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Schwantes wild bees living on the edge


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Schwantes wild bees living on the edge

  1. 1. Wild Bees Living on the Edge Collin Schwantes, Adrian Carper and Mary Jamieson
  2. 2. Bee diversity
  3. 3. Natural History Solitary spp. > 95%
  4. 4. Natural History Majority of Bees are GROUND nesNng
  5. 5. Natural History Pollen is protein Nectar is carbohydrate
  6. 6. Scale Greenleaf et al. 2007 Bee Body size is related to foraging distance Bigger bees forage farther A majority of bee species are foraging about 1km
  7. 7. Vulnerable to Land Use Change • Solitary • Soil NesNng • Poor Dispersers • Dependent on Specific Flowers
  8. 8. Land Use Change
  9. 9. Land Use Change Historically, grasslands are the most converted habitat type
  10. 10. Land Use Change Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States Sohl et al. 2012
  11. 11. Roadside Edge
  12. 12. QuesNon Hypothesis: Bee communiNes will differ based on the amount of edge habitat in the landscape. 1) Characterize the Bee Community 2) Characterize the Landscape 3) Examine relaNonship between amount of Roadside edge and Bee Community
  13. 13. Site SelecNon
  14. 14. Site SelecNon
  15. 15. Characterizing the Landscape • Reclassify and extract data from CDL • Delineate and buffer roads, extract areas
  16. 16. Crop Land Data Layer
  17. 17. ExtracNng Data from the CDL • Used 2013 CDL • Reclassified into 6 class • Extracted Values to 2km polygon
  18. 18. ExtracNng Roadside Edge • Buffered TIGER road lines to cover road • Buffered TIGER road lines to cover edge • Erased road polygons • Extracted Area to 2km circle
  19. 19. ExtracNng Roadside Edge Roads Buffer Roads Erase intersect edge with buffer Buffer Central Point extract edge area in buffer
  20. 20. Characterizing the Landscape
  21. 21. Characterizing the Landscape
  22. 22. Characterize the Bee Community
  23. 23. Characterizing the Bees
  24. 24. Characterizing the Bees
  25. 25. Characterizing the Bees p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  26. 26. Characterizing the Bees
  27. 27. Characterizing the Bees Red = High Diversity Blue = Low diversity Spline based interpolaNon
  28. 28. Characterizing Bee CommuniNes
  29. 29. Characterizing Bee Community = Helianthus pe-olaris feeders
  30. 30. Results Roadside Edge High Low stress = 8.52 X axis explains 44% of variaNon, Y axis explains 33%
  31. 31. Conclusions • Roadside edges airact large numbers bees from diverse genera • Sunflower feeding genera dominate bee communiNes • CommuniNes diverge when liile roadside edge is in the landscape
  32. 32. Future direcNons • Raster based extracNons of edge habitat with species level taxonomic resoluNon • Patch Size ~ how big is the grassland that our site is situated in? • Combine local and landscape factors
  33. 33. References DeFries, R., Foley, J., & Asner, G. (2004). Land-­‐Use Choices : Balancing Human Needs and Ecosystem FuncNon Author. Fron-ers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(5), 249–257. Retrieved from hip:// Greenleaf, S. S., Williams, N. M., Winfree, R., & Kremen, C. (2007). Bee foraging ranges and their relaNonship to body size. Oecologia, 153(3), 589–96. doi:10.1007/s00442-­‐007-­‐0752-­‐9 Hurd, P. D., Laberge, W. E., & Linsley, E. G. (1980). Prinicipal Sunflower Bees of North America with Emphasis on the Southwestern United States (Hymenopter: Apoidea). Smithsonian Contribu-ons to Zoology, (310). Kremen, C., Williams, N. M., & Thorp, R. W. (2002). Crop pollinaNon from naNve bees at risk from agricultural intensificaNon. Proceedings of the Na-onal Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(26), 16812–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.262413599 Leibold, M., Economo, E., & Peres-­‐Neto, P. (2010). Metacommunity phylogeneNcs: separaNng the roles of environmental filters and historical biogeography. Ecology LeHers, 13(10), 1290–9. doi:10.1111/j.1461-­‐0248.2010.01523.x Marshall, E., & Moonen, A. (2002). Field margins in northern Europe: their funcNons and interacNons with agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 89, 5–21. Retrieved from hip:// Scoi, V., Ascher, J., Griswold, T., & Nufio, C. (2011). The Bees of Colorado, (23). Retrieved from hip:// sites/default/files/The Bees of Colorado.pdf Sipes, S., & Tepedino, V. (2005). Pollen-­‐host specificity and evoluNonary paierns of host switching in a clade of specialist bees (Apoidea: Diadasia). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 86, 487–505. Retrieved from hip:// 10.1111/j.1095-­‐8312.2005.00544.x/full Sohl, T. L., Sleeter, B. M., Sayler, K. L., Bouchard, M. A., Reker, R. R., Bennei, S. L., ... & Zhu, Z. (2012). SpaNally explicit land-­‐use and land-­‐cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 153, 1-­‐15. Williams, N., & Kremen, C. (2007). Resource distribuNons among habitats determine solitary bee offspring producNon in a mosaic landscape. Ecological Applica-ons, 17(3), 910–921. Retrieved from hip://­‐0269
  34. 34. Acknowledgements Photo Credit: J. Travis Bildalh Sam Droege Collin Schwantes Collaborators: Mary Jamieson Adrian Carper Stacey Edriss Bernadeie Kuhn Deane Bowers Andrew Norton Funding and InsNtuNons: United States Department of Agriculture GIS Colorado University of Colorado Boulder University of Wisconsin Madison Colorado State University Acknowledgements: Virginia Scoi Amber Churchill Karen Wright QDT Group at CU Boulder Field and Laboratory Technicians
  35. 35. QuesNons?