Presentation Timis County


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Presentation Timis County

  1. 1. <ul><li>Thematic studies in gender equality </li></ul><ul><li>– Timis County (Romania) </li></ul><ul><li>Study 1 – Career development and employment security ; </li></ul><ul><li>Study 2 – Gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Study 3 – Social exclusion; </li></ul><ul><li>Study 4 – Education and learning; </li></ul><ul><li>Study 5 – Access to finance; </li></ul><ul><li>Study 6 – Women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics); </li></ul><ul><li>Study 7 – Working conditions in the public sector. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Target group </li></ul><ul><li>The target groups for the collection of data are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Women ( regardless of age, education, social status, employment) </li></ul><ul><li>- Women in the public sector </li></ul><ul><li>- Entrepreneur women </li></ul><ul><li>- College women in STEM </li></ul><ul><li>- Women with an academic career in STEM </li></ul><ul><li>- Women in STEM working in public and private sector </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Current stage of the studies: data collection and processing </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the use of information from available documents, the collection of data is done through various methods and indicators: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Job m onitoring sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Individual interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Case studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Focus groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Data analysis (posters, artifacts, job announcements, newspaper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>articles, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Statistical analysis ( wages , un/ employment rate , educational level, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>managerial position, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>- Timisoara Municipality </li></ul><ul><li>- Timis County Council </li></ul><ul><li>- Work Inspectorate of Timisoara </li></ul><ul><li>- Timis County School Inspectorate </li></ul><ul><li>- Romanian Academy – Timisoara Branch </li></ul><ul><li>- National Institute of Statistics – </li></ul><ul><li>Timisoara Branch </li></ul><ul><li>- General Directorate of Social Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>and Child Protection Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- National Agency for Fiscal </li></ul><ul><li>Administration Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- Timis County Health Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Institution </li></ul><ul><li>- Territorial Directorate of Labour and </li></ul><ul><li>Social Protection Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- Timis County Police Inspectorate </li></ul><ul><li>- Timisoara Prison </li></ul><ul><li>- County Agency for Employment Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 Public Universities from Timisoara </li></ul><ul><li>- Local Media </li></ul><ul><li>- Cultural Institutions in Timisoara </li></ul><ul><li>( Romanian Opera, National Theatre, </li></ul><ul><li>Banat Philharmonic ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Private institutions from Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- NGOs from Timis </li></ul><ul><li>- Political parties – Timis Branch es </li></ul>Institutions to be approached for data collection
  5. 5. <ul><li>Access to finance </li></ul><ul><li>- 32,55% of Romanian entrepreneurs are women; </li></ul><ul><li>- T he average age of women to set up their own business is almost 40 years; </li></ul><ul><li>- The main reasons for women to become entrepreneurs are: to improve their life quality, to earn money, to own their business; </li></ul><ul><li>- 66%of the entrepreneur women had entrepreneurial examples among their entourage , 15% among their own families. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Region: </li></ul><ul><li>- location for 1 5% of Romanian entrepreneurs - 7% women; 8 % men; </li></ul><ul><li>- potential entrepreneurs (= involved in activities that lead to starting up a business) - 6% of women , 20%men. </li></ul><ul><li>(National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>(Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Research, 2009) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  6. 6. <ul><li>Access to finance </li></ul><ul><li>Main sources of funding for Romanian entrepreneurs: </li></ul><ul><li>- P ersonal savings (78% women, 72% men); </li></ul><ul><li>- Bank loans (14% women, 4% men); </li></ul><ul><li>- Grants / subsidies (4% men, 0% women). </li></ul><ul><li>D ifficulties encountered by entrepreneur women: </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of business training (11%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of experience in financial planning (28%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of guidance and counseling (1%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Difficulties in obtaining loans (23%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of bank guarantees (13%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Impaired personal relationships (25%). </li></ul><ul><li>(National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania, 2009) (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Research, 2009) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  7. 7. <ul><li>Women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) </li></ul><ul><li>- 58,4% of students attending higher education are women; </li></ul><ul><li>- Study areas usually followed by women: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education (86.1%); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health and welfare (69.4%); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanities and arts (69.4%); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social science, business (64.3%). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>- In 2007 the number of women studying Science, Mathematics and Computing became higher than men (61.9%); </li></ul><ul><li>- Only 32.2% of women graduated Engineering, Manufacturing, Constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ministry of Education and Research, Status report of the national education system in 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes – Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2010) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  8. 8. <ul><li>Women in STEM </li></ul><ul><li>The graduation rate in higher education is: 86,9% for women and 44,3% for men; </li></ul><ul><li>50%of female students graduate doctoral programs; </li></ul><ul><li>I n national education 72,6 % of teachers are women : </li></ul><ul><li>- in preschool education (less remunerated ) 99,7% of teachers are women; </li></ul><ul><li>- in higher education only 4 3 , 9 % of teachers are women; </li></ul><ul><li>- only 20%of female teachers have lead ing positions . </li></ul><ul><li>(Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>(National Institute of Statistics, 2006) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  9. 9. <ul><li>Education and learning </li></ul><ul><li>The enrollment rate in compulsory education (10 years ) is 95,8% for women and 96,6% for men; </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, 53,10% of the adults (25-64 years) to follow vocational training were women; </li></ul><ul><li>3,5% of active Romanian women have no education or primary school; </li></ul><ul><li>(Ministry of Education and Research, Status report of the national education system in 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(National Institute of Statistics, 2006) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  10. 10. <ul><li>Education and learning </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006: </li></ul><ul><li>- 1.645 million women graduated high school; </li></ul><ul><li>- 824.000 women graduated vocational schools; </li></ul><ul><li>- 668.000 women graduated higher education; </li></ul><ul><li>- 236.000 women graduated post secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>At national level: </li></ul><ul><li>- 17,7% of women and 13,6% of men graduated higher education; </li></ul><ul><li>- 18,3% of women and 32,4% men graduated v ocational education; </li></ul><ul><li>- 17.2% of women leave school after 8 years of education . </li></ul><ul><li>(Ministry of Education and Research, Status report of the national education system in 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(National Institute of Statistics, 2006) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  11. 11. <ul><li>Career development and employment security , working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, 67.6% of employed women were working in food and textile industries with salaries under the gross average salary; </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009, the percentage of female employees in different sectors was: </li></ul><ul><li>72% - in the public sector; 74% - in education; </li></ul><ul><li>65% - in services and trade; 70% - in financial intermediation; </li></ul><ul><li>78% - in health and social sectors; 66% - in hotels and restaurants; </li></ul><ul><li>51% - in intellectual and scientific occupations; 54% - in trade. </li></ul><ul><li>18.1% of women and 13.9% of men active in the labor market graduated higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>(National Institute of Statistics, 2006-2009) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  12. 12. <ul><li>Career development , job security , working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>25%of men and 16 %of women work over the normal working hours /day, the percentage is influenced by the women's family responsibilities ; </li></ul><ul><li>25% of women and 22.31% of men often think of personal matters during office work hours; </li></ul><ul><li>Successful performance is attributed to a man's abilities while the same level of a woman’s performance is seen rather as a result of reduced difficulty of the task or luck. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60% of managers and supervisors consider that women face more obstacles than men in career development. </li></ul><ul><li>(National Institute of Statistics, 2006-2009) </li></ul><ul><li>(Center for Equal Partnership, 2006) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  13. 13. <ul><li>Social exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Out of a total of 27.9% of single persons experiencing a higher poverty rate, 22% are men and 30.8% are women ; </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, out of a total of 61.8% active women, 57.6% w ere employ ed ; out of a total of 55.8% active men, 53.1% w ere employed . Even if there is a higher rate of active women compared to the rate of active men, there is a lower employement rate for women than for men. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009, 70.9% of persons experienc ing poverty we re female unpaid workers; </li></ul><ul><li>(The Regional Development Plan 2007-2013, West Region) </li></ul><ul><li>(National Agency for Employment, 2011) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  14. 14. Preliminary statistics on gender equality Social exclusion Women are mainly present in lower paid areas of activity: - In 2007 the wage difference between men and women was 12.7%, the highest rate being in industry (28%); - In 2008, the average monthly earning was 1348 lei for men and 1264 lei for women; In 2006, 189.489 people benefited from the child care allowance, out of which 18% were men . I n 2010 the percentage of men decreased to 17.63% . Women are exposed to domestic violence, economic and social abuse. In 2010 in Timis County 37% of the female victims of domestic abuse had no income . (APoWeR’s beneficiaries) (The Regional Development Plan 2007-2013, West Region) (APoWeR Statistic Report, 2010)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>59% of Romanian population consider that man is the head of the family, 55% consider that a man’s duty is to earn money and 54% consider that a women's duty is to do the housework; </li></ul><ul><li>Local media in the West region presents personal value judgments and prejudices in publish ed articles by changing the nature of the facts presented in cases of discrimination, domestic violence, sexual abuse/ harassment, prostitution and human trafficking . Consequently media creat es a negative impact on persons/women whose rights have been violate d . </li></ul><ul><li>(National Council for Combating Discrimination - Discrimination in Romania , 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>(Association for the Promotion of Women in Romania - Media Monitoring Report 2008) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality
  16. 16. <ul><li>Gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>M en are not encouraged to occupy positions that are traditionally considered to be meant for women (teachers, baby-sitters, nurses, woman, service secretary); </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1% of the media news are related to topics of gender equality and issues of discrimination against women . </li></ul><ul><li>(National Council for Combating Discrimination - Discrimination in Romania , 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>(Global Media Monitoring Project, 2010) </li></ul>Preliminary statistics on gender equality