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Gehl architects presentations from workshop 21st June 2010


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Gehl Architects presentations from the workshop on cycling and cities for people held in Gehl Architects offices on June 21st 2010.

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Gehl architects presentations from workshop 21st June 2010

  1. 1. Cities for Bicyclists = Citi f Bi li t Cities for People Gehl Architects Cities for People Workshop Order of presentations: David Sim Lin Skaufel Jeff Risom Gil Penalosa Jan Gehl
  2. 2. A city full of moving objects.....or Cities for Bicyclists = Cities for People David Sim Director A city full of faces on the streets I am going to talk about…. About  being a human being About  how to make good places  for human beings for human beings About the Copenhagen experience About how biking fits in  when making Cities for People 1
  3. 3. Gehl Architects Founded on literature and research Urban Quality Consultants, Copenhagen Multi-disciplinary means Life Between Buildings Public Spaces ‐ Public Life Equal focus on Jan Gehl Jan Gehl & Lars Gemzøe ’Hardware’ & ’Software’ New City Life  N Cit Lif New City Spaces Gehl, Gemzøe,  Jan Gehl & Lars  Søndergaard &   Gemzøe Kirknæs Our Philosophy: Our Methodology -Empirical base -Framework rather than plan Focus: -Improving Quality of Life in Cities 2
  4. 4. Selected project cities Cultures are different… Cultures are different… Climates are different…    seasons change 3
  5. 5. But the way People inhabit and use Space is universal Quality Criteria for Space and Architecture must start with considering People Man is a Walking Animal – Ground Speed 5 km/hour Our senses are the basis for experiencing the environment Our senses are very important 4
  6. 6. In search of Human scale? “Man is man’s greatest jo (Old Icelandic saying) Fresh air, exercise and meeting people… Health? Litet, lågt och långsamt… 5
  7. 7. 60km/h environements made for driving 60 km/h 5 km/h architecture: What is Urban Quality? an environment made for walking Aesthetics and design is NOT the only thing that matters! •small spaces •small signals Bo 01 •details Malmö •people Sweden 6
  8. 8. • walk • Bike Denmark as inspiration  Bicycling in Copenhagen Modal split – Commuting to Work in 2008 - on a citywide network of bicycle lanes 7
  9. 9. Why do Danes cycle? Is it because of the environment? Is it because of financial reasons? Copenhageners 1%     cycling save over 90.000 t CO2 annually 6%     state that it is  state that it is  because of the  because of the because it is cheap because it is cheap environment Copenhagen Bicycle  Account 2006 Copenhagen Bicycle  Account 2006 Is it part of a healthy lifestyle? Is it because it is convenient, fast and easy? 19%     61%     state that it is  state that it is  because of the  because of the because it is  because it is exercise convenient, fast  and easy Copenhagen Bicycle  Account 2006 Copenhagen Bicycle  Account 2006 8
  10. 10. Denmark has established a strong bicycling tradition Why do Copenhageners cycle? 61%  Easy, fast & convenient 19%  Exercise  19% E i 6%    Financial reasons 1%    The environment Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2006 The Danish bicycling culture has always defined Or has it? Copenhagen as a city for cyclists Slide 9 9
  11. 11. From car invasion Copenhagen ‐ Process A gradual process with focus on establishing a pedestrian- and public space network PS PS PS PS PL PL PL PL 1968 1985 1995 2005 Cph PSPL New City Life 1996 2006 From car invasion people places “Strøget” before 1962 10
  12. 12. Nyhavn - before ……and after 1980 80.000 people per 24 hours in the summer “Strøget” to day Strædet - before Strædet - before …..and after 1992 11
  13. 13. Development of car‐free squares and  Copenhagen – stationary activity pedestrian/cycle friendly streets  1968 ‐ 2005 From 1968 to 1995: Almost 4 times more space and almost 4 times more activity In 1962 m2 pedestrian areas 1968 1986 1995 The first pedestrian promenade is introduced By 1973 Car-free street network is developed 1973-2005 In all 22 squares that were once parking lots are today places for people 12 m2/activity 14 m2/activity 13 m2/activity The Copenhagen Experience proves that improved conditions mean that more people spend more time in the city Better conditions for bicycling = more bicyclists 12
  14. 14. The Key to Danish Cycling Success lies in: THE 4 C’S CONSISTENT CONSISTENT Simple and user friendly: CONNECTED Main principles: Pedestrians + bicyclists Parked cars + traffic lanes CONTINUOUS COMFORTABLE CONSISTENT CONNECTED Placed where demand is highest – where people want to be! Lanes and tracks are always on the right- hand side 13
  15. 15. CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS Integrated with other transport modes Sidewalks and biketracks aren’t interupted at sidestreets COMFORTABLE 14
  16. 16. COMFORTABLE Bicycling has doubled in the last 10 years More bicycles than cars Inner city morning peak Modal split – Commuting to Work in 2008 The benefits of cycling for sustainability are widely known and accepted 2010 38% SUSTAINABILITY 15
  17. 17. In terms of access and mobility In terms of zero emission transport SOCIAL SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY In terms of affordable, private mobility A city for cyclists is a sustainable city SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY ECONOMIC ECONOMIC 16
  18. 18. cycling Der er stor forskel på livet og karakteren i de forskellige typer gader Nothing new! cycling walking cycling walking Public transport 17
  19. 19. Cycling Walking Cycling Walking Public Public Public transport t t Public transport space space = Cities for People! 18
  20. 20. 29‐06‐2010 I will address: 1.What is a good bicycle city?=Toolbox content 2.What is 2 Wh i a good bi d bicycle toolbox, and h l lb d how can a toolbox improve cities for bicycles? 3. Ex. Mexico City bicycle toolbox Bicycle toolbox Lin Skaufel Sebastian lycra 1. What characterizes the good bicycle cities? 1
  21. 21. 29‐06‐2010 Climates are different… Sebastian alle Copenhagen 2
  22. 22. 29‐06‐2010 What characterizes the good bicycle cities? Copenhagen Strong synergy between culture and infrastructure Culture- software Infrastructure- hardware E.g. Copenhagen E.g. Copenhagen Campaigns for safety‐ “Take care of blind angles” Campaigns for safety– “preventing car door accidents” 3
  23. 23. 29‐06‐2010 Copenhagen 4
  24. 24. 29‐06‐2010 E.g. Copenhagen‐ Bicycles on metro What characterizes the good bicycle cities? Strong synergy between “providers” and users • Municipality Municipality Users Bicycle account Public  Bicycles transport cars 5
  25. 25. 29‐06‐2010 What characterizes the good bicycle cities? E.g. Copenhagen Strong synergy between what you build and what Improving Infrastructure‐ “head‐start bicyclists” you learn What characterizes the good bicycle cities? Copenhagen new modal-split goal Strong mindset (time?) - New tools needed Copenhagen (turtle plan), has never had a masterplan but, slowly grown (40 years) as a bicycle city trough a mindset for cycling 38% 50% bicycle 6
  26. 26. 29‐06‐2010 Green wave for bicycles Get a free breakfast!  On selected main streets once a year New bridges Pilot projects Increased permeability for pedestrians and bicyclists Nørrebrogade- extended bicycle path 7
  27. 27. 29‐06‐2010 Accommodating new users New and improved city bicycles Paris: 2001-07: Cycling up 94% while car traffic down 20%*1 Bogota: Cycling increased 268% between 2000-2007 *1. 8
  28. 28. 29‐06‐2010 Berlin: Cycling increased 100% between 1997-2007*1 A toolbox can be a kit based on knowledge, inspiration, research and best practice from the successfull bicycle cities.. Paris: 2001-07: Cycling up 94% while car traffic down 20% Copenhagen: all ages bicycle Bogota: 2000‐2007 100%   Cycling increased  268%  Berlin: 1997‐2007 Cycling  increased  A toolbox can be a kit based on knowledge, 2. What a good 2 What is a good bicycle toolbox and how can a toolbox, and a  inspiration, research and best practice from toolbox improve cities for bicycles? the successful bicycle cities.. 9
  29. 29. 29‐06‐2010 A toolbox contains tools to achieve your goals and visions VISION/GOALS WHAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO ACHIEVE ..operationalized to local conditions and challenges. STRATEGIES/INITIATIVES HOW YOU CHOOSE TO ACHIEVE IT TOOLS How to make it operational‐ WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?  HOW DOES IT WORK? Toolbox- content Toolbox- content INSPIRATION/ LEGISLATIVE/ BEST PRACTICE MANDATORY 10
  30. 30. 29‐06‐2010 Toolbox: research Toolbox: best practice Toolbox: principles Toolbox Different challenges needs different tools 1% 10% 3-5% 15% 11
  31. 31. 29‐06‐2010 Toolbox The toolbox can be a pedagogical tool to Must have and nice to have‐ priority of needs creating an approach…. ..limiting confusion... ...increasing safety.. 12
  32. 32. 29‐06‐2010 .....and creating an approach that everybody can ....that ensures everything is thought of and agree upon- a future-proof coherent system… included to limit poor or ad-hoc solutions. • Lærke alle enige • Bilde på dette? Growing a bicycle city in one direction- over time 3. Ex. Mexico City bicycle toolbox 13
  33. 33. 29‐06‐2010 Dangerous! Mexico City 26 pedestrians killed on average every day in Downtown Flat! Good climate! Many short trips! Dangerous! Unhealthy! Slow! Slow! Unhealthy! Traffic jams …obesity and air polution – but the bicycle is the fastest form of transportation during rush hour ”… Mexico is the second‐fattest ”… spending a day in Mexico City is  nation after U.S.” the equivalent of smoking over 40  cigarettes a day, without actually taking a drag” 14
  34. 34. 29‐06‐2010 More than a bicycle project… …bicycle infrastructe as a catalyst for improving city quality One bicycle system for the whole city y y y 15
  35. 35. 29‐06‐2010 Based on quality Integrated! Safe! Comfortable! Enjoyable! Generated out of the overall  visions for Mexico City 16
  36. 36. 29‐06‐2010 Content has two parts: Software & Hardware (Culture + infrastructure) Customised for the different users 17
  37. 37. 29‐06‐2010 A safe street A safe crossing Physical separation of cars and bicycles Street markings / levels 18
  38. 38. 29‐06‐2010 Safe bicycle parking A safe and convenient location 19
  39. 39. 29‐06‐2010 20
  40. 40. 30‐06‐2010 Improving mobility in NYC The Insider Story Contents for this session 1. Insight into the NYC process 2. Holistic approach – Integrated with the public realm – Across city departments – Public and private sectors 3. Using temporary pilot projects – Together with empirical data – Efficient and affordable implementation Jeff Risom – To inspire and as a catalyst for change Associate Gehl Architects MSc City Design and Social Science New York City list of accomplishments New York City’s incredible … and ongoing work New York City In June 2009, DOT completed 200 miles of bike lanes in all  DOT plans are to install 50 lane miles each year until the  five boroughs in just three years.  (doubling the citywide  citywide bicycle network is complete on‐street bike network while reshaping the city’s streets  to make them safer for users) Overall goal: double bicycle commuting between 2007  and 2015, triple it by 2020 Of this: 4.9 miles of bike paths physically separated from  car traffic lanes, 20 sheltered bike parking structures, and  car traffic lanes, 20 sheltered bike parking structures, and Goal of 1,800 bike lane miles by the year 2030 Goal of 1,800 bike lane miles by the year 2030 3,100 bike racks  These projects led to more than 45% growth in commuter  cycling in that time (3 years) .   1
  41. 41. 30‐06‐2010 Times Square Times Square ‐ before  ‐ after  9th Ave. July 07  9th Ave. Sept.07 2
  42. 42. 30‐06‐2010 9th Avenue, Manhattan Pilot Projects as a means to a greater ends  – to improve the process 3
  43. 43. 30‐06‐2010 Out‐reach and consultations were across disciplines and  departments  ‐ both across city agencies Pilot Projects – Build Political Base Quick Wins Permanent Projects Guaranteed Success Change of Mindset Consult Stake‐ ‐ and in the community holders Gehl survey, lectures , visits             support Advocacy Private  Neighborhood Interest Additional groups Business Gov’t organizations groups Justification Operationalizing – ensure Vision and strategy that change endures and  for change adapts 4
  44. 44. 30‐06‐2010 Toward a holistically conceived public realm – based on Quality for People! This process is about balancing interests and needs Designing  objects Making places (creating  opportunities  for place to  flourish) Test the waters – the first pilots Test the waters – the first pilots Small scale Summer 2006 In ‘forgotten’ city spaces Private sector initiated Supported by Dept. Of Transport 5
  45. 45. 30‐06‐2010 Test the waters – the first pilots Use publications to frame the argument Watch and see •What are the problems? And successes? Vision – PlaNYC •Who uses the spaces? Launched ’Earth Day’ April 22, 2007 The second pilots Toward a healthy, vibrant, safe, attractive, sustainable New York City Lessons learned from first projects August 2007 6
  46. 46. 30‐06‐2010 A strategy for creating real change Gehl Architects are engaged through a series of pilot projects Unbalanced distribution of space All were illegally parked 7
  47. 47. 30‐06‐2010 Seeing places with fresh eyes Quantifying impressions Existing painted cycle lanes were not performing well Tough streets for bicycling Tough streets for bicycling In conflict with other traffic modes Bicycle network is incomplete Poor access for bicyclists Bicycle network is unclear 8
  48. 48. 30‐06‐2010 Improve the bicycling infrastructure Tough streets for bicycling and experience Introduce bicycling  infrastructure as a  important step towards a  sustainable and healthy  city lifestyle. i Poor comfort High risk for accidents New York is the perfect City for cycling New York is the perfect City for cycling 9
  49. 49. 30‐06‐2010 Opportunities to experience potential first‐hand Test, Refine, Adjust, Re‐launch 2008 – 2009 – first Summer Streets Revised Route 10
  50. 50. 30‐06‐2010 DOT used in‐house staff and recycled materials and resources to deliver the project  quickly and efficiently  • Estimated cost $1.5 million DOT has implemented 200 miles of Bicycle lanes over the last 2 years 11
  51. 51. 30‐06‐2010 9th Avenue, Manhattan 8th Avenue, Manhattan 12
  52. 52. 30‐06‐2010 Broadway scheme Access is allowed but through traffic is prohibited And space is reclaimed at the  Pearls on a String for Broadway The pilots focused on areas where success was most likely – People cycled already and traffic was minimal Columbus Circle ‐ before  Columbus Circle ‐ after  13
  53. 53. 30‐06‐2010 Madison Square  Nov. 2008 Broadway, Manhattan 14
  54. 54. 30‐06‐2010 Herald Square ‐ before And where people already choose to spend time What began with the ‘pearls’ … spread out to the ‘strings’ as well Herald Square ‐ after  15
  55. 55. 30‐06‐2010 The Third Generartion of Pilot Projects place the bicycle lane next to parked cars 16
  56. 56. 30‐06‐2010 The design is not perfect... But it is a start The design is not perfect... But it is a start Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · 17
  57. 57. 30‐06‐2010 And the new space is appreciated by other user groups Inviting for new users and uses Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · And the new space is appreciated by other user groups Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · 18
  58. 58. 30‐06‐2010 Partnerships and publicity New public seating integrated with bicycle parking – on previously disused subway vents 19
  59. 59. 30‐06‐2010 Invitations to soak in the atmosphere Ian Mahaffy and Maarten De Greeve Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · Inviting a new user group… A place more accessible for all …locals Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · 20
  60. 60. 30‐06‐2010 People don’t change their behavior when you tell them to; People first Life Space Buildings Copenhagen Modal Split 61% of those who bike do so out of convenience People change when the context compels them to Questions for discussion The role of cycling in creating cities for people 1. How do we promote a sense of urgency to speed up the  process of changing cycling culture? 2. How can we encourage people that don’t cycle to cycle? 3. How can we promote intermodal behavior to encourage  cycling as part of transport trips? Please consider strategies for both ‘SOFTWARE’ as well as ‘HARDWARE’ 21
  61. 61. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Those were the days when architects were CITIES FOR PEOPLE big, and people were quite smal.... Graduated as Architect JAN GEHL, PROFESSOR, DR. LITT. FOUNDING PARTNER: GEHL ARCHITECTS 1960 The worst period in City Planning ever! URBAN QUALITY CONSULTANTS, COPENHAGEN From 1955…. Carinvasion 1960.. Perth, West Australia Elsinore, Denmark 1
  62. 62. 30-06- 30-06-2010 All Cities have Traffic & Do you know of any City which have a People department, a Departments for Planning Departments and pedestrians and public life? perfect statistics concerning traffic and planning issues Hardly any City have statistics and data concerning the people who use the city * * The Buildings & the Traffic is The people in the City tends to be very very visible and everpresent invisible and poorly represented in the in the planning proces planning proces Jane Jacobs 4 ”Life Between Buildings” 1st edition 1971 1961 decades Published in many versions 20 languages of research ”New City Spaces Spaces” - 2001 00 ”Public Spaces Public Life - 1996 ”New City Life” - 2006 2
  63. 63. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Making People Visible Major City Improvement Projects: Copenhagen Stockholm London Riga Edinburgh Rotterdam Oslo Zürich Reykjavik Seattle San Fransisco x New York Mexico City Amman Muscat Brisbane Sydney Perth Melbourne Cape Town Adelaide Previous Projects Hobart Wellington Current Projects Auckland Comming Projects Christchurch GEHL- GEHL-Architects, Urban Quality Consultants, Den 3
  64. 64. 30-06- 30-06-2010 A Presentation with 3 Tales: * The Human Dimension ”The Client” * New Towns/ New Developements * Cities/City Planning 1. Children always play where the activity and life is THE HUMAN DIMENSION - introducing ”the Client” 4
  65. 65. 30-06- 30-06-2010 People watching People watching - the number one attraction in any city - the number one attraction in any city 5
  66. 66. 30-06- 30-06-2010 IN SEARCH OF A HUMAN SCALE 6
  67. 67. 30-06- 30-06-2010 5 km/hour Architecture THE CLIENT: •small spaces A slow, linear, horizontal, •small signals •details max 5 km/h walking creature •people •close up´s + distant views 60 km/hour Architecture •large spaces •huge signals •no details •no people 7
  68. 68. 30-06- 30-06-2010 5 km/hour 100 km/hour Architecture Architecture Dubai Venice, Italy 8
  69. 69. 30-06- 30-06-2010 9
  70. 70. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Prerequisities for Planning: • Human Body • Human Movements • Human Senses 2. • Human Interaction • Human Behaviour CITIES FOR PEOPLE AS DESIGN CHALLENGE ( New Developement / New Towns) Almeere, New Town, Holland. 100.000 Inh (1975-2000) ”THE BRASILIA SYNDROME”! (City Planning from 5.000 meter above the ground ) Brasilia (1955- ) ( (1955- 10
  71. 71. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Brasilia -The people scale is completely neglected Welcome to Kenzo Tange & Singapore Shanghai, China Downtown, Dubai 11
  72. 72. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Downtown, Dubai Dubai ”Welcome to the ”New” London” 12
  73. 73. 30-06- 30-06-2010 ”Welcome ?” Old Housing area (1905) Copenhagen, Denmark Uninteresting City Plan Scale 13
  74. 74. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Turning the traditional design process upside down First LIFE -then SPACE But a realy nice and inviting -then BUILDINGS People Scale The secret: A public Space Plan as the first step in the planning process Sibelius Park, Residential district, Copenhagen 14
  75. 75. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Bo01, Residential district, Malmö, Sweden, 2001 Rieselfeld & Vauban, New Towns Freiburg Wanted: 3. THE CITIES - Lively City New City - Attractive City - Spaces Safe City - Jan Gehl & Sustainable City - Lars Gemzøe Healthy City Needed: ONE STONE- STONE- FIVE BIRDS POLICY 15
  76. 76. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Lively City Attractive City Safe city Sustainable City 16
  77. 77. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Healthy City Suggestion for simple ONE STONE/FIVE BIRDS Sustainability Policy ”In this City everything will be do e t s C ty e e yt g done to invite people to walk and bicycle as much as possible in the course of their daily day doings” ”Houston -the City with the fattest people of the World” Copenhagen The development of pedestrian areas in the city from From traffic place to people place 1962…….7 times more People Space! 17
  78. 78. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Many more People are walking in the city 4 times more people spend time in the city Copenhagen: New Public Life Policy 2009: ”WORLDS FINEST CITY FOR PEOPLE” In only 40 years the good season has been extended from 2 to 10 months 18
  79. 79. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Official City Poster September 2007 Copenhagen The No 1 Bicycle City in the World Goals for 2015: * 50% of all comuting on bicycles * Bicycle Accidents to Melbourne, - 3 mio. Inh. The Age c. 1980 19
  80. 80. 30-06- 30-06-2010 MELBOURNE City Center 1994-2004 1994- Pedestrian traffic weekdays daytime: +40% Pedestrian traffic evening: +100 % Stationary activities +200-300% +200- Melburne -but when it comes to street life and ambience it -looks like any city in the new World has by now a distinct touch of -say- Paris say- 20
  81. 81. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Retail Residential Office Vacancies Employment Bars and Pubs A CITY GOOD AT PARTIES, OLYMPICS and SUMMITS…. Copenhagen Melbourne oct 07 21
  82. 82. 30-06- 30-06-2010 ….. BUT NOT SO GLORIOUS FOR THE EVERYDAY LIFE Main Street in Sydney to be transformed to Pedestrians, Bicycles and Light Rail Present situation George St. After conversion 22
  83. 83. 30-06- 30-06-2010 Copenhagen Style Bicycle Lanes (on Copenhagen Corner) Sydney, Oct.2008 23
  84. 84. 30-06- 30-06-2010 WELCOME TO THE 21st CENTURY NYC Dept. of Transp. w/ Gehl Architects, Published: 13 nov 2008 24
  85. 85. 30-06- 30-06-2010 ”the Client” PLEASE Never forget who we are working for! ”CITIES FOR PEOPLE The forgotten dimension 25