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Startup Metrics for Pirates (Startonomics Beijing, June 2009)

Updated "Startup Metrics for Pirates" presentation, Startonomics Beijing (June 2009). Also included a few slides from Eric Ries, Lean Startup.

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Startup Metrics for Pirates:
         AARRR!

         Startonomics Beijing
       Beijing, China - June 2009



       Dave McClure, Founders Fund
        http://www.foundersfund.com/
          http://500hats.typepad.com/
       http://slideshare.net/dmc500hats/
Startup Metrics for Pirates

•   Acquisition: users come to site from various channels
•   Activation: users enjoy 1st visit: quot;happy” experience
•   Retention: users come back, visit site multiple times
•   Referral: users like product enough to refer others
•   Revenue: users conduct some monetization behavior


                                           AARRR!




     (note: If you’re in a hurry, Google
     “Startup Metrics” & watch 5m video)
50 Slides + 30 Min = Crap.
The Basics
•   Measure Stuff. Keep It Simple.
•   5 Steps: Startup Metrics for Pirates (AARRR!)
•   3 Metrics Frameworks + 3 Roles (CEO, Dev/Product, Marketing)
•   Iterate & Optimize. Feedback Loop. (Loop. Loop.)
•   One Step at a Time. The “Ass vs. Face” Issue.

Appendix (we won’t have time)
•   Activation
•   Retention
•   Acquisition
•   Referral
•   Revenue
Dave McClure

2001-2009:
• Startup Investor: 500 Hats LLC, Founders Fund
• Tech Marketing: PayPal, Simply Hired, Mint
• Advisor, Angel Investor: 20+ Startups
• Conf. Organizer: Web 2.0, O’Reilly, Startonomics
• Stanford Visiting Lecturer: Facebook, Startup Metrics


80’s & 90’s:
• Entrepreneur: Founder/CEO Aslan Computing (acq.)
• Developer: Windows Apps / SQL DB Admin
• User Groups: E-Commerce, Internet, Client-Server
• Engineer: Johns Hopkins ‘88, BS Eng / Applied Math
Personal Investments (2004-2008)
Professional Investments (2009)

      FF Angel LLC
      • Twilio
      • 1000 Markets
      • UserVoice
      • Bit.ly
      • DailyBurn

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Startup Metrics for Pirates (Startonomics Beijing, June 2009)

  • 1. Startup Metrics for Pirates: AARRR! Startonomics Beijing Beijing, China - June 2009 Dave McClure, Founders Fund http://www.foundersfund.com/ http://500hats.typepad.com/ http://slideshare.net/dmc500hats/
  • 2. Startup Metrics for Pirates • Acquisition: users come to site from various channels • Activation: users enjoy 1st visit: quot;happy” experience • Retention: users come back, visit site multiple times • Referral: users like product enough to refer others • Revenue: users conduct some monetization behavior AARRR! (note: If you’re in a hurry, Google “Startup Metrics” & watch 5m video)
  • 3. 50 Slides + 30 Min = Crap. The Basics • Measure Stuff. Keep It Simple. • 5 Steps: Startup Metrics for Pirates (AARRR!) • 3 Metrics Frameworks + 3 Roles (CEO, Dev/Product, Marketing) • Iterate & Optimize. Feedback Loop. (Loop. Loop.) • One Step at a Time. The “Ass vs. Face” Issue. Appendix (we won’t have time) • Activation • Retention • Acquisition • Referral • Revenue
  • 4. Dave McClure 2001-2009: • Startup Investor: 500 Hats LLC, Founders Fund • Tech Marketing: PayPal, Simply Hired, Mint • Advisor, Angel Investor: 20+ Startups • Conf. Organizer: Web 2.0, O’Reilly, Startonomics • Stanford Visiting Lecturer: Facebook, Startup Metrics 80’s & 90’s: • Entrepreneur: Founder/CEO Aslan Computing (acq.) • Developer: Windows Apps / SQL DB Admin • User Groups: E-Commerce, Internet, Client-Server • Engineer: Johns Hopkins ‘88, BS Eng / Applied Math
  • 6. Professional Investments (2009) FF Angel LLC • Twilio • 1000 Markets • UserVoice • Bit.ly • DailyBurn
  • 7. Web 2.0: Hell Yes, Good Times. 2. # Users, Bandwidth = Bigger. 3. Lower Startup Costs = Badder. 4. PPC, E-Com $ Growing = Uncut.  Collect Usage Metrics in Real-Time  Decisions Based on Measured User Behavior
  • 8. The Startup Metrics Religion • Progress ≠ Features (Less = More) • Focus on User Experience • Measure Conversion; Compare 2+ Options • Fast, Frequent Iteration (+ Feedback Loop) • Keep it Simple & Actionable
  • 9. Minimize TOTAL time through the loop IDEAS LEARN BUILD DATA CODE MEASURE Source: Eric Ries, The Lean Startup
  • 10. There’s much more… IDEAS Learn Faster Code Faster Split Tests LEARN BUILD Unit Tests Customer Interviews Usability Tests Customer Development Continuous Integration Five Whys Root Cause Analysis Incremental Deployment Customer Advisory Board Free & Open-Source Falsifiable Hypotheses Components Product Owner Accountability Cloud Computing Customer Archetypes Cross-functional Teams DATA CODE Cluster Immune System Just-in-time Scalability Semi-autonomous Teams Refactoring Smoke Tests Developer Sandbox Minimum Viable Product Measure Faster Funnel Analysis MEASURE Split Tests Cohort Analysis Clear Product Owner Net Promoter Score Continuous Deployment Search Engine Usability Tests Marketing Real-time Monitoring Real-Time Alerting Source: Eric Ries, Customer Liaison Predictive Monitoring The Lean Startup
  • 11. Q: What’s My Business Model? Can be one of the following: 1. Get Users (= Acquisition, Referral) 2. Drive Usage (= Activation, Retention) 3. Make Money (= Revenue*) * ideally profitable revenue Note: eventually need to turn Users/Usage -> Money
  • 12. AARRR!: 5-Step Startup Metrics Model SEO Campaigns, SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev Blogs Affiliates Apps & Direct, Widgets Email Tel, TV AC N O T S I U Q Domains Emails & Alerts Blogs, RSS, io n News Feeds R e tent R Ads, Lead Gen, Biz Dev ev System Events & Subscriptions, Time-based ECommerce Features en ue Website.com $$ $
  • 13. Just Gimme the GOOD Metrics. Users, Pages, Clicks, Emails, $$$...? Q: Which of these is best? How do you know? • 1,000,000 one-time, unregistered unique visitors • 500,000 visitors who view 2+ pages / stay 10+ sec the good • 200,000 visitors who clicked on a link or button stuff. • 20,000 registered users w/ email address • 2,000 passionate fans who refer 5+ users / mo. • 1,000 monthly subscribers @ $5/mo
  • 14. 3 Core Models: biz model, conversion dashboard, mktg channels • Define 1-Page Biz Model: customer segments + desired actions / behaviors • Identify critical Conversion Events & Dashboard for each segment & prioritize • Test & develop Marketing Channels; measure Volume (#), Cost ($), Conv (%)  Optimize product & marketing using Fast Iteration Cycles & A/B Testing
  • 15. Role: Founder/CEO Q: Which Metrics? Why? A: Focus on Critical Few Actionable Metrics (if you don’t use the metric to make a decision, it’s not actionable) • Hypothesize Customer Lifecycle • Target ~3-5 Conversion Events (tip: Less = More) • Test, Measure, Iterate to Improve
  • 16. The 1-Page Business Model (Users + Conversions + Priorities) Q1: What types of people use your website? • Visitor = Average User / Buyer • Contributor = Content Contributor / Seller • Distributor = Passionate Fan (unpaid) / Affiliate (paid) Q2: What actions could they take to help you or them ?
  • 17. TeachStreet Metrics v1: Eye Chart Madness
  • 18. TeachStreet 1-Page Business Model: Teachers & Students Te a c h e r s S tu d e n ts A c t iv a t i •Claim Profile •Contact Teacher on •Add Class •View 3 Pages Re te n ti •Visit 1x/mo for 3 mo’s •Visit 1x/mo for 3 on mo’s Re fe rr •Request Review •Suggest Teacher al
  • 19. TeachStreet: 45-day Claim Rates (Seattle, Portland)
  • 20. Role: Product / Engineering Q: What Features to Build? Why? When are you “Done”? A: Easy-to-Find, Fun/Useful, Unique Features that Increase Conversion (stop iterating when increase decelerates) • Wireframes = Conversion Steps • Measure, A/B Test, Iterate FAST (daily/weekly) • Optimize for Conversion Improvement – 80% on existing feature optimization – 20% on new feature development
  • 21. Optimize 4 Happiness $$$ (both User + Business) • Define States of User + Business Value • Prioritize (Estimate) Relative Value of Each State • Move Users: Lower Value -> Higher Value • Optimize for User Happiness / Business $$$ • Achieve Low Cost + High Value @ Scale
  • 22. Discover Meaning Keywords, Images, Call-to-Action Top 10 - 100 words Call-to-Action • Your Brand / Products • Words • Customer Needs / Benefits • Images • Competitor’s Brand / Products • Context • Semantic Equivalents • Button/Link • Misspellings • Emotion Relevant images Result • People • Positive? • Products • Negative? • Problems • Neutral (= Death) • Solutions • A/B test & Iterate
  • 23. Example Conversion Dashboard (note: *not* actuals… your mileage may vary) Stage Conversion Status Conv. Est. Value % (*not* cost) Acquisition Visitors -> Site/Widget/Landing Page 60% $.05 (2+ pages, 10+ sec, 1+ clicks = don’t abandon) Activation “Happy” 1st Visit; Usage/Signup 15% $.25 (clicks/time/pages, email/profile reg, feature usage) Retention Users Come Back; Multiple Visits 5% $1 (1-3x visits/mo; email/feed open rate / CTR) Referral Users Refer Others 1% $5 (cust sat >=8; viral K factor > 1; ) Revenue Users Pay / Generate $$$ 2% $50 (first txn, break-even, target profitability)
  • 24. Role: Marketing / Sales Q: What channels? Which users? Why? A: High Volume (#), Low Cost ($), High Conv (%) • Design & Test Multiple Marketing Channels + Campaigns • Select & Focus on Best-Performing Channels & Themes • Optimize for conversion to target CTAs, not just site/landing page • Match/Drive channel cost to/below revenue potential • Low-Hanging Fruit: – Blogs – SEO/SEM – Landing Pages – Automated Emails
  • 25. Example Marketing Channels • PR • Email • Contest • SEO / SEM • Biz Dev • Blogs / Bloggers • Direct Marketing • Viral / Referral • Radio / TV / Print • Affiliate / CPA • Dedicated Sales • Widgets / Apps • Telemarketing • LOLCats ;)
  • 26. MAARRRketing Plan Marketing Plan = Target Customer Acquisition Channels • 3 Important Factors = Volume (#), Cost ($), Conversion (%) • Measure conversion to target customer actions • Test audience segments, campaign themes, Call-To-Action (CTAs) [Gradually] Match Channel Costs => Revenue Potential • Increase Vol. & Conversion, Decrease Cost, Optimize for Revenue Potential • Avg Txn Value (ATV), Ann Rev Per User (ARPU), Cust Lifetime Value (CLV) • Design channels that (eventually) cost <20-50% of target ATV, ARPU, CLV Consider Costs, Scarce Resource Tradeoffs • Actual $ expenses • Marketing time & resources • Product/Engineering time & resources • Cashflow timing of expense vs. revenue, profit
  • 27. One Step at a Time. 1. Make a Good Product: Activation & Retention 2. Market the Product: Acquisition & Referral 3. Make Money: Revenue & Profitability “You probably can’t save your Ass and your Face at the same time… choose carefully.” – DMC
  • 28. Summary • Measure Stuff. Keep It Simple. • 5 Steps: Startup Metrics for Pirates (AARRR!) • 3 Items: Biz Model, Conversion, Mktg Channels • Iterate & Optimize. Feedback Loop. (Loop. Loop). • One Step at a Time.
  • 29. Links & Resources Additional References: • “Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion”, Robert Cialdini (book) • “Putting the Fun in Functional”, Amy Jo Kim (etech 2006 preso) • “Futuristic Play”, Andrew Chen (blog) • “Don’t Make Me Think”, Steve Krug (book) • “Designing for the Social Web”, Joshua Porter (book, website) • “Startup Lessons Learned”, Eric Ries (blog) • “Customer Development Methodology” Steve Blank (presentation, blog) • “Startup-Marketing.com”, Sean Ellis (blog)
  • 32. Activation SEO Campaigns, SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev Blogs Affiliates Activation Criteria: Apps & Direct, Widgets Email Tel, TV • 10-30+ seconds Domains • 2-3+ page views • 3-5+ clicks • 1 key feature usage do LOTS of landing page & A/B tests – make lots of dumb guesses & iterate FAST Website.com
  • 33. Activation What do users do on their first visit? Example Activation Goals • Click on something! • Account sign up / Emails • Referrals / Tell a friend • Widgets / Embeds • Low Bounce Rate Activation Tips • Less is more • Focus on user experience / usability • Provide incentives & call to actions • Test and iterate continuously
  • 34. Activation What do users do on their first visit? Key Metrics to Track  Pages per visit  Time on site  Conversions
  • 35. Activation Tools Crazy Egg (Visual Click Mapping) http://crazyegg.com Google Website Optimizer (A/B & Multivariate Testing) http://google.com/websiteoptimizer Marketo.com (B2B Lead Generation Management) http://marketo.com Resources Experimentation and Testing: A Primer kaushik.net/avinash/2006/05/experimentation-and-testing-a-primer.html Landing Page Design Toolbox: 100 Tips & Tools http://tinyurl.com/326co6 Landing Page Tutorials & Case Studies http://www.copyblogger.com/landing-pages/ 101 Easy Easy to use Google Website Optimizer http://conversion-rate-experts.com/articles/101-google-website-optimizer-tips/
  • 37. Retention SEO Campaigns, Automated emails: SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev • lifecycle emails @ +3, +7, +30d Blogs Affiliates Apps & Direct, • status / “best of” weekly/monthly Widgets Email Tel, TV • “something happened” emails Domains BUT: • make it easy to unsubscribe Emails & Alerts Blogs, RSS, News Feeds Tip on emails: • > 80% or more on SUBJECT LINE System Events & • < 20% or less on BODY TEXT Time-based Features Website.com
  • 38. Retention How do users come back? How often? Cohort Analysis: • Distrib of Visits over Time • Rate of Decay • Effective Customer Lifecycle Retention Methods  Automated Emails * Track open rate / CTR / Quantity  RSS / News Feeds * Track % viewed / CTR / Quantity  Widgets / Embeds * Track impressions / CTR / Quantity
  • 39. Retention How do users come back? How often? Example Retention Goals • 1 - 3+ visits per month • 20% open rate / 2% CTR • High deliverability / Low spam rating • Long customer life cycle / Low decay • Identify fanatics and cheerleaders Retention Tips • Email is simple and it works • BUT make unsubscribe easy • 80% subject line / 20% body text • ACTUALLY 99% subject line / 1% body text • Fanatics = virality + affiliate channel (bloggers?)
  • 40. Retention How do users come back? How often? Key Metrics to Track  Source  Quantity  Conversions  Visitor Loyalty  Session Length
  • 41. Retention Tools Campaign Monitor / MailChimp (email newsletter software) campaignmonitor.com / mailchimp.com TriggerMail (site-centric email management) triggermail.net Litmus (email and website design testing - clients / browsers) litmusapp.com Resources 30 free HTML email templates campaignmonitor.com/resources/templates.aspx Best Practices in Writing Email Subject Lines mailchimp.com/resources/best-practices-in-writing-email-subject- lines.phtml Learning Viral: Viral Emails of Tagged.com okdork.com/2008/04/10/learning-viral-studying-taggedcom/
  • 43. Acquisition SEO Campaigns, SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev Blogs Affiliates Apps & Direct, Widgets Email Tel, TV Domains Marketing Channels: • largest-volume (#) • lowest-cost ($) • best-performing (%) Website.com
  • 44. Acquisition Where are users coming from? Acquisition Methods  SEO / SEM  Blogs  Email  Social Media & Social Networks  Domains
  • 45. Acquisition Keyword Vocabulary Top 10 - 100 words • Your Brand / Products • Customer Needs / Benefits • Competitor’s Brand / Products • Semantic Equivalents • Misspellings Things to analyze • Sources • Volume • Cost • Conversion
  • 46. Acquisition Where are users coming from? Key Metrics to Track Example  Quantity (#)  Cost ($)  Conversions (%)
  • 47. Acquisition Tools Google Analytics (web analytics) google.com/analytics Google Keyword Tool (keyword research tool) adwords.google.com/select/KeywordToolExternal SEO Book Tools (SEO related tools) tools.seobook.com Resources SEO Book Blog seobook.com/blog The Social Media Manual: Read Before You Play searchengineland.com/071120-144401.php Strategies to ruthlessly acquire users andrewchen.typepad.com/andrew_chens_blog/2007/04/10_obvious_stra. html
  • 48. Startup Metrics Referral
  • 49. Referral SEO Campaigns, SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev Blogs Affiliates Apps & Direct, Widgets Email Tel, TV n o t s i u q c A Domains Emails & Alerts Blogs, RSS, n News Feeds ntio Rete Focus on driving referrals System Events & Time-based *after* users have a Features “happy” experience; avg score >= 8 out of 10 Website.com
  • 50. Referral How do users refer others? Referral Methods  Send to Friend: Email / IM  Social Media  Widgets / Embeds  Affiliates
  • 51. Referral Viral Growth Factor Viral Growth Factor = X * Y * Z X = % of users who invite other people Y = average # of people that they invited Z = % of users who accepted an invitation A viral growth factor > 1 means an exponential organic user acquisition.
  • 52. Referral Tools Gigya (social media distribution & tracking tool) gigya.com ShareThis / AddThis (sharing buttons) sharethis.com / addthis.com GetMyContacts (PHP contacts importing & invitation software) getmycontacts.com Resources Seven Ways to GO VIRAL lsvp.wordpress.com/2007/03/02/seven-ways-to-go-viral/ What’s your viral loop? Understanding the engine of adoption andrewchen.typepad.com/andrew_chens_blog/2007/07/whats-your- vira.html Metrics: Where Users Come From slideshare.net/guest2968b8/rockyou-snap-summit-32508
  • 53. Startup Metrics Revenue
  • 54. Revenue SEO Campaigns, SEM PR Contests Biz Social Networks Dev Blogs Affiliates Apps & Direct, Widgets Email Tel, TV n o t s i u q c A Domains Emails & Alerts Blogs, RSS, io n News Feeds R ete n t R Ads, Lead Gen, Biz Dev ev System Events & Subscriptions, Time-based ECommerce Features en ue This is the part *you* Website.com still have to figure out… $$ (we don’t know jack $ about your business)
  • 55. Revenue How do you make money? Revenue Tips • Don’t Rely on AdSense (only) • Start Free => 2% “Freemium” • Subscription / Recurring transactions • Qualify your customers -> Lead generation (arbitrage) • Sell something! (physical or virtual)
  • 56. Revenue Resources & Tools Revenue Metrics (Andrew Chen) http://tinyurl.com/47r63a How to Create a Profitable “Freemium” Startup (Andrew Chen) http://tinyurl.com/8z9ygk 2008 Affiliate Marketing Review (Scott Jangro) http://tinyurl.com/86wak4
  • 57. Be Bold. Be Humble.  20% Inspiration + 80% Perspiration  Long-term: Audacity + Creative Inspiration  Short-term: Humility + Analytic Rigor Stuff That Matters: • Passion for Problem/Solution + Hypothesis of Customer Lifecycle • 1-page Business Model: Prioritized List of (Users + Conversions) • Critical, Few, Actionable Metrics + Dashboard of Measured User Behavior • 1-pg Marketing Plan: (Channels + Campaigns) * (Volume, Cost, Conv %) • Velocity of (Product Execution + Cycle Time of Testing) * Iteration
  • 58. Passion vs. Precision • “Solve a Problem” = Passion • “Optimize the Solution” = Precision  Long-term: Audacity + Creative Inspiration  Short-term: Humility + Analytic Rigor BUT: • Precision” is Illusion; “data” is fuzzy • Collecting & Interpreting data takes time & effort • Keep Metrics Simple & Actionable
  • 59. Types of Measurement 1. Qualitative: Usability Testing / Session Monitoring • Watch users, guess problems & solutions from small # of users 2. Quantitative: Traffic Analysis / User Engagement • Track users, usage, conv %'s for empirical sample # of users 3. Comparative: A/B, Multivariate Testing • Compare what users do in one scenario vs another • Measure which copy/graphics/UI are most effective 4. Competitive: Monitoring & Tracking Competitors • Track competitor activity & compare against yours (if possible) • Compare channels, keyword traffic, demographics, user sat, etc.
  • 60. Design, Optimize for Conversion

Editor's Notes

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  38. 5454
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  40. <number>
  41. <number>
  42. <number>
  43. Qualitative: SurveyMonkey (surveys), CrazyEgg (heatmap), TechSmith Morae / UserVue (ux recording), RobotReplay, TapeFailure. Quantitative: Google Analytics (free), MyBlogLog, ClickTracks, Index Tools, Visual Sciences / Webside Story, Omniture, WebTrends, etc. Comparative: Google Website Optimizer, SiteSpect, Optimost, Offermatica, Vertster, Kefta. Competitive: Quantcast, Compete.com, Alexa, Hitwise, Comscore, Nielsens. see more info at: http://webanalyticsassociation.com/ (WAA) http://kaushik.net/ (Avinash Kaushik) http://grokdotcom.com/ (Eisenbergs) http://www.emetrics.org/ (Jim Sterne)