Visual control


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Visual control

  1. 1. Visual control From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Visual control is a business management technique employed in many places where information is communicated by using visual signals instead of texts or other written instructions. The design is deliberate in allowing quick recognition of the information being communicated, in order to increase efficiency and clarity. These signals can be of many forms, from different coloured clothing for different teams, to focusing measures upon the size of the problem and not the size of the activity, to kanban, obeya and heijunka boxes and many other diverse examples. In The Toyota Way, it is also known as mieruka. Purpose Visual control methods aim to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a process by making the steps in that process more visible. The theory behind visual control is that if something is clearly visible or in plain sight, it is easy to remember and keep at the forefront of the mind. Another aspect of visual control is that everyone is given the same visual cues and so are likely to have the same vantage point. There are many different techniques that are used to apply visual control in the workplace. Some companies use visual control as an organizational tool for materials. A clearly labeled storage board lets the employee know exactly where a tool belongs and what tools are missing from the display board. Another simple example of a common visual control is to have reminders posted on cubicle walls so that they remain in plain sight. Visual signs and signals communicate information that is needed to make effective decisions. These decisions may be safety oriented or they may give reminders as to what steps should be taken to resolve a problem. Most companies use visual controls in one degree or another, many of them not even realizing that the visual controls that they are making have a name and a function in the workplace. Whether it is recognized by the name of "visual control" or not, the fact is that replacing text or number with graphics makes a set of information easier to understand with only a glance, making it a more efficient way of communicating a message. Visual controls are designed to make the control and management of a company as simple as possible. This entails making problems, abnormalities, or deviations from standards visible to everyone. When these deviations are visible and apparent to all, corrective action can be taken to immediately correct these problems. Visual controls are meant to display the operating or progress status of a given operation in an easy to see format and also to provide instruction and to convey information. A visual control system must have an action component associated with it in the event that the visually represented procedures are not being followed in the real production process. Therefore visual controls must also have a component where immediate feedback is provided to workers.
  2. 2. Types There are two groups and seven types of application in visual controls. Displays group and controls group. A visual display group relates information and data to employees in the area. For example, charts showing the monthly revenues of the company or a graphic depicting a certain type of quality issue that group members should be aware of. 5s VISUAL MANAGEMENT A visual control group is intended to actually control or guide the action of the group members. Examples of controls are readily apparent in society: stop signs, handicap parking signs, no smoking signs, etc. What is the 5S System? The 5S visual management system is designed to create a visual workplace a work environment that is self explaining, self ordering, self improving. A good 5S condition is a clean, well ordered workplace that is the foundation of improvement. Principles of the 5S System: Sort(S1) sort out what you don’t need (when in doubt, throw it out). Use the “Red Tagging” tool to identify unneeded items during the sort phase of 5S. Listed on the red tagged items: Item classification Item ID and quantity Reason for red tagging Work section Date Take the red tag items to a removal location. Anyone can plead the case for the item to stay. The team makes the final decision Set in order(S2)–organize what’s left so as to minimize wasted motion (a place for everything, and everything in its place). Keep in mind how to place machines, storage shelves, equipment reduce the waste of motion. Shine (and Inspect)(S3)–Nothing raises a team’s spirit like a clean, well-ordered workplace. This involves: What to clean How to clean Who will do the cleaning How clean is clean Develop checklists of what should be cleaned Cleaning responsibilities and schedules should be prominently posted
  3. 3. 5S stations should be set up and stocked with cleaning supplies Standardize(S4)–maintain the good condition by applying standards for S1 to S3. Remember that the best standards are clear, simple and visual. Effective standards make the out-of-standard condition obvious. Example: an office equipment board tells us What equipment should be there What equipment currently are there Who has taken equipment and when they will return it. Sustain(S5)–ensure that 5S develops deep roots through involvement. 5S must belong to each team member through: Promotion and Communication (report boards, contests, 5S core group) Training Benefits of 5 Ss: Problem identification: spot abnormal conditions quickly Standardization: one way, one place, one level of cleanliness Waste elimination: reduce walking, waiting, searching, etc. Morale: less clutter, darkness and frustration What Is Kanban? Derived from the combination of two Japanese words, kan ("visual") and ban ("card" or "board"), kanban roughly translates to sign board or signal board. In English it has developed a highly specialized meaning - kanban is a process of manufacturing or work space organization that relies upon visual signals to control inventory. Kanban has become synonymous Just in Time production and "demand scheduling." It i s a cornerstone of lean manufacturing, just as it relies upon 5s and kaizen, so to do they rely upon kanban for full implementation. Kanban, as a means of manufacturing, was developed by Toyota during the late 1940s and early 1950s. During that period, the Toyota Corporation studied American supermarkets and their management techniques. Taiichi Ohno, the man credited with developing JIT, saw the relationship between the supermarket and its customer as an efficient means of organizing production, because a supermarket assures future stock while only supplying what the consumer has immediately signaled that he or she needs. The premise behind this organization is a visual signal, a kanban. In the case of a supermarket it might be the level in a bin of oranges dipping below a certain marker. This visual signal, in turn, tells the supermarket employee to stock more oranges. Ohno saw the possibility to deploy this means of organization in Toyota's main machine shop, and had done so by 1953. In the 1970s, with the economy worsening, kanban made its way across the Pacific Ocean to the United States. Since 1977 it has become the principle means of implementing Just in Time (JIT) production and is used in all manner of working environments.
  4. 4. Kanban From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the lean manufacturing process. For the software development process, see Kanban (development). Kanban principles Kanbans maintain inventory levels; a signal is sent to produce and deliver a new shipment as material is consumed. These signals are tracked through the replenishment cycle and bring extraordinary visibility to suppliers and buyers.[1] Purpose Logistic control system Implemented at Toyota Date implemented 1953 v t e Kanban (かんばん(看板)?) (literally signboard or billboard) is a scheduling system for lean and just-in-time (JIT) production.[2] Kanban is a system to control the logistical chain from a production point of view, and is not an inventory control system. Kanban was developed by
  5. 5. Taiichi Ohno, at Toyota, to find a system to improve and maintain a high level of production. Kanban is one method through which JIT is achieved.[3] Kanban became an effective tool in support of running a production system as a whole, and it proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvement. Problem areas were highlighted by reducing the number of kanban in circulation.[clarification needed][4] Contents 1 Origins 2 Operation o 2.1 Kanban cards o 2.2 Three-bin system 3 Electronic kanban systems 4 Personal kanban 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Origins In the late 1940s, Toyota started studying supermarkets with the idea of applying store and shelfstocking techniques to the factory floor. In a supermarket, customers obtain the required quantity at the required time, no more and no less. Furthermore, the supermarket stocks only what it expects to sell within a given time frame, and customers take only what they need, since future supply is assured. This observation led Toyota to view a process as being a customer of one or more preceding processes, and the preceding processes are viewed as a kind of store. The customer "process" goes to the store to obtain required components which in turn causes the store to restock. Originally, as in supermarkets, signboards were used to guide "shopping" processes to specific shopping locations within the store. Kanban aligns inventory levels with actual consumption; a signal is sent to produce and deliver a new shipment when material is consumed. These signals are tracked through the replenishment cycle, bringing visibility to both the supplier and the buyer. Kanban uses the rate of demand to control the rate of production, passing demand from the end customer up through the chain of customer-store processes. In 1953, Toyota applied this logic in their main plant machine shop.[5] Operation One important determinant of the success of production scheduling based on demand "pushing" is the ability of the demand-forecast to receive such a "push". Kanban, by contrast, is part of an approach where the "pull" comes from the demand. The supply or production is determined
  6. 6. according to the actual demand of the customers. In contexts where supply time is lengthy and demand is difficult to forecast, often, the best one can do is to respond quickly to observed demand. This situation is exactly what a kanban system accomplishes, in that it is used as a demand signal that immediately travels through the supply chain. This ensures that intermediate stocks held in the supply chain are better managed, and are usually smaller. Where the supply response is not quick enough to meet actual demand fluctuations, thereby causing significant lost sales, stock building may be deemed more appropriate, and is achieved by placing more kanban in the system. Taiichi Ohno stated that to be effective, kanban must follow strict rules of use.[6] Toyota, for example, has six simple rules, and close monitoring of these rules is a never-ending task, thereby ensuring that the kanban does what is required. Toyota's Six Rules Do not send defective products to the subsequent process. The subsequent process comes to withdraw only what is needed. Produce only the exact quantity that was withdrawn by the subsequent process. Level the production. Kanban is a means of fine tuning. Stabilize and rationalize the process. Kanban cards Kanban cards are a key component of kanban and signal the need to move materials within a manufacturing or production facility or move materials from an outside supplier in to the production facility. The kanban card is, in effect, a message that signals that there is a depletion of product, parts, or inventory that, when received, the kanban will trigger the replenishment of that product, part, or inventory. Consumption therefore drives demand for more production, and demand for more product is signaled by the kanban card. Kanban cards therefore help create a demand-driven system. It is widely held[citation needed] by proponents of lean production and manufacturing that demanddriven systems lead to faster turnarounds in production and lower inventory levels, thereby helping companies implementing such systems to be more competitive. In the last few years, systems sending kanban signals electronically have become more widespread. While this trend is leading to a reduction in the use of kanban cards in aggregate, it is still common in modern lean production facilities to find widespread usage of kanban cards. In Oracle ERP (enterprise resource planning), kanban is used for signalling demand to vendors through e-mail notifications. When stock of a particular component is depleted by the quantity assigned on kanban card, a "kanban trigger" is created (which may be manual or automatic), a purchase order is released with predefined quantity for the vendor defined on the card, and the vendor is expected to dispatch material within a specified lead time.[citation needed]
  7. 7. Kanban cards, in keeping with the principles of kanban, simply convey the need for more materials. A red card lying in an empty parts cart conveys that more parts are needed. This system is available in enterprise resource planning software. Three-bin system An example of a simple kanban system implementation might be a "three-bin system" for the supplied parts, where there is no in-house manufacturing. One bin is on the factory floor (the initial demand point), one bin is in the factory store (the inventory control point), and one bin is at the supplier. The bins usually have a removable card containing the product details and other relevant information — the classic kanban card. When the bin on the factory floor is empty (because the parts in it were used up in a manufacturing process), the empty bin and its kanban card are returned to the factory store (the inventory control point). The factory store replaces the empty bin on the factory floor with the full bin from the factory store, which also contains a kanban card. The factory store sends the empty bin with its kanban card to the supplier. The supplier's full product bin, with its kanban card, is delivered to the factory store; the supplier keeps the empty bin. This is the final step in the process. Thus, the process will never run out of product, and could be described as a closed loop in that it provides the exact amount required, with only one spare bin so there will never be an oversupply. This 'spare' bin allows for the uncertainties in supply, use, and transport that are found in the inventory system. The secret to a good kanban system is to calculate just enough kanban cards required for each product. Most factories using kanban use the coloured board system (heijunka box). This slotted board was created especially for holding the cards. Electronic kanban systems Main article: Electronic kanban Many manufacturers have implemented electronic kanban systems[7] aka an "e-kanban system." These help to eliminate common problems such as manual entry errors and lost cards.[8] Ekanban systems can be integrated into enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, enabling realtime demand signaling across the supply chain and improved visibility. Data pulled from ekanban systems can be used to optimize inventory levels by better tracking supplier lead and replenishment times Domains of Learning
  8. 8. How We Learn Humans are lifelong learners. From birth onward we learn and assimilate what we have just learned into what we already know. Learning in the Geosciences, like all learning, can be catagorized into the domains of concept knowledge, how we view ourselves as learners and the skills we need to engage in the activities of geoscientists. As early as 1956 Educational Psychologist Benjamin Bloom divided what and how we learn into three seperate domains of learning. Cognitive Domain Cognitive Domain - This domain includes content knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts and concepts that serve developing intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, starting from the simplest behavior (recalling facts) to the most complex (Evaluation). The University of Washington's Geography Department website Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives has a detailed explanation of Bloom's Six Levels of Cognitive Development (more info) Affective Domain Affective Domain- How does one approach learning? With confidence, a can do attitude. The Affective domain includes feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The University of Dayton, School of Law Affective Domain website describes each catagory in the domain and provides illustrative examples and keywords for the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Psychomotor Domain Psychomotor Domain- The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. For a more detailed treatment of this domain see the Penn State Teaching and Learning with Technology website Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy (more info) Connecting Learning and Assessment
  9. 9. To see how assessments are built from these domains of learning and to learn how to build effective assessments go to the Hallmarks of Effective Assessment page. Resources Bloom Benjamin S. and David R. Krathwohl. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York, Longmans, Green, 1956. A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of students. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.[1] Developing a lesson plan While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order: Title of the lesson Time required to complete the lesson List of required materials List of objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion) The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions An evaluation component, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented. Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson[2] A well-developed lesson plan A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.[3]
  10. 10. Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together.[3] Similarly, history lesson plans focus on content (historical accuracy and background information), analytic thinking, scaffolding, and the practicality of lesson structure and meeting of educational goals.[4] School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan. Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles. Setting objectives The first thing a teacher does is create an objective, a statement of purpose for the whole lesson. An objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do by the end of the lesson. Harry Wong states that, “Each [objective] must begin with a verb that states the action to be taken to show accomplishment. The most important word to use in an assignment is a verb, because verbs state how to demonstrate if accomplishment has taken place or not.”[5] The objective drives the whole lesson, it is the reason the lesson exists. Care is taken when creating the objective for each day’s lesson, as it will determine the activities the students engage in. The teacher also ensures that lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement expectations are reasonable.[3] Selecting lesson plan material A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students