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# Ecommerce final

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• RSA key setup is done once (rarely) when a user establishes (or replaces) their public key, using the steps as shown. The exponent e is usually fairly small, just must be relatively prime to ø(n). Need to compute its inverse mod ø(n) to find d. It is critically important that the factors p &amp; q of the modulus n are kept secret, since if they become known, the system can be broken. Note that different users will have different moduli n.
• Here walk through example RSA key generation using “trivial” sized numbers. Selecting primes requires the use of a primality test. Finding d as inverse of e mod ø ( n ) requires use of Euclid’s Inverse algorithm (see Ch4)
• ### Ecommerce final

1. 1. E-Commerce Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
2. 2. Commerce: The exchange of goods or services for money. E-Commerce: eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer network. Examples :  Examples ATM (only one watchman can handle the business).  Selling physical goods using websites e.g. flowers, cards, magazines, shoes, electronic items.  Reserving a hotel room over the Internet.  A manufacturing plant orders electronic components from another plant within the company using the company's intranet. Introduction Of Electronic Commerce Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
3. 3. Objectives Of E-Commerce  Information Sharing  Online communities  Chat rooms  Multi-party conferences  Bulletin board systems  Newsgroups  Ordering  Payment  Fulfillment, service and Support Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
4. 4. History of E-commerce and Indian Business Context  Business Processes buying, selling goods, services and information.  Use of technology for business processes • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) • Electronic mail (Email) • World Wide Web (WWW) • Internet applications  Ecommerce Provides way to exchange information between individuals, companies and countries using computers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
5. 5. World Wide Web (WWW) 1969- The US Department of Defense started the first network among major research centers in US. 1971- A total of 15 major connections or nodes were established. E-mail was introduced. 1973- Defense Department started developing various forms of file transfer. 1984- Domain Name Service (DNS), was introduced. 1986- US National Science Foundation created Internet-based telephone lines. 1987- The number of hosts reached 10,000. 1988- The number of hosts became 60,000. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
6. 6. World Wide Web (WWW) 1989- over 100,000 hosts on the internet were registered. 1991-WWW was created by CERN 1992- 1 million hosts 1993- The InterNic was created to handle domain name registration. 1995- 6.6 million hosts July 1996- An estimated 12.8 million hosts, 212,155 websites and about 25 million users of the web. 90% in United states. July 1997- 1.3 million domain names registered. Dec 1997- 22 million servers, 40 million users on WWW 2000- 110 million users and 72 million Domain Names 2003- 802.2 million users and 233 million hosts.Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
7. 7. Advantages of E-commerce 1. 24X7 operation. 2. Global reach 3. Cost of acquiring, serving and retaining customers 4. An extended enterprise is easy to build 5. Disintermediation 6. Improved customer service to your clients 7. Power to provide the ‘best of both the worlds’ 8. A technology-based customer interface. 9. The customer controls the interaction. 10.Knowledge of customer behaviour. 11.Network economics. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
8. 8. Disadvantages of E-commerce 1. Some business products are difficult to inspect from remote location. 2. Can not calculate return-on-investments. 3. Technology and software issues. 4. Cultural and legal obstacles. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
9. 9. E-commerce in India Growth of Internet in India (in thousands) Year Internet subscribers Internet users 1997 25 45 1998 150 200 1999 359 1000 2000 650 2000 2001 1130 6668 2002 1763 10684 2003 3661 29000 2004 4403 31723 2005 6674 52875 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
10. 10. E-commerce in India Total E-commerce transactions in India: NASSCOM survey (in Rs crore) Year Total e-commerce transactions 1998-1999 131 1999-2000 450 2000-2002 1400 2006 2300 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
11. 11. E-commerce opportunities for Industries 1. Financial services 2. Stock trading 3. Banking 4. Legal and professional services 5. Tour and travel 6. Healthcare Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
12. 12. Various Indian case studies 1. TELCO- Managing Supply Chain on the Internet: 1. Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company. 2. India’s largest commercial vehicle manufacturer. 3. 130-strong dealer network online. 4. Covers major manufacturing locations in Pune, Jamshedpur and Lucknow and its headquarters in Mumbai. 5. In better position to customize products according to specific dealer requirements at a short notice. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
13. 13. Various Indian case studies 2. Hidustan Lever-Getting the e-advantage 1. Huge Range of products. 2. Network connecting all its suppliers. 3. In first phase, launched a pilot project to wire up its 7500 distributers. 4. In second phase, it will attempt the huge task of connecting its top retailers. 5. Internet is used for transactions. 6. Formidable distribution system, which covers nearly two million retail outlets. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
14. 14. Various Indian case studies 3. Asian Paints- E-transforming the organization 1. India’s largest paint company. 2. Use of internets for efficient data collection, demand forecasting, reduction in working capital and online information about material flows across factories and other locations. 3. Connecting 15000 dealers and 55 branch offices. 4. Improved the efficiency of supply chain. 5. Improves e-relationship with customers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
15. 15. Various Indian case studies 4. ICICI bank- Comprehensive Transactions 1. Provide online banking 2. Customers/account holders can do all their money transactions. 3. Bank launched an electronic bill payment service through its internet banking service. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
16. 16. E-transition Challenges for Indian Corporates Internal Resisting Issues 1. Bureaucratic wrangles. 2. Cultural changes. 3. Not many are prepared. 4. Lack of skill and training. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
17. 17. E-transition Challenges for Indian Corporates External Driving Factors 1. Sheer necessity. 2. Big business, the driving factor. 3. Global market. 4. Value for money. 5. No-entry barriers. 6. Other factors. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
18. 18. E-transition Challenges for Indian Corporates Doubts and Difficulties 1. Household are shaky about buying over the Internet. 2. Computers are not bought for browsing the internet. 3. Lack of proper commercial and legal system. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
19. 19. Business Models for E-commerce Definition: A business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself and generate revenue. or An architecture for product, service, and information flow, including a description of business players, their roles and revenue sources. Simple Model : Example: Production of goods, selling and generating revenues. Complex Model : Example: Radio and television broadcasting involves network of distributors, content creators, advertisers, listeners and viewers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
20. 20. Business Models for E-commerce Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
21. 21. Business Models for E-commerce Functions of Electronic Market : i) Matching buyers and sellers ii) Facilitating commercial transactions iii) Providing legal infrastructure iv) Increase market efficiency and reduce transaction costs. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
22. 22. Business Models for E-commerce 1. E-business model based on the relationship of transaction parties. 2. E-business model based on the relationship of transaction types. 3. Classification by revenue model. 4. Classification by distribution channel. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
23. 23. Business Models for E-commerce E-commerce models can be perceived in the form of relationship between two entities:  Direct marketing versus indirect marketing  Fully cybermarketing versus partial cybermarketing.  Electronic distributors versus shopping mall  Generalized e-malls versus specialized e-malls  Proactive versus strategic cybermarketing  Global versus regional marketing  Sales versus customer service. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
24. 24. E-business model based on the relationship of transaction parties. 1) Business-to-Consumer (B2C) 2) Business-to-Business (B2B) 3) Business-to-Government (B2G) 4) Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) 5) Consumer-to-Business (C2B) Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
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26. 26. Relation Between B2B and B2C models Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
27. 27. E-business model based on the relationship of transaction parties. 1) Business-to-Consumer (B2C) : Steps in B2C transactions 1. Account acquisition 2. Product discovery through search and browse 3. Price negotiation 4. Payment 5. Product delivery Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
28. 28. E-business model based on the relationship of transaction parties. Reasons to opt for B2C model 1. Inexpensive costs, big opportunities 2. Globalization 3. Reduced operational costs 4. Customer convenience 5. Knowledge management Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
29. 29. Processes in B2CMrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
30. 30. Processes in B2C 1. Visiting the virtual mall 2. Customer registers 3. Customer buys products 4. Merchant processes the order 5. Credit card is processed 6. Operations management 7. Shipment and delivery 8. Customer receives 9. After-sales service Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
31. 31. Business-to-Business (B2B) Advantages of B2B • Direct interaction with customers. • Focused sales promotion. • Building customer loyalty • Scalability • Savings in distribution costs Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
32. 32. Business-to-Business (B2B) Tools and Techniques at the Disposal of B2B Enterprises • Use of pricing as a tool • Use of application service provider model • Use of generic models which are known for efficiency as well as personalized attention to various business customers. • Use of comparison shopping. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
33. 33. Business-to-Business (B2B) Steps in B2B Transactions • Review catalogues. • Identify specifications. • Define requirements. • Post request for proposals (REP). • Review vendor reputation. • Select vendor. • Fill out purchase orders (PO). • Send PO to vendor. • Prepare invoice. • Make payment. • Arrange shipment • Organize product inspection and reception. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
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35. 35. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
36. 36. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)  Consumers sell directly to other consumer  Medium for selling – 1. online classified ads, 2. auctions, An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid (making price offer), taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder. 3. Selling personal services and expertise online. e.g. eBay. COM (auction), TraderOnline.com  Generate revenue from expert information exchanges. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
37. 37. Consumer-to-Business (C2B)  Reverse auction or demand collection model.  Enables buyers to name their own price.  Website collects the demand bids.  Offer bids to participating sellers  Examples:  ReverseAuction.com (travel, autos, consumer electronics)  Priceline.com (travel, telephone, mortgages ) Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
38. 38. E-business Models Based on the Relationship of Transaction Types  On the basis of value addition : Addition of value to a product or service because of opportunities offered on web  On the basis of control : Control is done through the policies of the website. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
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40. 40. E-business Models Based on the Relationship of Transaction Types Types of transactions 1. Brokerage 2. Aggregator 3. Info-mediary 4. Community 5. Value chain 6. Subscription 7. Manufacturer 8. Advertising 9. Affiliate Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
41. 41. Brokerage Model Characteristics 1. The price-discovery mechanism is its key-principle. 2. It is a meeting point for sellers and buyers. 3. Auctions and exchanges are the modes of transactions. 4. It is a ‘free Market’. 5. It consist of Global Network of Buyers and Sellers. 6. It is a Virtual Market space enabled by the Internet. 7. It encompasses all types of organizations. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
42. 42. Brokerage Model Characteristics 1. The price-discovery mechanism is its key-principle. 2. It is a meeting point for sellers and buyers. 3. Auctions and exchanges are the modes of transactions. 4. It is a ‘free Market’. 5. It consist of Global Network of Buyers and Sellers. 6. It is a Virtual Market space enabled by the Internet. 7. It encompasses all types of organizations. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
43. 43. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
44. 44. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms 1. Auction: A seller puts up an item and buyers place bids until the close of the auction, at which time the item goes to the highest bidder. 2. Reverse Auction : A type of auction in which sellers bid for the prices at which they are willing to sell their goods and services. 3. Market Exchange Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
45. 45. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms Examples of price discovery mechanism based models: 1. B2B B2B sell side FastParts.com B2B buy side FreeMarket.com B2B Exchanges Covisint.com 2. B2C Priceline.com 3. C2C ebay.com Indian brokerage sites: www.baazee.com www.automartindia.com www.indiacar.com www.steelexchangeindia.com Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
46. 46. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms Auction broker 1. English auction:  Open-outcry auction or ascending-price auction.  Used for selling art, wine and other physical goods which do not have limited lifetime.  Auctioneer starts off auction with the lowest acceptable price or reserve price.  Receives bids until no raise in the bid.  Knocks down  Manipulation of bidders is possible.  Auction site may provide alerts if their bids are too low.  Possibility of pay more if bidder gets excited  Possibility of pay less if reserve price is not declared. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
47. 47. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms 2. Dutch auction:  Descending-price auction.  Used for goods which have limited lifetime.  Auction time period is very short.  Practiced in departmental stores during sales season to dispose off excess inventory accumulation.  Forces bidder to make bidding decisions earlier.  Opening price is set extremely high.  Price then descends with a predefined amount at predefined time intervals.  When many items of the same product are auctioned, many bidders claims the product until no product left.  Different prices for different bidders. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
48. 48. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms 3. First-price sealed-bid auction:  Individual bids are hidden from other bidders.  Bidding phase –  all bides are collected.  Each bidder submits bid based on his own valuation  Resolution phase –  bids are opened and the winner is determined.  Bids are opened and sorted from highest to lowest bid  For one item highest will be winning bid.  For multiple items of same product – items are awarded to the highest bids until no items left (Discriminatory Sealed Bid).  In Discriminatory Sealed Bid all bidders do not pay the same price. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
49. 49. Brokerage – Price Discovery Mechanisms 4. Vickrey auction:  William Vickrey, the winner of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Economics, developed the Vickrey auction.  Uniformed second-price auction.  Bids are sealed.  The winning bidder will pay the price of the second highest bid.  Winner – Highest unsuccessful bid.  For multiple units of the same item – all winning bidders will pay the same price.  Vickrey and first-price sealed-bid auction will both yield the same expected price..  Bidder will adjust his bids as he increases the price upwards. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
50. 50. Economic Rationality Behind Auction Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
51. 51. Impact of Web on Electronic Auctions Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
52. 52. Impact of Web on Electronic Auctions Benefits of using web enabled auctions 1. Common infrastructure with millions of potential users. 2. Standardized hypertext protocol for displaying the trade objects to increase economic feasibility of electronic auctions. 3. Standardized search function. 4. Standards for secure payments. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
53. 53. Critical Factors characterizing Electronic Auctions 1. Perishability: occurs if the value of the product to be sold at a given time is zero. 2. Scarcity : occurs when there is an excess demand than supply. 3. Goods that may be moved electronically 4. Goods that are geographically constrained. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
54. 54. Electronic Auctions seller-buyer perspective 1. Consumer-to-Consumer(C2C) i. Modern version of classified advertisement. ii. Require two persons to be located near to each other to reduce transportation cost. 2. Business-to-Consumer(B2C) i. Companies trying to sell off excess stock or fixing prices for new products. 3. Business-to-Business(B2B) i. Mainly used by companies and government to sell public contracts and surplus property. ii. B2B auctions held privately. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
55. 55. eBay model 1. World’s largest personal online trading community. 2. Individuals can buy and sell items in more than 4320 categories like automobiles, collectibles, antiques, sports memorabilia, computers, toys, coins, stamps, books, magazines, music, pottery, glass, photography, electronics, jewelry, gemstones etc. 3. Person-to-person trading site. 4. eBay provides 4 million new auctions and 4,50,000 new items every day. 5. Bulletin boards- encourages open communication between users. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
56. 56. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
57. 57. Aggregator Model Different aggregator models 1. Virtual Merchant : i. Operates only from web. ii. Offers traditional or web specific goods and services. iii. Selling method- list price, auctions. iv. Example: Facetime - application service provider. Provides customer support for Amazon, eToys, Eyewire and Onsale. 2. Catalogue Merchant : Migration of mail order to web based order Example: Levenger Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
58. 58. Aggregator Model 3. Surf and turf : Establishment of traditional business to web storefront. 4. Bit Vendor : i. Merchant deals in digital products and services. ii. Conduct sales and distribution over the web. 5. Subscription model : i. User pay for access to site. ii. High value added content is essential. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
59. 59. Aggregator Model Aggregators 1. Bypass distributors. 2. Connectors between buyers and sellers. 3. Involved in selection, organization, matching buyers requirements with available goods, fulfillment of the orders etc. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
60. 60. Aggregator Model Types of Aggregators 1. Content aggregators: i. Represent large publishing companies Example : Pathfinder.com ii. Contents are attractive to make site viable. 2. Mainstream aggregators: i. Sites providing web directory and search engine. ii. Provide attractive tools like e-mail, home pages, reminders. iii. Easy- to-remember URL iv. Top traffic sites on web. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
61. 61. Aggregator Model Types of Aggregators 3. Event aggregators: Sites providing in-depth content and tools tailored to needs of particular group. Example: Microsoft’s HomeAdvisor or HomeShark. 4. Shopping aggregators: i. Let consumers roam through sites and catalogues to find best price in seconds. ii. Help consumers to choose through dozens of e- commerce site. Example: compare.com, bizrate.com. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
62. 62. Aggregator Model: case study of Automartindia.com Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
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64. 64. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
65. 65. Info-mediary Model  Info-mediary : An organizer of virtual community.  Helps sellers to collect, manage and maximize the value of information about consumers.  Information is analyzed and used to target marketing campaigns.  Firms function as info-mediaries : collecting and selling information to other businesses.  Offer users free internet access/hardware in exchange for detailed information about their surfing and purchasing habits. E.g. NetZero, eMachines.com  Do not own products and services.  Protect consumers from unsolicited mailings and confusing product selection.Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
66. 66. Info-mediary Model  Info-mediary Revenue :  Membership fees.  Advertising revenue.  Number of user page views and transactional revenue.  subscription fees. Value Addition :  Overcome limitation of physical space. Provide suitable suggestions to buyers. Helps buyers expand, organize and optimize search space. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
67. 67. Info-mediary Model Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
68. 68. Info-mediary Model Classification 1. Specialized agents:  Closed relationship with buyers and sellers  Require cost in the form of fees to satisfy membership profile.  Manage a specialized market.  Business performance depends on their ability to deliver value through scope, specialization and infrastructure. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
69. 69. Info-mediary Model 2. Generic agents:  Open relationships with buyers and suppliers.  No relationship specific investments.  Great value through comprehensive and unbiased service  Generate revenues from advertising. Example. Google.com, Hotbot.com, yahoo.com Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
70. 70. Info-mediary Model 3. Supplier agents:  Sponsored by specific companies to sell their products.  Provide access to only its own products.  Sustainability depends on the quality of suppliers, provision of benefits to buyers and ability to maintain a good infrastructure and seamless exchanges platform. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
71. 71. Info-mediary Model 4. Buyer agents:  Relationship with core set buyers and any number of suppliers.  To succeed- build a large base of clients, winning their trust Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
72. 72. Community Model Definitions: a) a unified body of individuals b) the people with common interests living in a particular area, broadly the area itself. c) an interacting population of various kinds of individuals in a common location. E-communities: Electronic communities are formed when groups of people meet online to fulfill certain needs, which include personal interests, relationships, entertainment and transactions. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
73. 73. Community Model Functions of Communities on the Web 1.Satisfies the need to be accepted and concerned about. Satisfies a desire to learn. Act as place to make personal or business contacts. 2.Deep reservoirs of technical information. 3.Beget loyalty : develop the habit of visiting one particular site again and again. Develop sense of ownership. 4.Build business. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
74. 74. Community Model Structures of Communities: 1.Newsletters: • One-way communication • Use listserver software (listserv) which sends same message to an entire list of people. • Handles subscribers. • listserve act as a backbone for e-mail discussion lists. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
75. 75. Community Model Structures of Communities: 2. Discussion Lists: listserv allows a member to send e-mail to the list address Types of discussion lists: 1.E-mail discussion list 2.E-mail discussion list digest 3.Moderated discussion list digest Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
76. 76. Community Model Structures of Communities: . Bulletin Boards: • Thread keeping problem is removed. • Allowing posts to be read, searched and researched later by individuals who may not have been part of the original conversations Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
77. 77. Community Model . Chat Rooms: • Source of knowledge and information • In business- for public relations, schedule chats and interviews with famous personalities to gear up business. • Example : • eGroups- java based chat room • Registration required for security. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
78. 78. Community Model Necessary elements for the community model 1. Clear focus 2. Technical capability 3. A proper structure, guidelines and parameters for discussion. 4. A moderator responsible for each group or list 5. A clear strategy on how the community will benefit your business. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
79. 79. Community Model Bottom Line : effect of community on business 1. Customer satisfaction through customer support - enhance sales. 2. Increased traffic leads to increased publicity. 3. Repeated use develop loyalty. 4. Moderating or sponsoring a group puts you/your business in the role of an expert. 5. Helps in focusing groups interested in your products/services. 6. Well developed lists can earn advertising revenue. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
80. 80. Value Chain Model Goal of value chain model  To develop full and seamless interaction among all members of chain.  Lower inventories  Higher customer satisfaction  Shorter time to the market. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
81. 81. Value Chain Model Generalized portal : AltaVista as a Value Chain Model  Premier knowledge resource, strong search engine tool, patented technology.  Provide relevant information on any subject, web pages, shopping, up-to-the-minute news, live audio and video, community resources. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
82. 82. Value Chain Model Generalized portal : AltaVista as a Value Chain Model  Premier knowledge resource, strong search engine tool, patented technology.  Provide relevant information on any subject, web pages, shopping, up-to-the-minute news, live audio and video, community resources.  Provide multiple integrated platforms. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
83. 83. Value Chain Model  AltaVista Search: Available in 25 languages with 8 distinct search dimensions.  AltaVista Shopping.com:  First comparison shopping service  provide objective price and product comparison feature.  helps intelligent purchase decision making.  AltaVista live  Only real time, customizable content source.  Links content channels on topic like money, news, sports, entertainment etc.  AltaVista raging bull: Most active finance community.  AltaVista free access: fastest growing ISP service with 2 million registered users in US and Canada.  AltaVista international Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
84. 84. Value Chain Model Capabilities of AltaVista Search technology 1. Search catalogues, inventory databases, auctions, classifieds, job listings, suppliers etc. 2. Improve the success rate of incoming searches. 3. Allow users to sort results by brand, price, availability etc Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
85. 85. Value Chain Model Personalized portal : My Yahoo! as a Value Chain Model  Personalized version of yahoo.  Allows user to collect all his favourite sections of yahoo.  Example: surfing through news, weather, stock prices, sports scores, TV and movie listings, horoscopes etc.  My yahoo is free, portable.  Allow users to have two pages-  A home page: frequently accessed information storage.  Secondary page :store secondary information. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
86. 86. Value Chain Model Topics that Yahoo! Offers  Pick your weather cities  Track your stock quotes  Read your choice of news  Find local movie show times  Follow your favourite sports teams Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
87. 87. Manufacturer Model  Direct model  Allow manufacturers to reach buyers directly  Compress distribution channel  Based on efficiency, improved customer service and understanding customer preferences.  Manufacturer sells product through website Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
88. 88. Manufacturer Model Websites used for,  Purchase: The sale of a product in which the right of ownership is transferred to the buyer.  Lease : In exchange for a rental fee, the buyer receives the right to use the product under “terms of use” agreement. On expiration of lease agreement product is returned. Agreement may include a right-of-purchase upon expiration. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
89. 89. Manufacturer Model  License: The sale of a product involves transfer of usage rights to buyers. The ownership rights remain with the manufacturer. (e.g. software licensing)  Brand integrated content Created by manufacturers for the sole basis of product placement. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
91. 91. Advertising Model Web pricing models: • CPM or impression only • Click-through • Sponsorships • Cost-per-lead • Cost-per-sale • Straight revenue sharing deals Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
92. 92. Advertising Model Types of Advertising on the Internet 1.Portals :e.g. yahoo 2.Classifieds :e.g. monster.com 3.User-based registration :e.g. NYTimes Digital 4.Query-based paid placement :e.g. Google 5.Contextual Advertising :e.g. eZula Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
93. 93. Advertising Model Different Web Advertising Formats: 1.Banners. 2.Vertical columns 3.Pop-up windows 4.Interstitials 5.Advertorials 6.Intromercials 7.Ultramercials Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
94. 94. Advertising Model Formats of more effective online ads: 1.Richer ad content through sight, sound, and motion 2.More information (larger files) 3.More interactivity 4.Larger screen size 5.More prominent screen positions 6.Less content competition 7.Reliable measurement and reporting to enable each advertiser to determine its ad ROI-impressions, interactivity, brand sell. 8.Accurate audience measurement 9.Meaningful user targeting 10.Cost-effective advertising model with rates reflecting advertiser value. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
95. 95. Subscription Model • Users are charged a periodic fee to subscribe to a service. • Frequently combined with advertising model • Organizations makes money or revenue from subscriptions. Services provided by subscription models : 1. Content services : e.g. Netflix.com 2. Person-to-person Networking service : e.g. Classmates.com 3. Trust Services : e.g. Truste.com 4. Internet Service Providers : e.g. America Online. Popular topics of subscription model : • Existing newsletters topics • Trade associations. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
96. 96. Affiliate Model • online merchant agrees to pay an affiliate in exchange for providing an advertisement and link to the merchant's site. • Each sale generated as a result of a customer "clicking through" from an affiliate to the merchant results in a small commission for the affiliate. Variations Banner exchange. Pay-per-click. Revenue sharing. Example Cdnow.com Amazon.com Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
97. 97. Technologies of World Wide Web  Abbreviated as www, w3 or web  Access several internet protocols by providing single interface.  WWW has its own protocol-HTTP  Operations on web relies on HyperText. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
98. 98. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
99. 99. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
100. 100. Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
101. 101. TELNET  TELNET is a protocol that provides “a general, bi-directional, eight-bit byte oriented communications facility”.  telnet is a program that supports the TELNET protocol over TCP.  Many application protocols are built upon the TELNET protocol.  telnet program allow to use online databases, library catalogs, chat services etc.  IP address is required to telnet a computer  A telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to web browser in order to work. Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
102. 102. Local login Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
103. 103. Remote login using TELNET Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
104. 104. FTP - File Transfer Protocol  Used for transfer of files.  FTP contains books, articles, software, games, images, sound, multimedia, course work, data sets etc.  Can be performed without special software.  Possible to retrieve files by using search engines Example: FTPSEARCH located at http: //ftpsearch.lycos.com Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
105. 105. File Transfer Protocol Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
106. 106. Chat on the Web  E-commerce website include Chat rooms  Engage customers in a dialogue.  Virtual communities  Instant messengers – variation of chat Example: America Online Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
107. 107. IRC – Internet Relay Chat  Real time communication through hundreds of channels based on particular topics.  IRC software program- connects user to IRC server  Major IRC networks : EFnet, Undernet, IRCnet, DALnet, NewNet  IRC clients : UNIX/shell - ircII Windows - mIRC or PIRCH Macintosh – Ircle  Conversations may be public- everyone in a channel can see what you type. Private- messages between only two people. Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
108. 108. ICQ – I Seek You  Way of getting in touch with people  Program for finding friends, colleagues and people with similar interests and beliefs across the globe.  ICQ lets user chat, send e-mails, SMS and wireless-pager messages, file transfer, URL  ICQ phone-contains IP telephony functions for PC-to-PC and PC-to-phone calls.  Provide universal platform for launching peer-to-peer applications  ICQ hosts range of community features- message boards, chat rooms, interest groups, ICQ match, user lists, game partners, white pages  Alerts when your friends sing in or off Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
109. 109. Identifying Data Types with Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)  Standard for transferring full motion video sequences, stereo sound tracks, high resolution images using HTTP on WEB.  HTTP uses MIME to identify the type of object being transferred across internet.  MIME typing originally developed to allow e-mail messages to have multiple parts with different types of data.  MIME can be effectively used with protocols other than HTTP on WEB. Internet Client-Server Applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
110. 110. Relationship between networks and internets Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
111. 111. Communication Switching: Allow computers to transfer data using shared lines of communication. Similar to telephone switching networks. Types of switching – 1. Circuit switching • Creates a single, unbroken path between devices. • Line remains idle for most of time. • Requires constant data rate. • Internet do not use circuit switching Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
112. 112. 2. Packet switching • Data transmitted in packets. • Source breaks long message into small chunks of data known as packets. • Typical upper limit of packets length is 1 kilobyte. • packet contains control information. • Data can flow along multiple paths. • Internet is packet-switched network. • Repeaters- network devices used to amplify network data. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
113. 113. Packet switching Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
114. 114. Development in Transmission Bandwidth- information carrying capacity. Dedicated leased lines • used in Universities and corporations. • transmission rate- 1,544,000 or 45,000,000 bits per seconds(bps). • supports thousands of simultaneous users. Narrowband • Home users dial into internet through telephone. • use modems connected to a “twisted pair of copper wires. • transmission rate- 14,000 to 56,600 bps Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
115. 115. Midband rates • Transmission speed- 128,000 bps or more • Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line(ADSL) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)-use wires to connect to internet through telephone system. Cable Television system • use coaxial cables • Transmission speed- 27,000,000 bps alongside the regular cable programming. Broadband • uses Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) to transmit data. • Transmission speed- 622,000,000 bps and more • Uses technique called Quality of Service (QoS) Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
116. 116. Network Routers • Transfer data between networks having different technologies. • Integral part of Internet • Routers has an address on the network. • To manage network traffic-large segment of LAN is divided into smaller segments (Subnets). • Routing tables-lookup database to route data through correct path. Static Routing table- • Network administrator manually update table Dynamic Routing table- • Network software automatically update table. • Dynamically choose correct path in case of traffic. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
117. 117. Connect less versus connection oriented protocols Connectionless Protocol • Client connect to the server, make request, get response and then disconnected • Example : HTTP protocol • No system resource is used after transaction completion. • HTTP servers have only limited active connections. • Can do thousands of transactions with low system overhead. Drawbacks • When same client requests additional data, reestablishment require. • Waste of time and energy. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
118. 118. Connection oriented protocols • Client connect to the server, make a request, get a response and then maintain the connection to service future requests. • Example: FTP protocol • After connection with FTP server connection remains open even after file download. • Resources require for maintenance of connections. • Server with too much connections gets bogged down. • Configured to allow 250 open connections at a time. Disadvantage • Processes running out of control, using system resources in turn crashing the server. • Processes eat up system resources. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
119. 119. Signal Bandwidth Range of frequencies, from the lowest to the highest, that a channel can carry. Analog Circuit • Difference between the lowest and the highest frequencies that can pass through the channel. • measured in kilohertz or megahertz. Digital Circuit • The amount of information that can pass through a channel. • Measured in bits, kilobits or megabits per second. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
120. 120. The Internet protocol suite Protocol - set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities. Key elements of protocol 1. Syntax – include data format and signal levels 2. Semantics – include control information for co-ordination and error handling 3. Timings – include speed matching and sequencing. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
121. 121. TCP/IP protocol • Protocol used for internet. • For TCP/IP to work – network interface need IP address. • Addresses assigned to interfaces not computers. • One computer can have multiple IP addresses. Design principles of internet 1. Interoperable- supports computers and s/w from different vendors 2. Layered- protocols work inlayers 3. Simple- application programmers don’t know complexity of hardware. 4. End-to-end- inter is based on this protocol. Interpretation happens at application layer not at network layer. Networks and Internet Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
122. 122. IP Address as a 32-Bit Binary Number IP Addresses Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
123. 123. IP Address system Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
124. 124. IP Address system •A standard IP header is around 20 byte •Ver – version •IHL – Internet Header Length(5 bits to 60 bits) •TTL – Time to live (maximum 255 seconds) •Source and destination address is 4 bytes long IP address – • number that uniquely represents a device in the internet. •It is written as four decimal number e.g. 192.168.1.1 Which is same as 11000000 10101000 00000001 00000001 •Four numbers represent the network the computer is on and interface. •IP address on internet are allocated by InterNIC (The Internet Network Information Center) Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
125. 125.  IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface  interface: connection between host/router and physical link  router’s typically have multiple interfaces  host may have multiple interfaces  IP addresses associated with each interface 223.1.1.1 223.1.1.2 223.1.1.3 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.2.2 223.1.2.1 223.1.3.2223.1.3.1 223.1.3.27 223.1.1.1 = 11011111 00000001 00000001 00000001 223 1 11 IP Address system Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
126. 126. IP Address system Classes of IP-based networks Class A -networks with IP addresses from 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 -mega monster networks with up to 16 million plus connections. Class B -networks with IP addresses from 128.0.0.0 to 191.0.0.0 -smaller networks with 65,000 nodes Class c -networks with IP addresses from 192.0.0.0 to 223.0.0.0 -smallest networks with 254 nodes only. Class D and Class E – -primarily used for experimental purpose Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
127. 127. IP Address Classes Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
128. 128. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
129. 129. IP Address system Subnet mask - Provide solution to the IP address shortage -breaks a single class A, B or C network in to smaller pieces. -To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the original host portion and designates them as the subnet field Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
130. 130. Subnet Addresses Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
131. 131. Translating IP to Domain Names Domain Names  A name is much easier to remember than a 12 digit number.  Names used for TCP/IP addresses are called domain names.  Example : siberindia.com is a domain name.  When you address a web site, like http://www. siberindia.com, the name is translated to a number by a Domain Name Server (DNS). DNS-is a distributed, scalable database of IP addresses and their associated names.  All over the world, DNS servers are connected to the Internet. DNS servers are responsible for translating domain names into TCP/IP addresses.  When a new domain name is registered together with a TCP/IP address, DNS servers all over the world are updated with this information. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
132. 132. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
133. 133. Uniform/ Universal Resource Locator (URLs) Provide uniform way of identifying resources that are available using Internet Protocol (IP). URL schemes and formats http://www.google.co.uk:80/search?hl=en&q=Football Host PathPort Search Part Indicate that protocol uses format defined by Common Internet Scheme Syntax (CISS) Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
134. 134. Uniform/ Universal Resource Locator (URLs) Defining port information in URLs Server has certain ports allocated for certain things e.g. port 80 is for incoming request for Hypertext document. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
135. 135. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
136. 136. Characters in URLs with specific meaning 1. Colon (:) – separator 2. Double slash (//) – indicates protocol uses format defined by CISS. 3. Single slash (/) – separates path name from host and port. 4. Tilde (~) – indicates that resource is in specified users public html directory. 5. Percentage (%) – identifies an escape code. 6. At symbol (@) – used in mail accounts 7. Question mark (?) – used to specify beginning of query string. 8. plus sign (+) – used in query string as placeholder between words. 9. Equal sign (=) – used in query string to separate key assigned by the publisher and value entered by the user. 10. Ampersand (&) – used in query string to separate sets of keys and values Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
137. 137. Static IP Addressing • A static IP is one that will never change. • manually input by network administrator • manageable for small networks • Requires careful checks to avoid duplication Dynamic IP Addressing • A dynamic IP is one that changes frequently. • assigned by server when host boots • derived automatically from a range of addresses • duration of ‘lease’ negotiated, then address released back to server • examples – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Dynamic IP Addressing Vs Static IP Addressing Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
138. 138.  Definition : A software program that act for user or other program.  Perform information gathering tasks • locating and accessing information from various sources, • filtering unwanted information, • providing decision support. Information overload • Web provides end-users pick-and-click applications. • End-users spend most time navigating and sorting through the data. • Spend less time in interpreting and actually doing something about what they find. • End result – data remains unused. Software Agents Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
139. 139. Value of software Agents in Networked World : Agent : One that acts or exerts power. It can be autonomous, intelligent, collaborative, adaptive, computational Entity. Intelligent Agent : • Software program that uses agent communication protocol to exchange information for automatic problem solving. • Has capability to deal with new and trying situations. • Has ability for autonomous decisions and commitments features. • Criteria which makes IA more personalized – cooperation, negotiation and conflict resolution. Synonyms of software agents Knowbots, softbots, taskbots, userbots, robots, personal agents, autonomous agents and personal assistants. Software Agents Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
140. 140. Reasons for using software agents 1. Mundane personal activity : • minimize the time spent on routine personal tasks • Users can devote more time to professional activities. 2. Search and retrieval : Perform cumbersome, time consuming tasks of searching databases, retrieving and filtering information and delivering it back to the users. 3. Repetitive office activity : • Automate clerical and administrative tasks in sales and customer support • Reduces labour costs. 4. Domain Support : Provide support to knowledge workers. 5. Domain Experts : Expert software agents could be models of real world agents such as Translators, lawyers, diplomats, union negotiators and stock brokers. Software Agents Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
141. 141. Applications of Software Agents Advising, alerting, broadcasting, browsing, critiquing, distributing, enlisting, empowering, explaining, filtering, guiding, identifying, matching, monitoring, navigating, negotiating, organizing, presenting, querying, reminding, reporting, retrieving, scheduling, searching, securing, soliciting, sorting, storing, suggesting, summarizing, teaching, translating and watching. Software Agents Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
142. 142. Software Agents : Typology Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
143. 143. Software Agents : Typology Basic characteristics of agents 1. Autonomy : • can operate on their own without human guidance. • have individual internal states and goals. • Key attribute – proactiveness. 2. Co-operate : • having ability to interact with other agents, human and external environment. • Possess a social ability. 3. Learn : • having capability to learn from external environment. • Key attribute – intelligence Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
144. 144. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
145. 145. Software Agents : Typology Collaborative Agents : • Emphasize autonomy and cooperation in order to perform tasks for their owners. • General characteristics - autonomy, social ability, responsiveness, proactiveness. Use of collaborative agents 1. To solve larger problems – inability of centralized single agent due to resource limitations. 2. To allow interconnecting and interoperation of multiple existing legacy systems. 3. To provide solutions to inherently distributed problems. e.g. Air traffic control 4. To provide solutions in the form of distributed information sources. 5. To provide solutions where the expertise is distributed e.g. healthcare 6. To enhance modularity, speed, reliability, flexibility and reusability at knowledge level. 7. To research into other issues. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
146. 146. Software Agents : Typology Interface Agents Emphasize autonomy and learning to perform tasks of owner. Personal assistant Assist users by four ways 1. By observing and imitating the user. 2. Receiving positive and negative feedback from user. 3. Receiving explicit instructions from users. 4. Asking other agents for advice. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
147. 147. Software Agents : Typology Mobile Agents • Computational software processes capable of roaming WAN • Interacting with foreign hosts, • Gathering information on behalf of their owners • Perform duties set by their users. Need for mobile agents 1. Reduced communication costs. 2. Limited local resources. 3. Easier coordination. 4. Asynchronous computing. 5. Natural development environment. 6. A flexible distributed computing architecture. 7. Rethinking on design process Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
148. 148. Software Agents : Typology Information Agents • Tools manages explosive growth of information. • Perform role of managing, manipulating or collating information from distributed sources. Motivation for developing Information Agents 1. Need for tool to manage huge information on WWW. E.g. search engines 2. Financial benefits e.g. Netscape, internet explorer Characteristics of Information Agents 1. They may be static or mobile. 2. They may be non-cooperative or social. 3. They may or may not learn. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
149. 149. Software Agents : Typology Reactive Software Agents • Special category – do not possess internal, symbolic models of their environment. • Act/respond in stimulus-response manner to present state. • Relatively simple and interact with other agents Motivation for use of Reactive Agents 1. More robust and fault tolerant 2. Flexible and adaptability 3. Expanding the range and number of applications. 4. Scalability and performance. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
150. 150. Software Agents : Typology Hybrid Software Agents • Combination of two or more agent philosophies within singular agent. • Philosophies – mobile philosophy, interface agent philosophy, collaborative agent philosophy. Criticism of hybrid Architectures 1. Hybridism usually translates to ad hoc or unprincipled design with all its related problems. 2. Tend to be very application specific. 3. Theory which undermines the hybrid system is not usually specified. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
151. 151. Software Agents : Typology Heterogeneous Software Agents • Integrated set-up of at least two or more agents which belongs to two or more different agent classes. • May contain one or more hybrid agents. • Key requirement for interoperation – Agents communication language (ACL) Benefits of heterogeneous agent technology 1. Provide value-added services 2. Simplifies software legacy problem – heterogeneous agent technology may lessen the effect of routine software maintenance, upgrades and rewrites. 3. Provide new approach of software engineering. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
152. 152. Software Agents : Typology Smart agents Agents which can learn, cooperate and are autonomous. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
153. 153. E-security Need for network security • Private networks exposed to potential threats • Protection from threats. • Cyber crime – leaves physical and electronic evidence. Security in E-business • Needs protection against unknown • To avoid loss of assets. • To maintain relationship with customers. • To protect its revenue streams, customer privacy and reputation. • Determine adequate security measure according to business needs Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
154. 154. E-security : Security on the Internet Internet – open access. Risk factors for Internet Security : 1. Vulnerable TCP/IP services. 2. Ease of spying & spooling 3. Lack of policy. 4. Complexity of configuration. Problems on Internet and contributing factors 1. Server Software Security. 2. Secure communications. 3. Delivering protected data to e-business. 4. Credit card transaction authentication and authorization. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
155. 155. E-security Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
156. 156. E-security : Various Security Risks I . Denial-of-Service Attacks (DoS) : • Attacks on network to disable the network by flooding with useless traffic or activity. • DDoS – Multiple computers used for attack. • Does not do technical damage • Substantial financial damage. Steps in Attack • Attacker breaks into hundreds or thousands of random, insecure computers. • Install an attack program. • Co-ordinates them all to attack the target simultaneously. • Traditional defence do not work – system crashes. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
157. 157. E-security : Various Security Risks I . Denial-of-Service Attacks (DoS) : Effects of DoS attack • Data on websites remains unaffected • can not steal credit card numbers/proprietary information. • No financial gains to attacker • loss of income, reputation for site owners Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
158. 158. E-security : Various Security Risks II . Viruses : • Small program which inserts itself into another program • Spread when an infected program executes. • Effects : inability to boot, deletion of files/entire hard drives, inability to create or save files, & so on. • Sources : e-mails, unauthorized network access. • Example : Logic bomb – attack triggers by event. Stoned, Michelangelo and AutoStart 9805 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
159. 159. E-security : E-business Risk Management Issues 1. Business interruption caused by website defacement or DoS attack. 2. Litigation and settlement costs over employees’ inappropriate use of e-mail and the internet. 3. Product or service claims against items advertised and sold via a website. 4. Web- related copyright, trademark and patent infringement lawsuits. 5. Natural or weather-related disasters. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
160. 160. E-security : E-business Risk Management Issues Risk management programs • Network and website security and intruder detection programs. • Antivirus protection • Firewalls • Sound security policies and procedures. • Employee education. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
161. 161. E-security : Transfer of risk via Insurance Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
162. 162. E-security : Internet Firewalls • System or group of systems that enforce a security policy between an organization’ network and the internet. • Give permissions to insiders and outsiders to access services. • Forces connections to pass through the firewall for examination and evaluation Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
163. 163. E-security : Internet Firewalls Benefits of firewall 1. Protection of Vulnerable Servies: • Filter insecure services-improve security, reduce risk to hosts on the subnet • Selected protocols allowed to pass through firewalls. • Prohibit vulnerable services like NFS. • Prevent services from being exploited by outside attackers. • Provide protection from routing based attacks. 2. Controlled Access to site Systems: • Only some hosts made reachable from outside networks. • Outside access prevention for special cases e.g. mail server, information servers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
164. 164. E-security : Internet Firewalls 3. Concentrated Security: • Additional security software can be located on the firewall systems instead of distributing on many hosts. • Cost saving for organizations . 4. Enhanced privacy: • Information about site contains clues for attackers. • Firewall blocks services like finger and DNS • Finger – displays information about user(login, email id etc) • DNS – names and IP addresses of site system. • Firewall hides such information. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
165. 165. E-security : Internet Firewalls 5. Need for usage statistics on Network: • Firewall provides valuable statistics about network usage. • Act as input into network requirement studies and risk analysis. 6. Policy Enforcements: • Access control to users and services. • Sites should not depend on the internet users for cooperation. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
166. 166. E-security : Internet Firewalls Firewall Components 1. Network policy. 2. Advanced authentication mechanisms. 3. Packet filtering. 4. Application gateways. 1. Network policy : Levels of network policy i. Higher level policy : service access policy ii. Lower level policy : Firewall design policy Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
167. 167. E-security : Internet Firewalls i. Higher level policy : service access policy • Issue specific policies defines services to be allowed or denied from restricted network. • Focuses on internet specific and all outside network access. • Must be realistic and sound, should drafted before firewall implementation. • Realistic – provides a balance between protecting the network from known risks and providing users with network resource access. • Example : • Allow no access to a site from the internet, but allow access from the site to internet. • Allow some access from internet like e-mail servers, information servers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
168. 168. E-security : Internet Firewalls ii. Lower level policy : Firewall design policy • Specific to firewall • Define rules to implement the service access policy. • Understanding of firewall capabilities, limitations and threats and vulnerabilities associated with TCP/IP is necessary. • Implements two basic design policies a. Permits any service unless it is expressly denied. • Allow all services to pass into the site by default a. Deny any service unless it is expressly permitted. • Denies all services to pass into the site by default Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
170. 170. E-security : Internet Firewalls 2. Advanced Authentication : Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
171. 171. E-security : Internet Firewalls 3. Packet Filtering : • Done by packet filtering router. • Filters IP packets based on fields 1. Source IP address 2. Destination IP address 3. TCP/UDP source port 4. TCP/UDP destination port Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
172. 172. E-security : Internet Firewalls Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
173. 173. E-security : Internet Firewalls 4. Application Gateways : • Need for firewall Software applications (proxy services) – To counter weaknesses associated with packet filtering routers. • Forward and filter connections for services like telnet, FTP. • Application gateway – Host running proxy services. • Application gateway and packet filtering routers can be combined – provide higher level of security and flexibility. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
174. 174. E-Marketing Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
175. 175. E-Marketing  Accelerating confluence of traditional print and broadcast media with new digital media  Internet provides marketers with efficient and powerful methods of designing, promoting and distributing products, conduct research, and gathering market information.  E-marketing include any internet-based promotion using • Websites • Targeted e-mail • Internet bulletin boards Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
176. 176. E-Marketing Traditional Marketing : Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
177. 177. E-Marketing Problems with Traditional Marketing : 1. Expensive : • Involves cost to produce and print brochures, product sheets and catalogues. • Involves cost to provide customer support. • Involves cost in postage and shipping. 2. Time consuming : • Consume time to correct mistakes in printing. • Consumes time – to wait for month for an ad to appear in publication. 3. Hit and miss quality : • Marketers often send bulk of mails to customers and receive tiny response. • Do not come across right customers. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
178. 178. E-Marketing Identifying Web Presence Goals :  Traditional businesses : Success relies on fulfilling objectives like- • Find a convenient location for customer access. • Sufficient floor space features to allow selling activity. • Room space to store inventory. • Working space for employees. • Interior decoration to enhance business ambience and attract customers.  Web businesses : • Creating space of own choice, design. • Websites can have images, animations to attract customer. • Website serve as a sales brochure, a product showroom, a financial report, an employment ad, customer contact point etc. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
179. 179. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
180. 180. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
181. 181. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Achieving Web presence Goals : Effective web site creates an attractive presence that meets the following business objectives : 1. Attracting visitors to the website. 2. Making site interesting enough so that visitors stay and explore 3. Convincing visitors to follow the site’s links to obtain information. 4. Creating an impression consistent with the organization’s desired image. 5. Building a trusting relationship with visitors. 6. Reinforcing positive images that the visitor might already have about the organization. 7. Encouraging visitors to return to the site. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
182. 182. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
183. 183. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals The uniqueness of the web : • Mid 1990s – Firms started creating websites. • Convey basic information. • Market research is done for understanding needs of potential customers. • Now includes links to fairly standard information set. • Give visitors  easy access to its history,  statements about its objectives or mission  Information about products or services offered,  Financial information  Means of communication with organization. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
184. 184. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Meeting the needs of Website Visitors : • Learning about products or services that the company offers. • Buying the products or services that the company offers. • Obtaining information about warranties or service and repair policies for products they have purchased. • Obtaining general information about the company or organization. • Obtaining financial information for making an investment or credit- granting decision. • Identifying the people who manage the company or organization. • Obtaining contact information of a person or a department in the organization. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
185. 185. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals E-marketing value chain : Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
186. 186. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Site Adhesion : Content, Format and Access Content : • Customer access website for contents. • Want to navigate quickly to get more information • Key factor – to match user’s psychological and technological sophistication profile with that of site’s initial and subsequent impact. Format : • Selection of data formats. • To create viewer interest and engage the viewer in a prolonged interaction. • Vendors need to create balance between information provision and information delivery speed. Access : • Access depends on the bandwidth requirement. • Use minimal bandwidth for initial interaction to facilitate wide audience. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
187. 187. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Maintaining a Website : Businesses should try to meet the following goals- Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
188. 188. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Metrics Defining Internet Units of Measurement : To access two things- 1. Advertising – how many people saw our banner ad? 2. Visitation – how many people came to our site? Metrics types : 1. Direct measurement : does not depend on the measurement of any other attribute. 2. Indirect measurement : involves measurement of one or more other attributes. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
189. 189. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
190. 190. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
191. 191. E-Marketing : Identifying Web Presence Goals Limitations of indirect metrics 1. Click-through captures. 2. Time spent 3. Time spent searching 4. Time spent before click-through 5. E-mails and telephone calls 6. Registered users. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
193. 193. E-Marketing : The Browsing Behaviour Model Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
194. 194. E-Marketing : The Browsing Behaviour Model Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
195. 195. E-Marketing : The Browsing Behaviour Model standard metrics for e-business site: • Hits/second • Page views/day • Click-through • Unique Visitors • Revenue Throughput • Potential loss throughput Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
196. 196. E-Marketing : Online Marketing Market segments : • Cyberbuyers : • Professionals • Deals from business places • Make complex purchasing decisions • Cyberconsumers : • Home computer users • Prefer online purchasing • Cybersurfers : • Generally young generation users • Use technology to expand their horizons, challenge their abilities and for fun Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
197. 197. E-Marketing : Online Marketing Online payment 1. Traditional approach : send cheque, or call to merchant to give credit card no. 2. Consumer - i. Sets up account with merchant ii. Leaves credit card number without using internet. iii. Gives authorization to merchant to bill the account. 3. Consumer leaves credit card number on an unsecure online order form. 4. Consumer uses secure (encrypting) client software program to transfer credit card number. 5. Exchange traditional currency for some digital currency and then spends units of that. “electronic wallets” require to hold currency. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
198. 198. E-Marketing : Online Marketing Advantages of online Marketing : 1. Offer bottom-line benefits 2. Save money 3. Save time 4. Customer control on purchasing process 5. Information rich and interactive 6. erases time and distance barrier – global reach 7. Offer equal opportunity for entry 8. 24x7 Availability Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
199. 199. E-Marketing : Online Marketing Businesses that can flourish on the internet : • Banking : • Automated Teller Machine • Online banking services – deposits, withdrawals, fund transfer, loans etc. • Online financial services • E-cash services • Databanks : • Search engines • Music : • Websites offering - Downloading recordings, creating virtual communities, buy records, access sample and value added information like lyrics, scores etc. • Retailing : • Online shopping malls. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
200. 200. E-Marketing : E-advertising Reasons foe e-advertising: 1. Increasing preference to surf on web than watching TV 2. Target audience go to advertisement. 3. Business search engines- link customers to online bargaining sites, allow comparison shopping. 4. Businesses get valuable information about customer preferences through online contest and prizes to online participants. E.g. yahoo 5. The growth of e-business. e.g. dell computers- 85% sales through internet. 6. No geographical restrictions. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
201. 201. E-Marketing : E-advertising Means of Advertising : • E-mail • Banners • Skyscrapers :extra long skinny ads running down right or left side of page • Banner swapping • Streaming Video and Audio • Effectiveness Tracking :cookies • Mini sites and Pop-ups : ads burst upon the screen • Interstitials :new windows while visiting one website. • Sponsorships :helps to build sponsor’s brand by presenting it. • Coupons : offering discount coupons e.g. coolsavings.com • Pay per advertising view : • Loyalty programs • Partnerships • Innovative Customer Acquisition • Providing Information • Leverage the Customer Base • Personalized Online Communications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
202. 202. E-Marketing : Internet Marketing Trends Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
203. 203. E-Marketing : Target Markets • Identifying and analyzing a target market. • creating a marketing atmosphere that satisfies the individuals in the market. • Using internet : currently 100 million Indians uses internet. • Men – long dominated internet usage • Women – •using internet for work and to simplify lives, to save time, money . •for online shopping • Teenagers – for online shopping, surfing etc. • Seniors Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
204. 204. E-Marketing : Target Markets Product Considerations : •Products – goods, services and ideas •Leading organizational purchase – computers, peripherals, industrial supplies, packaged software •Consumer purchase – trading, travel/tourism, books, videos, CDs, toys, automobile goods, groceries •Ideas like marriage counseling, medical advice, tax/legal advice Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
205. 205. E-Marketing : E-branding Brand name – carries reputation. Needs tremendous amounts of expenditure and time. Elements of Branding 1. Differentiation : distinguishing product from all other products in market. Difficulties for products – salt, nails, plywood etc. 2. Relevance 3. Perceived value Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
206. 206. E-Marketing : E-branding Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
207. 207. E-Marketing : E-branding Spiral Branding : The advent of internet sites and mailing make possible a new form of marketing called spiral branding. Three stage branding spiral: 1. Use television, prints or radio to attract people’s attention and Send them to web. 2. Use web to get those customers take interest in your product (via interactive services) . Collect their e-mail addresses. 3. use e-mail to remind and induce them to return to web again. E-mail closes the loop and takes people around the spiral again. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
208. 208. E-Marketing : E-branding Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
209. 209. E-Marketing : E-branding Emerging Strategies for E-branding : 1. Search engine optimization : • half of web users uses search engines • optimizing ranking in search result • appearing among first few pages of top search engine • maximizing visibility on search engine. 2. Affiliate Networks : • Careful planning and management of partner programs for broad reach of links on affiliate sites. • Reward referring to sites with the commission or bounty based on click through, sales lead or completed transactions. • Cost-effective than standard cost-per-thousand banner campaigns. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
210. 210. E-Marketing : E-branding 3. Advocacy Marketing : • Recommendation • Through mouth publicity to friends. • Strategy known as “viral marketing” by online marketers. • Need to provide incentives e.g. discounts, loyalty currencies and simple mechanisms e.g. web-based e-mail forms, pass-along e-mail newsletters to enlist their customers as marketing advocates to their friends. 4. Permission E-mail : • Most cost-effective and brand-positive means of acquiring new customers and remarketing to existing customers. • Example : Customer relationship e-mail, corporate e-mail newsletters, reminder services, permission networks, sponsored independent newsletters, discussion lists, and partner co-marketing can drive online traffic and enhance brand equity. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
211. 211. E-Marketing : E-branding 5. Personalization and Mass Customization : • Allowing customers to configure products and services. • One-to-one interaction of customer with brand. 6. E-care : • Key component of brand- the quality of customer service and support. • Customer expectations – managing a torrent of customer e-mail inquiries, enabling efficient self-service knowledge bases. • Proper allocation of resources Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
212. 212. E-Marketing : Marketing Strategies  Permission-marketing Strategies : • e-mails - to announce new products or sale existing products. • Print and broadcast journalists criticize businesses for sending mails. • Businesses face legal actions after sending mass e-mails. • Unsolicited e-mail – spam. • Opt-in e-mail – practice of sending e-mail messages to people who have requested information. E.g. yesmail.com • Strategy called as permission marketing. • Seller must provide some incentive to customer like entertainment, a chance to win a prize or cash payment. • Example : AllAdvantage.com pays web users for permission to monitor their web surfing activities Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
213. 213. E-Marketing : Marketing Strategies  Brand-Leveraging Strategies : • Method for well established websites to extend their dominant position to other products and services. • Example : 1. Yahoo! : • First directories on web. • Added search engine function, entered into an extensive cross- promotion partnership with no. of media companies and Fox entertainment. 2. Amazon. COM : • Book business • Expansion into CDs, videos and auctions. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
214. 214. E-Marketing : Marketing Strategies  Affiliate-marketing Strategies : • Works for firms that already have websites that dominates particular market. • One firms website includes descriptions, reviews, ratings, info for product that is linked to another firm’s site who sales it. • Affiliate site receives a commission. • Obtains benefits of selling site’s brand in exchange for referral.  Viral-marketing Strategies : • Traditional marketing strategies – communication with potential customers through distributor, retailer or independent sales organization. • Web expands communication channels – customer-to-customer, viral marketing. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
215. 215. E-Marketing : Marketing Strategies  Website Naming Issues : Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
216. 216. E-Payment Systems • Growth of E-commerce dependent upon the existence of secure, user-friendly and cost effective payment systems. • payment systems are common denominator of all e-commerce transactions. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
217. 217. E-Payment Systems Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
218. 218. E-Payment Systems Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
219. 219. E-Payment Systems Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
220. 220. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
221. 221. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
222. 222. E-Payment Systems : Digital Token 1914 – Charge cards : limited to local markets 1958 – modern credit card : wide acceptance 1970 – VISA : global joint venture 1990 – debit cards :access funds in accounts at point of sale. U-commerce – universal commerce : ability to conduct commerce anywhere, anytime or any way using PDA and mobile phones Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
223. 223. E-Payment Systems : Digital Token Benefits of Buyers : • Convenience of global acceptance, a wide range of payment options, and enhanced financial management tools. • Enhanced security and reduced liability for stolen or misused cards. • Consumer protection through an established system of dispute resolution • Convenient and immediate access to funds on deposit via debit cards. • Accessibility to immediate credit. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
224. 224. E-Payment Systems : Digital Token Benefits of Sellers : Speed and security of transaction processing chain from verification and authorization to clearing and settlement. Freedom from more costly labour, materials and accounting services that are required in paper-based processing. Better management of cash flow, inventory and financial planning due to swift bank payment. Incremental purchasing power on the part of the consumer. Cost and risk savings by eliminating the need to run an in-house credit facility. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
225. 225. E-Payment Systems : E- cash • Meaning : electronic money • Properties of E-cash : monetary value, interoperability, retrievability, security 1. Monetary value : • Backed by either cash, a bank-authorized credit, or a bank certified cashier’s cheque. • Without bank certification carries the risk to be returned for insufficient funds. 2. Interoperability : • Exchangeable as payment for other cash, paper cash, goods or services, line of credit, deposits in banking account, bank notes etc. • Most e-cash use single bank. • Multiple banks required with international clearing house to handle exchange issues. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
226. 226. E-Payment Systems : E- cash 3. Retrievability : • Allow users to exchange e-cash from home or office or while traveling. • Cash could be stored on a remote computer’s memory, in smart cards or special purpose devices. • Example : Mondex card – a pocket-sized electronic wallet. 4. Security : • Preventing or detecting duplication and double-spending. • Counterfeiting • Double spendingMrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
227. 227. E-Payment Systems : E- cash E-cash in Action • E-cash based on cryptographic system digital signatures. • Involves pair of numeric keys that work in tandem. • Private key - One for locking or encoding • Public key - Other for unlocking or decoding Purchasing E-cash from Currency Servers : • Involves two steps : 1. Establishment of an account 2. Maintaining enough money in the account to back the purchase. • Customers prefer to purchase e-cash with paper currency. • Note generation: • Consumer uses e-cash software to generate note (random number) • Bank uses private key to digitally sign note. • Currency server issues “bank note” that commits it back note in real dollars. • Secure because neither payee nor payer can counterfeit banks digital signature. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
228. 228. E-cash Concept Merchant Consumer Bank 1 2 3 4 5 1. Consumer buys e-cash from Bank 2. Bank sends e-cash bits to consumer (after charging that amount plus fee) 3. Consumer sends e-cash to merchant 4. Merchant checks with Bank that e-cash is valid (check for forgery or fraud) 5. Bank verifies that e-cash is valid 6. Parties complete transaction: e.g., merchant present e-cash to issuing back for deposit once goods or services are delivered Consumer still has (invalid) e-cash Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
229. 229. Detecting Double Spending Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
230. 230. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cash  Advantages  More efficient, eventually meaning lower prices  Lower transaction costs  Anybody can use it, unlike credit cards, and does not require special authorization  Disadvantages  Tax trail non-existent, like regular cash  Money laundering  Susceptible to forgery Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
231. 231. E-Payment Systems : E- cash Using the Digital Currency : Two types of transactions possible 1. Bilateral • two party transactions – buyers and sellers • Merchant checks the veracity of the note’s digital signature by using the bank’s public key. • If satisfied with the payment, the merchant stores the digital currency on his machine and deposit it in bank later on. 2. Trilateral • Three party transaction – buyers, sellers and bank. • Note are sent to merchant, who immediately sends them directly to the digital bank. • Bank verifies notes. • Merchant’s account is credited. • Every note can be used only once. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
232. 232. E-Payment Systems : E- cash Operational Risks and E-cash 1. The time over which a given electronic money is valid, 2. The amount that can be stored on and transferred by electronic money, 3. The number of exchanges that can take place before money needs to be re deposited with a bank or financial institution 4. The number of such transactions that can be made during a given period of time Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
233. 233. E-Payment Systems : Cheque Payment Systems Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) : • Data are printed at the bottom of cheques in magnetic ink. Check free payment services of CheckFree : • September 1995 – CheckFree offered the electronic cheque service on internet Electronic Cheque (E-cheque) : FSTC –Financial Services Technology Consortium group of 60 organizations in the US including financial institutions, clearing houses, universities, and companies.(1993) for development of payment systems for E-commerce. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
234. 234. E-Payment Systems : E-Cheque Five major development projects of FSTC : • Cheque truncation • Electronic commerce • Security measures • Smart card system • E-cheque Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
235. 235. E-Payment Systems : E-Cheque • Consumer posses an electronic chequebook on a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) card • Cheques are written electronically from the e-chequebook on the card as needed. • Sent to retailer over internet • Retailer sends them to customer’s bank • Settlement is made through a financial network like Automated Clearing House(ACH) • Payment data, commercial data like invoice number and date of receipt can be enumerated. • Higher degree of efficiency by eliminating duplication. • FSTC experimenting adoption of smart card as electronic chequebook. • Electronic signature with public key encryption adopted by FSTC for data security over internet. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
236. 236. E-Payment Systems : Cryptography • Increasingly used in encryption, authentication, integrity, non-repudiation, management of other crypto systems like key management. • Relies on two basic components : 1. Algorithm – • cryptographic methodology • Method used to encrypt message • Complex mathematical formulae 2. Key – • Object used to decrypt message • Strings of bits. • Keys and algorithm kept secret. • Two parties want to communicate must use same algorithm. • Some cases uses same key • Method of encryption may hold the method to decrypt the message.Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
237. 237. Basic terminology  Plaintext: original message to be encrypted  Ciphertext: the encrypted message  Enciphering or encryption: the process of converting plaintext into ciphertext  Encryption algorithm: performs encryption  Two inputs: a plaintext and a secret key 237 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
238. 238. Symmetric Cipher Model 238 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
239. 239.  Deciphering or decryption: recovering plaintext from ciphertext  Decryption algorithm: performs decryption  Two inputs: ciphertext and secret key  Secret key: same key used for encryption and decryption  Also referred to as a symmetric key 239 Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
240. 240. Examples of Encryption Techniques 1. Caesar Cipher :  Earliest known substitution cipher  Invented by Julius Caesar  Each letter is replaced by the letter k (three) positions further down the alphabet. • Plain: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Cipher: D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C  Example: ohio state  RKLR VWDWH  K can be any possible value of alphabet 1 to 26 240 E-Payment Systems : Cryptography Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
241. 241. E-Payment Systems : Cryptography 2. Letter Pairing : • Similar to Caesar’s method • Letters are paired off with each other in random manner • Example: A -> Z B -> Y C -> X • Overcomes limitations of Caesar’s method • Yet not safe – can easily decrypted by using techniques such as frequency analysis. • In large message by counting repetition of letters , third party can judge letters by comparing the data with average frequencies of usage of letters. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
242. 242. E-Payment Systems : Cryptography 3. RSA : • Invented by three cryptographers – Rivest. Shamir and Adleman • First practical commercial public key cryptosystem. • Used in web browsers, e-mail programs, mobile phones, virtual private networks, secure shells etc. • Encryption uses large prime numbers for its purposes • Works on the basic fact that large numbers are extremely difficult to factorize. Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
243. 243. RSA Key Setup  each user generates a public/private key pair by:  selecting two large primes at random - p,q  computing their system modulus n=p.q -define ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1)  selecting at random the encryption key e  where 1<e<ø(n), gcd(e,ø(n))=1  solve following equation to find decryption key d  e.d=1 mod ø(n) and 0≤d≤n  publish their public encryption key: PU={e,n}  keep secret private decryption key: PR={d,n} Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
244. 244. RSA Example - Key Setup 1. Select primes: p=17 & q=11 2. Compute n = pq =17 x 11=187 3. Compute ø(n)=(p–1)(q-1)=16 x 10=160 4. Select e: gcd(e,160)=1; choose e=7 5. Determine d: de=1 mod 160 and d < 160 Value is d=23 since 23x7=161= 10x160+1 6. Publish public key PU={7,187} 7. Keep secret private key PR={23,187} Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
245. 245. E-Payment Systems : Cryptography 4. DES : Data Encryption Standard • Widely used secret key encryption algorithm. • History :In 1973, NIST published a request for proposals for a national symmetric-key cryptosystem. A proposal from IBM, a modification of a project called Lucifer, was accepted as DES. DES was published in the Federal Register in March 1975 as a draft of the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). • Encrypts and decrypts data in 64-bit blocks, using 56-bit key. • Uses permutation and substitutions in algorithms. • Widely used by financial services and other industries worldwide to protect sensitive online applications Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER
246. 246. DES is a block cipher, as shown in Figure Encryption and decryption with DES Mrs. Geetanjali A. Bhosale. Dept. og Comp. Studies CSIBER