From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Visual control is a business management technique employed in many places where information
is communicated by using visual signals instead of texts or other written instructions. The design
is deliberate in allowing quick recognition of the information being communicated, in order to
increase efficiency and clarity. These signals can be of many forms, from different coloured
clothing for different teams, to focusing measures upon the size of the problem and not the size
of the activity, to kanban, obeya and heijunka boxes and many other diverse examples. In The
Toyota Way, it is also known as mieruka.
Visual control methods aim to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a process by making
the steps in that process more visible. The theory behind visual control is that if something is
clearly visible or in plain sight, it is easy to remember and keep at the forefront of the mind.
Another aspect of visual control is that everyone is given the same visual cues and so are likely
to have the same vantage point.
There are many different techniques that are used to apply visual control in the workplace. Some
companies use visual control as an organizational tool for materials. A clearly labeled storage
board lets the employee know exactly where a tool belongs and what tools are missing from the
display board. Another simple example of a common visual control is to have reminders posted
on cubicle walls so that they remain in plain sight. Visual signs and signals communicate
information that is needed to make effective decisions. These decisions may be safety oriented or
they may give reminders as to what steps should be taken to resolve a problem. Most companies
use visual controls in one degree or another, many of them not even realizing that the visual
controls that they are making have a name and a function in the workplace. Whether it is
recognized by the name of "visual control" or not, the fact is that replacing text or number with
graphics makes a set of information easier to understand with only a glance, making it a more
efficient way of communicating a message.
Visual controls are designed to make the control and management of a company as simple as
possible. This entails making problems, abnormalities, or deviations from standards visible to
everyone. When these deviations are visible and apparent to all, corrective action can be taken to
immediately correct these problems.
Visual controls are meant to display the operating or progress status of a given operation in an
easy to see format and also to provide instruction and to convey information. A visual control
system must have an action component associated with it in the event that the visually
represented procedures are not being followed in the real production process. Therefore visual
controls must also have a component where immediate feedback is provided to workers.
There are two groups and seven types of application in visual controls. Displays group and
A visual display group relates information and data to employees in the area. For example,
charts showing the monthly revenues of the company or a graphic depicting a certain type of
quality issue that group members should be aware of.
5s VISUAL MANAGEMENT
A visual control group is intended to actually control or guide the action of the group members.
Examples of controls are readily apparent in society: stop signs, handicap parking signs, no
smoking signs, etc.
What is the 5S System?
The 5S visual management system is designed to create a visual workplace a work environment that is
self explaining, self ordering, self improving. A good 5S condition is a clean, well ordered workplace that
is the foundation of improvement.
Principles of the 5S System:
Sort(S1) sort out what you don’t need (when in doubt, throw it out). Use the “Red Tagging” tool to
identify unneeded items during the sort phase of 5S. Listed on the red tagged items:
Item ID and quantity
Reason for red tagging
Take the red tag items to a removal location. Anyone can plead the case for the item to stay. The
team makes the final decision
Set in order(S2)–organize what’s left so as to minimize wasted motion (a place for everything, and
everything in its place). Keep in mind how to place machines, storage shelves, equipment etc.to reduce
the waste of motion.
Shine (and Inspect)(S3)–Nothing raises a team’s spirit like a clean, well-ordered workplace. This
What to clean
How to clean
Who will do the cleaning
How clean is clean
Develop checklists of what should be cleaned
Cleaning responsibilities and schedules should be prominently posted
5S stations should be set up and stocked with cleaning supplies
Standardize(S4)–maintain the good condition by applying standards for S1 to S3.
Remember that the best standards are clear, simple and visual.
Effective standards make the out-of-standard condition obvious.
Example: an office equipment board tells us
What equipment should be there
What equipment currently are there
Who has taken equipment and when they will return it.
Sustain(S5)–ensure that 5S develops deep roots through involvement. 5S must belong to each team
Promotion and Communication (report boards, contests, 5S core group)
Benefits of 5 Ss:
Problem identification: spot abnormal conditions quickly
Standardization: one way, one place, one level of cleanliness
Waste elimination: reduce walking, waiting, searching, etc.
Morale: less clutter, darkness and frustration
What Is Kanban?
Derived from the combination of two Japanese words, kan ("visual") and ban ("card" or
"board"), kanban roughly translates to sign board or signal board.
In English it has developed a highly specialized meaning - kanban is a process of manufacturing
or work space organization that relies upon visual signals to control inventory. Kanban has
become synonymous Just in Time production and "demand scheduling." It i s a cornerstone of
lean manufacturing, just as it relies upon 5s and kaizen, so to do they rely upon kanban for full
Kanban, as a means of manufacturing, was developed by Toyota during the late 1940s and early
1950s. During that period, the Toyota Corporation studied American supermarkets and their
management techniques. Taiichi Ohno, the man credited with developing JIT, saw the
relationship between the supermarket and its customer as an efficient means of organizing
production, because a supermarket assures future stock while only supplying what the consumer
has immediately signaled that he or she needs.
The premise behind this organization is a visual signal, a kanban. In the case of a supermarket it
might be the level in a bin of oranges dipping below a certain marker. This visual signal, in turn,
tells the supermarket employee to stock more oranges. Ohno saw the possibility to deploy this
means of organization in Toyota's main machine shop, and had done so by 1953.
In the 1970s, with the economy worsening, kanban made its way across the Pacific Ocean to the
United States. Since 1977 it has become the principle means of implementing Just in Time (JIT)
production and is used in all manner of working environments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the lean manufacturing process. For the software development process, see Kanban
Kanbans maintain inventory levels; a signal is sent to
produce and deliver a new shipment as material is
consumed. These signals are tracked through the
replenishment cycle and bring extraordinary visibility to
suppliers and buyers.
Logistic control system
Kanban (かんばん(看板)?) (literally signboard or billboard) is a scheduling system for lean and
just-in-time (JIT) production. Kanban is a system to control the logistical chain from a
production point of view, and is not an inventory control system. Kanban was developed by
Taiichi Ohno, at Toyota, to find a system to improve and maintain a high level of production.
Kanban is one method through which JIT is achieved.
Kanban became an effective tool in support of running a production system as a whole, and it
proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvement. Problem areas were highlighted by
reducing the number of kanban in circulation.[clarification needed]
o 2.1 Kanban cards
o 2.2 Three-bin system
3 Electronic kanban systems
4 Personal kanban
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
In the late 1940s, Toyota started studying supermarkets with the idea of applying store and shelfstocking techniques to the factory floor. In a supermarket, customers obtain the required quantity
at the required time, no more and no less. Furthermore, the supermarket stocks only what it
expects to sell within a given time frame, and customers take only what they need, since future
supply is assured. This observation led Toyota to view a process as being a customer of one or
more preceding processes, and the preceding processes are viewed as a kind of store. The
customer "process" goes to the store to obtain required components which in turn causes the
store to restock. Originally, as in supermarkets, signboards were used to guide "shopping"
processes to specific shopping locations within the store.
Kanban aligns inventory levels with actual consumption; a signal is sent to produce and deliver a
new shipment when material is consumed. These signals are tracked through the replenishment
cycle, bringing visibility to both the supplier and the buyer.
Kanban uses the rate of demand to control the rate of production, passing demand from the end
customer up through the chain of customer-store processes. In 1953, Toyota applied this logic in
their main plant machine shop.
One important determinant of the success of production scheduling based on demand "pushing"
is the ability of the demand-forecast to receive such a "push". Kanban, by contrast, is part of an
approach where the "pull" comes from the demand. The supply or production is determined
according to the actual demand of the customers. In contexts where supply time is lengthy and
demand is difficult to forecast, often, the best one can do is to respond quickly to observed
demand. This situation is exactly what a kanban system accomplishes, in that it is used as a
demand signal that immediately travels through the supply chain. This ensures that intermediate
stocks held in the supply chain are better managed, and are usually smaller. Where the supply
response is not quick enough to meet actual demand fluctuations, thereby causing significant lost
sales, stock building may be deemed more appropriate, and is achieved by placing more kanban
in the system.
Taiichi Ohno stated that to be effective, kanban must follow strict rules of use. Toyota, for
example, has six simple rules, and close monitoring of these rules is a never-ending task, thereby
ensuring that the kanban does what is required.
Toyota's Six Rules
Do not send defective products to the subsequent process.
The subsequent process comes to withdraw only what is needed.
Produce only the exact quantity that was withdrawn by the subsequent process.
Level the production.
Kanban is a means of fine tuning.
Stabilize and rationalize the process.
Kanban cards are a key component of kanban and signal the need to move materials within a
manufacturing or production facility or move materials from an outside supplier in to the
production facility. The kanban card is, in effect, a message that signals that there is a depletion
of product, parts, or inventory that, when received, the kanban will trigger the replenishment of
that product, part, or inventory. Consumption therefore drives demand for more production, and
demand for more product is signaled by the kanban card. Kanban cards therefore help create a
It is widely held by proponents of lean production and manufacturing that demanddriven systems lead to faster turnarounds in production and lower inventory levels, thereby
helping companies implementing such systems to be more competitive.
In the last few years, systems sending kanban signals electronically have become more
widespread. While this trend is leading to a reduction in the use of kanban cards in aggregate, it
is still common in modern lean production facilities to find widespread usage of kanban cards. In
Oracle ERP (enterprise resource planning), kanban is used for signalling demand to vendors
through e-mail notifications. When stock of a particular component is depleted by the quantity
assigned on kanban card, a "kanban trigger" is created (which may be manual or automatic), a
purchase order is released with predefined quantity for the vendor defined on the card, and the
vendor is expected to dispatch material within a specified lead time.
Kanban cards, in keeping with the principles of kanban, simply convey the need for more
materials. A red card lying in an empty parts cart conveys that more parts are needed.
This system is available in enterprise resource planning software.
An example of a simple kanban system implementation might be a "three-bin system" for the
supplied parts, where there is no in-house manufacturing. One bin is on the factory floor (the
initial demand point), one bin is in the factory store (the inventory control point), and one bin is
at the supplier. The bins usually have a removable card containing the product details and other
relevant information — the classic kanban card.
When the bin on the factory floor is empty (because the parts in it were used up in a
manufacturing process), the empty bin and its kanban card are returned to the factory store (the
inventory control point). The factory store replaces the empty bin on the factory floor with the
full bin from the factory store, which also contains a kanban card. The factory store sends the
empty bin with its kanban card to the supplier. The supplier's full product bin, with its kanban
card, is delivered to the factory store; the supplier keeps the empty bin. This is the final step in
the process. Thus, the process will never run out of product, and could be described as a closed
loop in that it provides the exact amount required, with only one spare bin so there will never be
an oversupply. This 'spare' bin allows for the uncertainties in supply, use, and transport that are
found in the inventory system.
The secret to a good kanban system is to calculate just enough kanban cards required for each
product. Most factories using kanban use the coloured board system (heijunka box). This slotted
board was created especially for holding the cards.
Electronic kanban systems
Main article: Electronic kanban
Many manufacturers have implemented electronic kanban systems aka an "e-kanban system."
These help to eliminate common problems such as manual entry errors and lost cards. Ekanban systems can be integrated into enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, enabling realtime demand signaling across the supply chain and improved visibility. Data pulled from ekanban systems can be used to optimize inventory levels by better tracking supplier lead and
Domains of Learning
How We Learn
Humans are lifelong learners. From birth onward we learn and assimilate what we have just
learned into what we already know. Learning in the Geosciences, like all learning, can be
catagorized into the domains of concept knowledge, how we view ourselves as learners and the
skills we need to engage in the activities of geoscientists. As early as 1956 Educational
Psychologist Benjamin Bloom divided what and how we learn into three seperate domains of
Cognitive Domain - This domain includes content knowledge and the development of
intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts and concepts that serve
developing intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, starting from the
simplest behavior (recalling facts) to the most complex (Evaluation). The University of
Washington's Geography Department website Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives has a detailed explanation of Bloom's Six Levels of Cognitive Development (more
Affective Domain- How does one approach learning? With confidence, a can do attitude. The
Affective domain includes feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
The University of Dayton, School of Law Affective Domain website describes each catagory in
the domain and provides illustrative examples and keywords for the cognitive, affective, and
Psychomotor Domain- The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and
use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in
terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. For a more detailed
treatment of this domain see the Penn State Teaching and Learning with Technology website
Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy (more info)
Connecting Learning and Assessment
To see how assessments are built from these domains of learning and to learn how to build
effective assessments go to the Hallmarks of Effective Assessment page.
Bloom Benjamin S. and David R. Krathwohl. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The
Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners.
Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York, Longmans, Green, 1956.
A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. A daily
lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. Details will vary depending on
the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of students.
There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
Developing a lesson plan
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these
elements, typically in this order:
Title of the lesson
Time required to complete the lesson
List of required materials
List of objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson
completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these
include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons
An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson,
including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills
or work with new ideas
Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
An evaluation component, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set
of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are
Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what
A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson
A well-developed lesson plan
A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best
practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of
education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They
are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A
broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research,
writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres
and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature
and English together. Similarly, history lesson plans focus on content (historical accuracy and
background information), analytic thinking, scaffolding, and the practicality of lesson structure
and meeting of educational goals. School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that
order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which
may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require
individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson
plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.
The first thing a teacher does is create an objective, a statement of purpose for the whole lesson.
An objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do by the end of the
lesson. Harry Wong states that, “Each [objective] must begin with a verb that states the action to
be taken to show accomplishment. The most important word to use in an assignment is a verb,
because verbs state how to demonstrate if accomplishment has taken place or not.” The
objective drives the whole lesson, it is the reason the lesson exists. Care is taken when creating
the objective for each day’s lesson, as it will determine the activities the students engage in. The
teacher also ensures that lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the
students. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement expectations are
Selecting lesson plan material
A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text
books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must
take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students