A View from the Gallery: Issues, Services & Support for Open Access Repositories


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Talk delivered in Exeter Jan 2007 as part of the SHERPA Roadshow

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  • Note: SHERPA means Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access
  • A View from the Gallery: Issues, Services & Support for Open Access Repositories

    1. 1. A View from the Gallery Issues, Services & Support for Open Access Repositories Exeter, January 2007 Gareth J Johnson SHERPA Repository Development Officer SHERPA, University of Nottingham [email_address]
    2. 2. In This Talk <ul><li>Services to help administrators & authors </li></ul><ul><li>Deciphering IPR and author rights </li></ul><ul><li>Funders mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Search and discovery services </li></ul><ul><li>The future? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. OA Services & Projects <ul><li>Repository discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenDOAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BASE Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intute Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IESR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assistance & support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repositories Support Programme (RSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RoMEO & JULIET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SHERPA DP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERSIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOCKSS </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. IPR & Copyright
    5. 5. Barriers to Adoption <ul><li>Copyright restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited or no OA author rights retained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publisher embargoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OA deposition restricted in the short term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers to adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Author apathy more common than opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>79% would deposit willingly if required to do so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition policies can provide motivation </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. A Need for Guidance <ul><li>Cycle of publication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics publish & assign all rights to publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of intellectual property for institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional repositories need to be legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid difficulties with publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid institutional liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect authors from breaching agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mysteries of self-archiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained rights poorly understood by academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequently unwilling to deposit OA materials </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>A solution to the uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists author retained OA rights from scholarly publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic research perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable by publisher or journal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on University of Loughborough research (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard rules of interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition of pre and post-print articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~90% of journals or ~75% of publishers allow something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by a broad OA audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listing of journal policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently lists publisher blanket policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing listing by individual title for individual variances </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Conditions & Restrictions <ul><li>Two forms of policy rule amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be easily accommodated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not hinder author archiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Publisher copyright & source must be acknowledged, Not publishers version etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more prohibitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require additional actions from author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May block public access to eprints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. 4 year embargo on deposition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. S/RoMEO Colour Scheme <ul><li>Highlights publisher’s archiving policies </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibitive restrictions reduce colour level </li></ul>n=220, Figures accurate as of Jan 2007 White (24%) Archiving not formally supported Yellow (10%) Can archive pre-print only Blue (26%) Can archive post-print only Green (40%) Can archive both pre & post-prints
    10. 10. S/RoMEO Record
    11. 11. Maintaining S/RoMEO <ul><li>Publishers & Journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information supplied by the British Library & Zetoc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all publishers as of yet included on S/RoMEO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New suggestions or updates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From publishers, academics, librarians or public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some publishers unknown by the BL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All suggestions & updates manually examined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures elimination of spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality assures provided service information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently pending responses from ~200 publishers </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Requesting Exceptions <ul><li>Where no explicit permission given to mount a full-text version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often worthwhile writing directly to the publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be true even where permission has been explicitly denied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to get permission in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Request template </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to seek permission to mount material on a repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some publishers insist on the author directly requesting permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than an unconnected party wishing to re-use published material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whom to contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write to the editor or officer in charge of authors' rights if possible </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Discovery Tools & OpenDOAR
    14. 14. <ul><li>Quality assured directory of repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists 836 sites currently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rated #1 in the world by Johns Hopkins University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only sites wholly embrace OA concept for full text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites with metadata only or access restrictions declined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data harvested manually & by machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human audit step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides wealth of data including information on contents, policies and contacts </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. OpenDOAR Find
    16. 16. OpenDOAR Search <ul><li>OpenDOAR & SHERPA search tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by Google Custom Search Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlocks research in repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repository policy tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use standardised format to define policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help administrators formulate policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids impact & visibility of deposited research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted output can be uploaded into repositories </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. OpenDOAR Search
    18. 18. OpenDOAR Policy Tool
    19. 19. Other Discovery Tools <ul><li>Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine for scientifically relevant web resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created and developed by Bielefeld University, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine based service (autoharvests) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intute Search project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing more advanced search algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine based service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by JISC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DOAJ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists approx 2,500 open access journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only includes scholarly titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed & maintained by University of Lund, Sweden </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Funding Mandates & JULIET
    21. 21. Funders Mandates <ul><li>Drive from the research funding bodies for Open Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate, or strongly recommend, Open Access deposition in some form of OA repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute of Health and Wellcome Trust two of the earliest to take a positive position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for short embargo periods (6 months-year) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RCUK statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 2005 supporting Open Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 2006 further support and first mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition must occur within a set period for many researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers all disciplines, not just biomedicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major driver for UK institutional repositories development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About half of the research produced at UK universities will become open access, through institutional repositories </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Ideal funder support for Open Access would mandate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access dissemination of final research outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a condition of grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without any embargo period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three key parts to an ideal Open Access policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether to Archive - Deposit required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to Archive - Author's final version or published PDF/version required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to Archive - When accepted for publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JULIET assigns an Open Access tick when each condition is met </li></ul>
    23. 23. JULIET Funders Summary
    24. 24. JULIET Detailed Records <ul><li>Where to Archive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition is less essential for Open Access purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As long as the server used is stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And material is made available for the long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are noted where they apply to specific aspects of funder's requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy information  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links are given to policy information or advice that is available on-line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All information is updated by community contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JULIET in many ways complements SHERPA/RoMEO </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. JULIET Sample Record
    26. 26. Reactions to Wellcome Trust Mandate <ul><li>Work commissioned by Wellcome Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the light of their research Open Access mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came into force 1 st October 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major implications on where research is published </li></ul></ul><ul><li>171 Publishers approached late 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>126 explicitly Biomedical publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publishers asked their response to mandate(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their feelings on the mandate(s)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they adjusting their archiving CTA policies? </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Some Wellcome Results <ul><li>Publisher reaction illuminating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some misinterpretation (deliberate or not) of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive publishers have produced a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many remain reluctant to comply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 66 (38%) of 171 publishers currently complied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55 (44%) out of 126 Biomedical publishers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-compliant risk losing market share of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information added to S/RoMEO records </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. In 10 Years…? <ul><li>Developments in the web and ICT alone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will produce substantial change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrespective of repositories, author-side charges, open access… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other developments will also affect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriptions, commercial pressures, staffing . . . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics & IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will people expect from IT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research funding and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is research changing? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. In 10 Years…? <ul><li>Who knows? But whatever happens - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If definitive versions are of value to research work (and they are) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If journals are of value to research work (and they are) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If publishers are of value to research work (and they are) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If learned societies are of value to research work (and they are) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If repositories of work are of value to research work (and they are) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then they will be used </li></ul>
    30. 30. What else can I do? <ul><li>As an author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit materials in repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain multiple-versions of articles to aid deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider using & publishing in Open Access Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the implications of funders mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the EC petition for Open Access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore the supporting initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an embedded and supported institutional repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the EC petition for Open Access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage with the Open Access debate with colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the EC petition for OA </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>SHERPA’s work is supporting Open Access and repositories globally </li></ul><ul><li>IRs work alongside traditional publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Repositories are spreading because they offer advantages to academics, institutions & research funders </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition of research in a repository enhances professional visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Services to support authors and repository administrators exist </li></ul><ul><li>OA isn’t an impossibility – but it’s not a certainty </li></ul><ul><li>The future isn’t certain </li></ul>
    32. 32. Questions & Comments