Focus is on the teacher.
Explain the benefits.
Objectifies the teaching process by
providing data which can show the
teacher what ‘really happened’.
“Promote self-awareness in the
(Wallace, M 1991,Training Foreign Language Teachers:A
reflective approach, CUP).
See how far your teaching beliefs are in
line with your pedagogy and assumptions
Focus the camera on you.
Use the camera in an activity.
Just record 5-10 minutes of your class.
Choose an area you want to work on.
• Giving instructions / setting up
• Error correction.
• Opening / closing a class.
“Transcribing is like taking a high-contrast
photo with all the filters off: you “see”
exactly what’s there, including what’s
usually hidden by shadows and frames”
“Once you look at what’s really there, you
can then begin to extract “meaning from it”
(Chuck Sandy, Breaking Rules Course, iTDi, Nov 2012)
Write descriptions NOT judgments.
The teacher should correct errors more
The teacher is not correcting errors.
Don’t just look at negative points look at
Opening / closing a class.
Pre-reading / listening tasks.
Questions –who asked the questions and
what type of questions are they?
Recasting / parroting.
Choose 1 or 2 areas from the
transcripts which you (the T) could
In my next class I will - correct the first
mistake to show students which tense they
should be using.
- use ‘how about you?’ / ‘what did you do?’
instead of just ‘how was your vacation?’
- - I will get the students to guess the
question what did you do during your
vacation by giving them the first letter of
Use facts from your
transcripts to help
describe the event.
More structured /
factual and thus
“A reflective teacher does not merely
seek solutions, nor does he or she do
things the same way every day without an
awareness of both the source and the
impact of his or her actions. Rather, from
his or her practice and the students’
learning, the teacher seeks meaning and
creates from this a theory to live by, a
story that provides structure for the
growth of the students and the teacher”