. Milestones on gender and fisheries REFLECTING . . . . . . . .
  • 11. Convention on Elimination of Discrimination 1975-9 Against Women 1975- -1982 NACA starts as a project 1980-4 -1984 Asian Fisheries Soc. formed 1985-9 Rio Conference 1992- 1990-4 -1990 NACA created as an IGO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fish. 1995- -1996 Seminar on Indochina WIF 1995-9 Beijing (CEDAW+20) 1995- -1998 Asian WIF -2000 Mekong NGF formed Millennium Development Goals 2000- 2000-4 -2001 Global WIF -2004 Global GAF 2005-9 -2007 GAF2 -2010 Global Conf. on Aquaculture FAO State of Food and Agric. (women) 2011- 2010-4 -2011 GAF3; FAO Special Workshop Rio+20 Conference 2012- -2012 NACA adopts gender statement CCRF+20 2015- 2015-9 -2013 GAF4 CEDAW+40 2015- GENDER, FISHERIES EVENTS GENDER AND FISHERIES EVENTS
  • 12. Reflections on the timeline 1. Attention to gender in aquaculture and fisheries goes up and down over time 2. Gender ≠ women! 3. Gender-sensitive actions are complex in concept and practice
  • 13. Convention on Elimination of Discrimination 1975-9 Against Women 1975- -1982 NACA starts as a project 1980-4 -1984 Asian Fisheries Soc. formed -1987 FAO Women in Aquaculture conf. 1985-9 -1986 ALCOM project starts Rio Conference 1992- 1990-4 -1990 NACA created as an IGO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fish. 1995- -1996 Seminar on Indochina WIF 1995-9 Beijing (CEDAW+20) 1995- -1998 Asian WIF -2000 Mekong NGF formed Millennium Development Goals 2000- 2000-4 -2001 Global WIF -2004 Global GAF 2005-9 -2007 GAF2 -2010 Global Conf. on Aquaculture FAO State of Food and Agric. (women) 2011- 2010-4 -2011 GAF3; FAO Special Workshop Rio+20 Conference 2012- -2012 NACA adopts gender statement CCRF+20 2015- 2015-9 -2013 GAF4 CEDAW+40 2015- GENDER, FISHERIES EVENTS GENDER AND FISHERIES EVENTS
  • 14. Interest in gender - up and down Tracing gender interpretations (1980s and 1990s)  HQ (FAO, donors)  Simple principles/tools vs inherent complexities  Data for development vs feminist knowledge  Lip service only to new approaches, policies  Regional project (ALCOM)  Demands for project impact vs HQ/donor requirements  Collection of gendered data “safe”  Pilot field projects  Enrolling women as the “simple” solution proves ineffective for all parties  Gender is not just women; men’s gender identities need changing  Feminists often resist involving men too  Men with organizational power often think only women can work on “gender” issues  Nothing changes, the attempts wither away
  • 15. Convention on Elimination of Discrimination 1975-9 Against Women 1975- -1982 NACA starts as a project 1980-4 -1984 Asian Fisheries Soc. formed -1987 FAO Women in Aquaculture conf. 1985-9 -1986 ALCOM project starts Rio Conference 1992- 1990-4 -1990 NACA created as an IGO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fish. 1995- -1996 Seminar on Indochina WIF 1995-9 Beijing (CEDAW+20) 1995- -1998 Asian WIF -2000 Mekong NGF formed Millennium Development Goals 2000- 2000-4 -2001 Global WIF -2004 Global GAF 2005-9 -2007 GAF2 -2010 Global Conf. on Aquaculture FAO State of Food and Agric. (women) 2011- 2010-4 -2011 GAF3; FAO Special Workshop Rio+20 Conference 2012- -2012 NACA adopts gender statement CCRF+20 2015- 2015-9 -2013 GAF4 CEDAW+40 2015- GENDER, FISHERIES EVENTS GENDER AND FISHERIES EVENTS
  • 16. Interest in gender – up and down  When interest is down . . .  Funding dries up  Experts become disheartened (especially if their advice was not used), and  They go to other fields, e.g., climate change  Gender and fisheries/aquaculture does not progress  When interest is up . . .  Leaders are not ready and don’t know what to do  The search for (too) simple approaches starts again?  How can we break the cycle?
  • 17. Gender ≠ Women  Typical “solutions” are  Involving women in the activities and developing women-only projects  Collecting gendered data, undertaking gender analysis – but not acting on the findings  The problems with the “solutions”  More activities for women may just create greater burdens, e.g., if gender relations are unchanged  Focusing only on women ignores men’s gender identities that are important elements  Gender-sensitive practices require changes in power relations between parties – difficult!
  • 18. Towards gender-sensitive practices  Households are differentiated, not unitary  Look at  fisheries as a system, and  aquaculture as a household economic production activity  Gender studies are not based on a single discipline  Need better conceptual frameworks  Strong social science is needed  Other social variables such as class, race, religion, age define and condition gender relations  Aquaculture and fisheries experts need Gender 101 education! [Based on the Guest Editorial from the GAF3 Special Issue]
  • 19. Convention on Elimination of Discrimination 1975-9 Against Women 1975- -1982 NACA starts as a project 1980-4 -1984 Asian Fisheries Soc. formed 1985-9 Rio Conference 1992- 1990-4 -1990 NACA created as an IGO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fish. 1995- -1996 Seminar on Indochina WIF 1995-9 Beijing (CEDAW+20) 1995- -1998 Asian WIF -2000 Mekong NGF formed Millennium Development Goals 2000- 2000-4 -2001 Global WIF -2004 Global GAF 2005-9 -2007 GAF2 -2010 Global Conf. on Aquaculture FAO State of Food and Agric. (women) 2011- -2011 GAF3; FAO Special Workshop 2010-4 Rio+20 Conference 2012- -2012 NACA adopts gender statement -2013 GAF4 CCRF+20 2015- 2015-9 - FOCUS ON BREAKING THE CYCLE CEDAW+40 2015- GENDER, FISHERIES EVENTS GENDER AND FISHERIES EVENTS