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What is digital transformation and its impact on strategy using strategical frameworks

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Some time has passed by but when I read this memoire I find that it is still up to date, especially its application on the strategical frameworks, so I decided to make it public. What is digital transformation? How does it impact strategy making? These are the two main questions treated in this paper. The main components of change are: the customer experience, the operational processes, the change in business models and employee empowerment. The originality of this paper is the observations of the changes through the lens of strategical frameworks.The research has revealed the publications of Cap Gemini Consulting, Roland Berger, Mc Kinsey, and Banque Populaire d'Investissement (BPI) to be very useful. The second part about Val d'Isère has been left out for confidentiality reasons.

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What is digital transformation and its impact on strategy using strategical frameworks

  1. 1. a th a Ma he D DIGI ajor C igital ITAL Challe V l Tran TRAN enge VAL D nsfor NSFO for t DIGIT rmati ORMA the 2 TAL ion o ATIO 1st c of Val EM Stra N centu l d’Isè Gayé M LYON Ex ategic Init No ury ère DELAHOU xecutive M tiative Pro ovember 2 USSE MBA oject 2015
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  3. 3. 2 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 Table of Contents Executive Summary .......................................................... 1 PART I, DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION, A MACRO OVERVIEW 3 1. Introduction................................................ 3 2. Digital Transformation – « Qu’estǦce que c’est ? » 4 a) The fundamental changes in companies....... 5 b) Performance of Leaders in Digital Transformation 10 3. Digital Transformation in France ................ 12 4. Digital Transformation and the Tourism Industry in France 13 5. Digital Transformation through the Lens of Strategic Frameworks 16 a) PESTEL....................................................... 17 b) Porter’s Five Forces...................................... 24 c) VRIO Competency Assessment .................... 30 6. The Customer Journey Map: a Mirror on Digital Transformation 32 PART II, VAL DIGITAL and COMPAGNIE DES ALPES .... 36 7. Digital Transformation of French Ski Stations of Compagnie des Alpes 36 8. Benchmark................................................. 44 a) Compagnie des Alpes Ski Resorts ................. 44 b) Val Thorens, social networks’ leader in France 47 c) Whistler Blackcomb, a world leader for digital ski resorts 49 9. Val Digital Project....................................... 53 a) Project Overview ......................................... 53 b) SubǦProjects................................................ 61 10. KPIs for Val Digital...................................... 75 11. Recommendations for Val Digital after 1 year of Existence 76
  4. 4. 3 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 PART I DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION A MACRO OVERVIEW 1. Introduction Digital transformation is one of the hottest topics of our times if it is not the topic, given its widespread influence and impact. It is a global phenomenon, its scope and maturity level not always in line with the development levels of different countries: It is possible to find a country such as Korea ahead of its peers in terms of WiͲFi quality, or the usage of social networks more widespread in some developing countries than developed ones. The impact on business is huge, as it disrupts many givens and barriers to entry that protected different industries or vendors for decades. This has led to the writing of Chapter 5, the analysis of change brought about by digital transformation in the context of strategic frameworks, because it really changes the rules of the game. Digital transformation is a vast subject, of which it will not be able to discuss all aspects in this paper; and moving extremely fast, which means that some ideas or practices discussed in this paper may have become obsolete by the time it is handed in. Source reliability and change are the main complexities of the research for this paper, as the traditional books as primary sources are replaced by white papers, presentations, web sites and blogs. There is an extremely important number and variety of publications available. However, the claims therein need to be checked carefully and compared against other resources given the ease with which any idea or claim can find itself out there, without preͲvalidation by “authorities”. The new ere has also its proper way of validation: peer reviews and reader views become the next best thing to affirm or discredit new information sources. Therefore, the resources that have been chosen are those which are crossͲreferenced, appearing in reliable editors’ pages, or introducing new or interesting concept and ideas although they may not have been proven so far. The case example of this paper is the work that the author is doing at the moment, the project management of Val Digital and its evangelisation. Val Digital is the code name for the Compagnie des Alpes1 pilot digital transformation project, taking place at Val d’Isère. Basically, it is the ambition of digital transformation of a whole ski resort. 1 world leader in management of ski resorts & amusement parks
  5. 5. 4 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 In order to understand the facts and the stakes, the author will start by taking a look at the digital transformation in general: What is it and what does it englobe? What does it impact? Who does it impact? As the case is taking place in France, the digital transformation taking place in France will be studied, with a special focus on the tourism sector. To illustrate the “game changing impact”, strategic frameworks will be used in order to identify what changes are/will be taking place at different strategic dimensions. Before focusing in on the Val Digital project, the client journey as a structuring element of the transformation will be studied. A brief analysis of the results of a survey among main ski resorts in France to identify where they stand on the digital transformation, and an outstanding example from France and the world will end this section. The Val Digital project, its development and its different parts will be the object of thorough description and analysis, before concluding with brief recommendations. 2. Digital Transformation – « Qu’estǦce que c’est ? » The dictionary definition of « transformation” is “transmutation, shift”. Howard King defines it in his The Guardian article in the business sense as “Transformation is a whole scale change to the foundational components of a business: from its operating model to its infrastructure. What it sells, to whom and how it goes to market.”i This definition is in line with the comprehension of the essence of this paper, so will be used for the purpose of this paper. As for “digital”, he defines it as “any technology that connects people and machines with each other or with information”, which is again a workable definition as it is sufficiently overarching the whole of the concepts that will be mentioned. “Digital Transformation”, on the other hand, is a concept that is interpreted in many ways, with different approaches discussing it in terms of its benefits, drivers, elements, attributes, or the fields it impacts. In order to pave the route for the strategic approach that will be discussed in Chapter 5; the broadest sense will be the most helpful. In light of all the research and insight, the author has come to the following definition of digital transformation for this paper: “The totality of the fundamental changes in companies by way of digital elements, including and affected by the change in consumers’ attitudes and way of life brought about by the same elements.” Concretely, what does it mean? Let’s start by looking at “the fundamental changes in companies”.
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  8. 8. 7 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 The emergence of the World Wide Web, reputation websites, social media and the mobile technology which gave access to all of these everywhere and all the time, the consumer became active instead of passive. Before the digital era, an advertising claim was put forward by a brand and the consumer had no way of knowing its truthfulness or effectiveness unless he used the product or was exposed to wordͲofͲmouth from his entourage. With the arrival of social media and evaluation websites, consumers could give their opinions and read that of others; and more importantly, in large numbers. Web 2.0 was the revolution of interactivity and “wordͲof mouth marketing” gained importance more than ever, though virtually. Thus, the consumer became active and the monologue from a brand to its consumers quickly became a dialogue or an exchange “oneͲ toͲmany” as it is called today, with exchange creating the foundation for the new world. With the introduction of identifiable masses of individuals giving their opinions, consumers have the chance to make choices based not only on the official claims of a brand, but also on the views and critiques of others who are similar to them. The digital opinions are given via a screen (computer, telephone, …) but the consumer can know more about the persons giving the opinion than the person standing next to him (same age group, with or without children, similar tastes,… ). Thus, peer influence contributes to consumer decisions, replacing part of brands’ persuasion power, and becoming a subject that they need to address and services they need to pay more attention to than before (brand reputation, after sales problem solving, consumer complaints…). The easy access to information also brought about the possibility to choose between many offers, with a lot of information on the content and quality of the offer and the possibility of delivery to and from places impossible before: country barriers are evicted as more and more international easy delivery options are available, and even the small honey producer in the country can send off his goods easily to four corners of the world. Intermediation has also undergone tremendous changes: on the one hand, huge platforms like booking.com integrate an enormous variety of different hotel and lodging offers; on the other hand, each individual with an offer can meet its clientele directly; or, as in the case of Airbnb, single offers are united to create a big and more active market. And finally, the most important notion that rises with the digital era is the consumerͲ centrism: the real period of consumer as king has begun. The customer journey is a concept that the brands are paying extreme attention to as well as the touch points because the marketers have become aware that the decision making of the purchase is no longer made solely during the act of purchase. As such, all the different contact points with the customer gain importance as each gives a possibility to influence him/her to take that vital decision: “buy”. Since marketers now know that a loyal consumer costs much less than a new one, the question becomes how can repeatͲpurchase behaviour be “programmed”? Better, how
  9. 9. 8 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 can he become the brand’s “ambassador”, to persuade others in behalf of the brand? Then there’s the issue of creating new or incremental business: if I know what my customer is doing, how can I induce crossͲselling or upselling behaviour to increase my business, his likelihood of buying and his total spending? ii. The Operational Processes Looking back at the definition retained in the introduction, digital is “any technology that connects people and machines with each other or with information”. As such, it is only natural that it also improves the operational processes or the way of doing things. One of the first and foremost advantages of digitization is the elimination of double entries: by enabling communication between different machines, people and data; it helps eliminate the errors stemming from manual entry or multiple entries, saves time and energy on the simple processes. On top of that, the complex surveillance capabilities brought forward by these intelligent systems help reduce waste and increase automation. The increasing number of direct relations between producers and buyers, the evolution of delivery systems and the birth of rating systems bring about changes in the cost and profitability models: increasing transparency calls for lower margins; thus new processes aiming higher productivity and lower costs. On the other hand, as a result of the same changes, the existing processes or production methods become obsolete and put enterprises in danger (Kodak), or completely change the environment and question the legal frameworks (taxis vs Uber). A new model of competition is born. On a more general level, performance management is simplified: more data is available and easily interpretable to define key performance indicators and install automatic monitoring processes. As such, even small details can be detected and improved, broadening the horizons for innovation and higher efficiency. iii. The Business Models The digital era is questioning the existing business models and their sustainability, too. This is happening in a variety of ways: Ǧ “GAFA” (Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple) are becoming active in many sectors previously considered outside of their activity and the lines of core business are blurring.
  10. 10. 9 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 Ǧ New actors, called “pure players” are born, active only on the web and focused on one idea. In the midst of this ever changing landscape, existing businesses are questioning their viability, their profitability and their future business models: will they still be making money with their products or is “services” their future? How will the production, delivery and maintenance costs change? Most importantly, what is the shape and form of tomorrow’s market in which they’ll be required to compete? Ǧ Societal phenomena are changing the rules of the game: new concepts like crowdsourcing or crowdfunding provide access to rare resources in yesterday’s world. Key competences can be assembled by the way of crowdsourcing. Otherwise hidden ideas come to light thanks to crowdfunding: micro participations enabling the creation of business from individual ideas. Consumers become developers through coͲcreation platforms, and everybody can sell much less anything via social commerce or eͲcommerce sites. In short, new usages and new habits are questioning the business models as we know them. In Chapter 5, the impact of the digital will be unveiled further using basic strategic frameworks. iv. The Empowerment of Employees The digital era is also changing the employee power, employeeͲemployer relationships, and the management schemes. As Karel Dörner and David Edelman of McKinsey say: ” Being digital is about using data to make better and faster decisions, devolving decision making to smaller teams, and developing much more iterative and rapid ways of doing things. Thinking in this way shouldn’t be limited to just a handful of functions. It should incorporate a broad swath of how companies operate, including creatively partnering with external companies to extend necessary capabilities. A digital mindͲset institutionalizes crossͲfunctional collaboration, flattens hierarchies, and builds environments to encourage the generation of new ideas. Incentives and metrics are developed to support such decisionͲ making agility.”iv Given the flattening of hierarchies, and the importance of the clientͲemployee interaction at all levels, employee empowerment becomes a must: no brand manager will be able to handle all contacts for a brand on all of its social platforms, in all its stores and after sales points. The consumer, however, expects the same level and mentality of service at all of these touchͲpoints. On top of all this, major innovations come from the field and from knowing the consumers. Therefore, it is essential that employees integrate brand values, display them and take part voluntarily in processes surpassing what their job calls for.
  11. 11. 10 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 The digital age has additional challenges, from an employee and employer perspective. As the management guru Gary Hamel puts it: “…I’ll outline three of the most formidable challenges that confront companies in this new century. 1. Dramatically accelerating the pace of strategic renewal in organizations large and small 2. Making innovation everyone’s job, everyday 3. Creating a highly engaging work environment that inspires employees to give the very best of themselves.”v Roland Berger, in a study in France, found that employee satisfaction is higher in highly digitized companies: “the companies the most matures in terms of digitization increase their turnover 6 times faster than their less mature counterͲparts, and as importantly, employees in the mature companies have employee wellͲbeing ratings 50% superior. Companies with digital cultures give a large place to the human factor: they have understood that employees may be the source of continuous improvement and even innovation. Once trained, employees become a real force of digital transformationvi .” b) Performance of Leaders in Digital Transformation Cap Gemini Consulting has realised a study with MIT to measure the link between the digital maturity of companies and their financial performance among 391 companies in 30 countries, interviewing 469 directorsvii . They have measured the maturity along two axes: Ǧ The Digital Intensity Technology enabled initiatives in customer experience and internal operations Ǧ Transformation Management Intensity Leadership capabilities including vision, governance, engagement and ITͲBusiness Relationships
  12. 12. 11 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 This work has led them to classify companies on 4 digital groups: FASHIONISTAS Ǧ Several separate digital projects Ǧ Not guided by a vision that would introduce synergies between different departments and in different functions Ǧ Even though some departments may be mature, it needs a central governance DIGIRATI Ǧ A good global vision of the potential of a digital transformation Ǧ Solid governance with sufficient investments to capture value adding opportunities Ǧ Strong digital culture BEGINNERS Ǧ Even though some may be mature in ERP or online sales, no profound thinking on digital Ǧ Beginners by choice but mostly because they ignore the real potential of digital CONSERVATIVES Ǧ Under exploited global digital vision Ǧ Structured governance to ensure good digital project management Ǧ Dubitative on the added value of digital Ǧ Prudent investments, sometimes to the point of missing on opportunities to competition Ǧ According to their findings, the Digirati outperform their competition on average by 26%. Fashionistas will perform Ͳ11% less than their competition, beginners Ͳ24% versus their competition and conservatives 9% better. In terms of revenue generation, Digirati will be 9% better than their counterparts whereas this figure will only be 6% for the fashionistas, Ͳ4% for beginners and Ͳ10% for conservatives. Digirati’s market evaluation will be 12% better than their competitors whereas the fashionistas will be Ͳ12%, and conservatives will be at 7% vs beginners at Ͳ7%. It suggests that there is a real relation between digital maturity and overall performance, an important message to heed by all companies asking themselves if they should take the path to digital transformation or not. 1.DigitalIntensity 2. Transformation Management Intensity
  13. 13. 12 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 3. Digital Transformation in France According to the September 2014 study by McKinsey, the value added of the digital is equivalent to 5.5% of the GDP (110 billion €), and it generates 3.1% of all jobs (1.5Million) in France. On line sales have tripled since 2007, and 80% of the French population use internet. As such, the penetration of digital in France is in the average of comparable countries. However, there is an important difference between the private consumption and investments. Whereas France is 4th in terms of private consumption, its private investment in digital is only 9th among 13 countries. This phenomenon is further demonstrated by online sales: Only 14% of French companies have received online orders in 2013 (compared to 26% in Germany) and only 65% have websites (compared to 89% in Sweden). viii The Roland Berger study of the same period shows that France occupies only the 25th place in the world, according to the NRI indicator (Network Readiness Indicator) and adds some more figures about the digital progress in France: Ǧ Less than 30% of companies use online data, Ǧ Only 15% of companies have developed a mobile application, Ǧ Only 13% of companies have developed APIs (Application Programming Interface). Ǧ 1 French person out of 6 has made purchases online but only 1 French company out of 10 sells online. French companies seem to understand that digital transformation is an important element of the future: 57% of French companies identify digital as a major strategic axis, but only 1 out of 3 has a formalised digital strategy (36%)ix . The majority of the businesses in France claim that the digital has already led to or is leading to an evolution of their business model (86%). Surprisingly, they see it more as a threat than an opportunity as 84% estimate that there is a risk, of which 71% think that it’s important or very important. For majority of the respondents, digital will require reinventing the consumer experience (94%), create an evolution of the existing management models (82%) and transform operational processes (81%)x . Those who lead the change have a head start: enterprises mature in their digital transformation have a growth rate 6 times superior to others, and their employees are 50% more satisfied with their professional environments than those in companies less maturexi . What’s keeping the French companies from performing better? McKinsey has studied 500 companies and has identified 4 principal reasonsxii :
  14. 14. 13 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 Ǧ Organisational difficulties 45% of the companies mentioned structural rigidities, especially the well separated identities of different functions in the company. Ǧ Lack of digital competencies 31% of the companies have a real difficulty hiring digitally talented people. Ǧ Ǧ Insufficient profitability French companies lag behind their European counterparts in profitability (average gross profit margin for French companies at 28% vs 38% for UE28), making it impossible to invest in digital for 30% of them Ǧ Management involvement 28% of them mentioned the need for more and visible implication from their managers and leaders to be able to bring about the digital transformation and the cultural change that comes with it. These results show that some of the French companies have become their digital transformation and profit from it, although the majority haven’t taken the necessary steps yet and a cautious approach is hindering faster development. 4. Digital Transformation and the Tourism Industry in France France is the first touristic destination worldwide, and the tourism industry in France makes up 7.4% of the GDP and 156.9billion € of the revenues of the country in 2013, according to the BPI studyxiii (Accommodation providers, travel agencies, transports, catering and restaurants are included in this total). Even though it is not stated clearly, it seems that side industries such as ski lift companies, locations of equipment, sales of equipment and apparel related to touristic activities are not included in these figures, and as such the figures are understated in terms of their potential impact on the country’s economic welfare. In 2013, 1 reservation out of 2 was made online and 62% of voyagers used internet to prepare their trips in France, a performance not far from other mature European countriesxiv . In this perspective, tourism seems to be one of the most mature sectors in terms of digital transformation, recalling that only 1 company out of 10 proposes online sales in France. Unfortunately, mostly front office elements have benefited from this transformation:
  15. 15. Ǧ Ǧ Ǧ This revo leve and Sour In a defi 1 Gayé Ǧ only 7% Ǧ only 19% Ǧ only 7% s is very imp olution, mak els. The BPI s suppliers ch rce : Banque quite exten ned 5 big ev 1. Increase The com such as: o P o Y o I DELAHOUSS % of compan % propose d % think of inv portant beca king it neces study illustr hange: Populaire d’ nsive study o volutions of e in compe mpetitive la : PureǦplayer Young start Internet gia E Executive M ies have de digital traini vesting in Bi ause tourism ssary to kee rates a new Investisseme of the touris f the digital titive inten andscape ha rs tǦups ants who en MBA EM LYO materialise ing, ig Dataxv . m is one of t ep engaging value chain ent, le Lab, L sm sector in transforma nsity as changed ter the tour ON Strategic I d their proc the sectors g in continuo n, where the e Numérique n France am ation in tour with digita rism industr Initiative Pro cesses, most affect ous digital t e interaction e Déroutant, mong others rismxvi : l technolog ry oject, Novem ted by the d ransformat ns between February 20 s, Mc Kinsey gies, with ne ber 2015 digital ion at all n clients 015 y has ew actors 14
  16. 16. 15 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 The traditional actors change as well, putting more resources on online activities whereas small agencies and tourͲoperators who have not taken the digital turn lose market share. The emergence of the final client as an independent holiday creator online, who can buy individually all the elements of a package, is an important danger facing the travel intermediaries, both in terms of the offer and the prices. It is becoming increasingly important to know the consumer and assure good client relations, pushing traditional companies to improve direct sales platforms. The emergence of peerͲtoͲpeer economies such as Airbnb, Uber,… also have an important impact on the competition in the tourism industry, as illustrated by the following article from Le Figaro (editor’s note). http://bit.ly/1N3XfVh 2. A multichannel client experience Internet sales represented 33% of sales in 2013 vs. 23% in 2012; mobile reservations are expected to increase threefold between 2012 and 2015. Given the increasing usage of tablets, it is essential to provide highͲperforming applications to users and profit from the advantages of such usages like geoͲlocalisation, and to account for the social aspect of travelling. Clients also expect to be able to continue their reservations or have replies to their questions in a continuum between different interaction points. The seamless continuity of the experience is also a determining factor for customer satisfaction. For a well highlighted illustration, watch David Edelman, McKinsey partner leading Digital Marketing Strategy Practice: http://bit.ly/1R2l2ql 3. Innovative products and services As in other sectors, digital technologies make it possible to offer products with higher added value for clients. Perhaps the most interesting is a selfieͲtour of the city by Mandarin Oriental Paris, as it shows not only the impact of social networks on the tourism but also illustrates that they are for all ages and all levels of income (editor’s note). http://bit.ly/1LsREFo 4. Better informed decision making The massive amount of data available on clients and the interpretation of such data thanks to digital technologies give birth to new practices. The first and best known is the “yield management”, making it possible to adjust prices and optimise revenues according to demand and supply. The increase in available data on clients also leads the way to make suggestions to clients based on their preferences, and even adjust the proposed options to their consumption methods, enabling “personalisation” of products, offers and reductions.
  17. 17. 16 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 5. A digital transformation of processes from end to end Three distinct processes are concerned by this phenomenon: o Transferring some acts to clients Novelties such as direct bag dropͲoffs, selfͲcheckͲin and dematerialised boarding tickets and eͲvouchers have transformed the acts and organisational needs in the tourism industry. o Automation of processes One of the major outcomes of automation of processes is moving from “static”, meaning preconceived and fixed offers in terms of contents and price to “dynamic” packages where the package is created during the reservation, and its contents defined according to the demands of the client. Another implication of this change is the evolution of laws and regulations, as some of the existing texts were based on the concept of packages (editor’s note). o Diffusion of digital equipment to staff Some companies have equipped their staff with mobile tablets or other digital equipment that contribute to service quality, efficiency and economies. 5. Digital Transformation through the Lens of Strategic Frameworks Given the importance of digital in the new world and the changes it brings about, a final proof of its importance would reside in its capacity to change strategy, or rather a study of impact of digital in strategic analysis. The inspiration for this analysis has come from the teachings of Mr. Thomas Lawton at EM LYONxvii . There exist many strategic frameworks that can be used for analysis. In this paper, the changes brought about by the digital transformation will be studied in the light of 3 frameworks: Ǧ PESTELxviii Ǧ Porter’s Five Forcesxix Ǧ VRIO Competency Assessment These three have been chosen for their complementarity: PESTEL helps understand the environment and the forces of change in which an industry operates. Porter’s Five Forces is a tool that is very easy to use in order to analyse the different competitive forces within an industry. Finally, the VRIO competency assessment is helpful to identify the core competencies within a company and look at the changes going on with them to assess competitiveness. A change sufficiently important to be called a revolution would have impacts at these three levels, from the most general to the most specific.
  18. 18. a Sour The ope digit will mea i. Two polit The polit Whe Gayé a) PESTEL rce: http://b PESTEL an rates. In the tal transform seek to ill aning the po Politica o kinds of im tical structu first one i ticians or th en taxi driv DELAHOUSS L bit.ly/1LlEM alysis seeks e case of th mation in t ustrate this olitical, econ al mportant fac ures, when e is the cont he governm vers go on E Executive M MVX s to describ his paper, th he global b s impact o nomic, socia ctors spring evaluating t trast betwe ment agents strike beca MBA EM LYO be the com he idea is to usiness env n the 6 dim al, technolo to attentio the changes een existing position th ause of Ube ON Strategic I petitive env o look at the vironment t mensions t gical, enviro n in terms o s brought ab g rights and hemselves w erpopxx ; or Initiative Pro vironment e changes b today. In th hat the PE onmental an of the impac bout by digit d new prac with regards worse, pro oject, Novem in which a brought abo e following STEL mode nd legal dim ct on politic tal transfor ctices, and s to these s otest in a p ber 2015 company out by the lines, we el studies, mensions: cs or mation. how the situations. potentially 17
  19. 19. 18 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 dangerous way, people on the streets may be proͲUberpop, seeing it as liberation of choice and prices. What is, and what could be the position of politicians? How do such confrontations change politics and expectations? In a similar fashion, should politicians be striving to integrate possible new economic models (Uber, Airbnb …) or insist that they abide by the old rules? The attitudes of many users are in these cases in contradiction with existing laws and structures, introducing new political questions: Both taxi drivers (and their families etc.) and Uberpop users are voters, whom will the politician try to please? What is the place of this subject within his agenda? What are the forces of the “Uberists” and “Taxi drivers” and what is their nuisance capacity? This is of course just an example, as similar cases can and will arise on the subject of Airbnb & hotels, Amazon & libraries and others that we do not know yet. In this context, thanks to the communication power of the new digital world, people will have more access to information to hear, question and judge politicians, necessitating taking a stance. The second question stems from a competitive issue: digital transformation being an important element of economic welfare of countries, what should be the politics in terms of digital transformation and development of countries, and what is the role of politicians and government agencies? Mc Kinsey, in their paper dealing with accelerating the digital mutation of companies, estimates that the contribution of digital to the French economy will continue to grow regularly to potentially reach 280 billion € in 2020 if France could attain the digitization level of the UKxxi . In this context, how should economic and educational policies be created to favour the creation of digital innovation and transformation? What infrastructural investments should find themselves on top of political agendas? The choices and actions of politicians will play a major role in the development of any industry related even remotely to the digital economy. The observation of politicians, political and related institutions shows the increasing impact of the digital transformation and the new questions it introduces in the political arena. ii. Economic The changes brought about by the digital in economic terms may be grouped under three types: x those impacting the relationship between business and the final consumer (B2C), x those impacting businesses selling to other businesses (B2B), and x those impacting the transactional economic relations between consumers (C2C). At the consumer level, the digital revolution is certainly one of information. He/she has easy access to much more information and choice and this modifies his relationship with
  20. 20. 19 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 any provider of products or services. Because of this greater knowledge, he has the possibility to compare prices between different offers, distributors and steps in the production cycle. This knowledge increases his force, and, via the lower prices, his purchasing power. According to the Mc Kinsey study, an internet user in France brings about 20€ of economies by month to its householdxxii . Among the digitally induced B2C changes is the creation of giant distributors, with a very wide offer. Amazon is a global vendor selling everything from clothes to books to gym equipment, and has even started distributing fresh fruits and vegetables. With its fast delivery, competitive prices and performant customer service, it has brought an end to many local stores. Marketplaces replace separate vendors. The dematerialization of offers has also led the markets to evolve towards big aggregators selling differently, as the music sector witnessed with the arrival of iTunes, Deezer or Spotify; or the travel agencies with online sales and booking.com. On the B2B scheme of things, greater integration of processes has been possible thanks to digital improvements, leading to way to less stocks and better delivery times, by integrating the systems of different contributors to production. The improvement of costs, thanks to the management of great amounts of data and their interpretations to reduce waste has also been an outcome of digitization. The digital transformation has created a whole new jargon in economy and perhaps the most important result of the digital transformation on economy has been the creation of a whole “new” economy, the sharing economy, without intermediation (C2C). The impact is so vast and so allͲencompassing that it brings about a revolution: o The sharing of consumption and direct offers (Airbnb, Uber, blablacar, homeaway, couchsurfing, lessons via internet...), Thanks to internet and the possibility to “connect” with potential consumers, each and every person who has a potential sellable or rentable service or object can do so, freely and easily. It goes from renting out one’s flat to one’s couch, renting out lessons, the car or the possibility to use a service with other people that one does not know to have access to an offer that wouldn’t be possible otherwise. This new possibility creates a big disruption for industries concerned: hotels have suddenly new competitors that they did not see coming, it may become easier to travel renting only a couch instead of a room increasing the number of travellers, taxi prices may be questioned… Many new elements are to take into account making a business plan.
  21. 21. 20 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 o The sharing of creation (crowdsourcing,…) Let’s start with the definition of crowdsourcing from Wikipediaxxiii : Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson, editors at Wired Magazine, coined the term "crowdsourcing" in 2005 after conversations about how businesses were using the Internet to outsource work to individuals. Howe and Robinson came to the conclusion that what was happening was like "outsourcing to the crowd," which quickly led to the portmanteau "crowdsourcing." Howe first published a definition for the term "crowdsourcing" in a companion blog post to his June 2006 Wired magazine article, "The Rise of Crowdsourcing," which came out in print just days later: "Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peerͲproduction (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential labourers." The impact is enormous: no longer bound by geographical boundaries or dependant on inͲhouse teams, companies no longer have the same resource constraints. The crowdsourcing as it is seen today (writing code, creating publicity,…) is evolving at a great pace, as new forms of delivery are being mentioned; for instance, people going home from work can deliver packages on their route if they want to. The developments on a large scale of these evolutions will have major impacts on costs and reach, changing forever the economical equations. o The sharing of financing (crowdfunding). First things first, another definition from Wikipediaxxiv : Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet. Crowdfunding is a form of alternative finance, which has emerged outside of the traditional financial system. The crowdfunding model is fuelled by three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded; individuals or groups who support the idea; and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea. In 2013, the crowdfunding industry grew to be over $5.1 billion worldwide. Once again, a new model is born which permits people with a new idea or business model to bypass the hard and long roads of classic financing and get what they need from a large number of people, to realise their projects. Many startͲups form in this manner and
  22. 22. 21 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 threaten existing companies in many industries with their agility and novelty among other advantages. As can be seen with the above descriptions and illustrations, digitization has a huge impact on the economic scales of any strategy and calls for a new way of thinking. iii. Social The societal changes that accompany the digital transformation are so many that it would be necessary to write another paper to explain in detail all of them. For the purpose of this paper, please find below the major effects that have been observed by the writer, knowing that the list is certainly not complete. • The “connected age”: All the social networks that are a major part of the digital era create a connection between people who previously didn’t know each other and would never cross paths, while it leaves less time for less human interaction with family and friends. A new type of “friendship” is born, bringing with it new rules of conduct and trust. • Andy Warhol was right when he said “In the future, everybody will be worldͲfamous for 15 minutes.” Thanks to the social networks; anybody can become famous and very fast. • People are more informed, and informing. Anybody can find information about the product/service he wanted to buy or give his opinion on it, and opinions of “strangers like me” shape the buying decisions. As consumers they have new power and they will use it. • Consumer needs are evolving as well: reactivity, individual attention, quality of service fluidity in interactions with the vendor/brand and integrating consumers into the creative processes are among the newly emerging norms. • Citizens are also becoming more active in their demands and how they voice them thanks to the power of social networks which help amplify simple messages. • Thanks to the sharing economy, it is much easier to become a creator or make commerce without needing a heavy structure. • The digital era is also a better “equal rights employer” as it creates the possibility to be educated online or to work from home. • The work/private life borders are shifting, with the rise of smart phones and tablets which make it possible to join anyone anytime; and thus ask something of them. • The expectations of workers are shifting as well; they want more participative management, being included in innovation projects, responsibility and autonomy.
  23. 23. 22 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 iv. Technological The digital era is about technology. Whereas information systems were just one of the support systems of a company not so long ago, now they are in all the departments of the company. Starting from the top, the management uses key indicators and performance reports supplied by its information systems. HR needs IS to calculate the hours worked, the pay, the personal development followͲup,... Production needs IS to follow production numbers, efficiency, breakdown rates, raw material needs, production schedules,…Commercials need IS to take orders, to propose repeat orders, to keep track of client information and propose new products or deliveries,…Logistics needs IS to calculate costs, prepare deliveries, to handle delivery schedules, to define the routes,…Marketing needs IS to see which products sell, to define new products, to calculate prices, to learn about consumers’ opinions, to communicate on the product, to exchange with consumers. All these departments which were once autonomous now depend on and are tied together with information systems as data is at the heart of all digital systems and information systems provide this. New job titles such as Chief Technology Officer or Chief Digital Officer are created, including responsibilities of the old IS guys and marketing, and maybe more and more of everything in the future with the further usage of Big data. At a strategic level, this shows the importance of digital to attain success and the importance that should be attributed to it. v. Environmental Even though the digital revolution will not have the same environmental impact as the industrial revolution, it will be important in the sense that the communication capacity that it gives to everyone may help act on environmental destruction. People may connect and fight against damage to the environment, and companies who invest on green practices may receive the applause that they merit thanks to the fast spread of information thanks to social networks and internet. The possibility to publish photos and videos is especially helpful, as it reinforces the claims or truth, and may stir a stronger emotional involvement than words alone. vi. Legal Amongst the trademarks of the digital transformation, we can count the disappearance of borders, the creation of new forms of transactions and the availability of personal information at a larger and easier level. These elements have very important legal implications.
  24. 24. 23 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 One of the first legal issues to come to light with the increase in eͲcommerce was that of jurisdiction: If one buys in France a product from an American eͲcommerce website produced in China and shipped from Turkey, the legal framework to be respected is that of which country? In which country does the client take his complaint to court? The rules of which country apply? For instance, in the case of the “AntiͲAmazon” law in France which forbid adding the 5% price decrease and free delivery, Amazon responded just the day after by proposing delivery at 1 centimes of € and thus sidestepping the intention of the lawxxv . Also related to this subject are the questions about tax, legal and economic issues. The transactions between companies and companies (B2B) or between companies and individuals (B2C) are well defined. However, which are the rules that apply between two individuals (C2C)? When an individual rents a house for 25 persons, does the house comply with the rules and regulations of a hotel (as is the law in France), or can he compete with a hotel of the same size having no constraints whatsoever because it is technically not a hotel. And would this be considered unjust competition (competition déloyale) or not, or at which point it becomes so? There is also the question of privacy: which rules and regulations about personal information apply? The most recent case of Google against CNILxxvi illustrates brilliantly this subject: End of July, Google informed CNIL, guardian of private life in France, that it wouldn’t be following CNIL’s recommendations concerning the “right to forget” (droit à l’oubli). What this means is that if an individual in France asks that an offensive content be removed from search engines because it is offensive, it will be removed from only French search engines and not of other countries. This may seem shocking because anybody can access other countries’ search engines. According to Bertrand de le Chapelle, who shared his thoughts in the same article, there is a certain balance to be found between the protection of private life and the right to information, and take into account the territorial rights: how is it possible or acceptable to impose French laws in US or vice versa? He gives the example of Thailand, where it is a crime to criticize the king. If the logic of no territorial law is pursued, this would mean erasing all negative comments about the Thailand king all around the world, which would be another extreme. These insights show the complexity of the new legal landscape facing the digital era, and this will certainly have an impact on strategy making.
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  30. 30. 29 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 iv. Bargaining Power of Suppliers The effects of the digital transformation are more visible downstream than upstream. However, the changes downstream may influence the businesses upstream in different ways. One of these is the distribution of profits. There are three possible ways in which this can happen: 1. With the need for more personalisation, the product specifications at production level may become more different, thus increasing production posts, without the possibility to increase final product price. 2. As new intermediaries are being created downstream Ͳ meaning the big vendors such as booking.com which force new and higher commission rates on accommodation owners – the producers and historical direct sellers lower their marginxxxii . 3. The access to further and cheaper producing countries may put local producers in peril. The digital transformation is an ever changing process and its exact evolution is not yet known. For the time being, it seems to decrease the power of suppliers rather than increase them. One final question remains to be clarified: “Who is a supplier?” Before the digital age, it was clear to see who played in which industry. Today, with google entering new segments such as tourism, health or automobile, it is difficult to evaluate their role in relation to an industry. Yesterday, for tourism, google was a supplier of visibility in search engines. Today, they are an intermediary selling accommodation. What will their role be tomorrow and how will it change the power structures within industries? This is the unknown with the future of the digital age. v. Competitive Rivalry within an Industry BPI underlines an important potential outcome of the digital transformation in its February 2015 report: « By allowing, through its immaterial character, competition on a multiplied geographical zone, the digital can weaken local historical actors and induce a brutal and massive movement of profits. Only the services carried out by nature in proximity with the client are an exception, but all the upstream segments may share this fatexxxiii . The change in profit distribution is one outcome of the digital age, but it is not the only one. Among the current rivalry within any industry, new dynamics are at play because of the digital transformation. The transformation capability of different actors determines their future, as all industries are open to attack by inside or outside players. Let’s take a look at the music industry: Justine Bieber, Taylor Swift, Madonna… and countless other artists are
  31. 31. com mus lives anot very as b subj or p all n Spot thei c Sou Onc adva usin of a Gayé mpeting for t sic, the num s were the ther eleme y important before, and t ject for them ulling all he new emerg tify, vine… r presence. c) VRIO Co rce: http://b e the comp antage at co ng strategic company. L DELAHOUSS the attentio mber of albu elements w nt, combine element to the returns m, as seen b er work out ing artists w ; making it ompetency bit.ly/1P3cK petitive anal ompany lev framework Let us recall E Executive M on of the glo ums, the to with which t ed with pro o their prom on Spotify by Taylor Sw of Spotifyxxx who can co even more y Assessme KB5 ysis of an in vel. At this l ks, we will lo l the 4 comp MBA EM LYO obal music a ours and the they played oximity and motion. But t or Deezer o wift’s refusa xiv . Artists co ome out m e important ent ndustry is m last part stu ook at the i ponents of c ON Strategic I audience. U e interest t d. Today, th d interactio that’s not a or Apple mu al of putting ompete am much more t for existin made, the ne udying the i impact of d core compe Initiative Pro ntil recently hey provide eir social m n with fans ll: music is n usic is a new g her new a ong themse easily now ng ones to ext level is a impact of d igitization o etenciesxxxv : oject, Novem y; the qualit ed with the media prese s, adding a no longer d w and very i lbum on ap elves but als thanks to continue a assessing co igital transf on the com ber 2015 ty of their eir private nce is yet new and istributed mportant pple music so against YouTube, nd renew mpetitive formation petencies 30
  32. 32. 31 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 Valuable: Does it clearly contribute to your value proposition? Rare: Is it scarce within the sector? Inimitable, immobile, nonͲsubstitutable: Can it be easily copied or obtained by rivals? Can a different capability or competency deliver the same effect? Organization: Is the firm organized, ready and able to exploit the resource/capability? At the company level, the effect of digitization is the changes on the competencies that can be considered valuable, rare and hard to imitate. Coming back to the tourism sector, let’s imagine a hotel chain renowned for its service quality: they take pride and advertise on responding to all requests of clients in a fast, relevant and impeccable manner throughout. It clearly is valuable and contributes to its value proposition. It can be assumed that it is rare as they are using it as an advertising claim. It is not easily imitable or substitutable because it requires a certain mindͲset and a certain organization, the last element of the VRIO framework. Now let’s look at the adaptation of this hotel chain to the digital age: Ǧ The new demands will require instant and highͲdebit WiͲFi. Not hard to do, but necessitating a new mindͲset and investment. Ǧ Other material needs may follow : chargers, headphones, cables,…As above, possible Ǧ The guests will be leaving their comments on online evaluation websites such as tripadvisor.com, or through mentions on Twitter, Facebook, etc. It gets more complicated at this level because : o First of all, the chain has to have thought of this evolution and hired at least one community manager. o Which would not suffice because clients now everything NOW so there may be a need for a community manager around the clock. o Then again, the community manger must be able to figure out who the person behind the comments is (not everybody use their real names). o One more step: the hotel chain organization must have evolved in such a way that employees from all levels can accept demands coming from the community manager, technically at the same level or at a lower hierarchical level than themselves. o And further: the guests, who have already stayed with the hotel, reckon that the hotel knows all about them and should have everything as they want for their next stay, requiring a CRM system. Ǧ The hotel chain must also realize that comments offline are less visible today, and find a way to transfer negative comments to positive online.
  33. 33. 2 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 Table of Contents Executive Summary .......................................................... 1 PART I, DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION, A MACRO OVERVIEW 3 1. Introduction................................................ 3 2. Digital Transformation – « Qu’estǦce que c’est ? » 4 a) The fundamental changes in companies....... 5 b) Performance of Leaders in Digital Transformation 10 3. Digital Transformation in France ................ 12 4. Digital Transformation and the Tourism Industry in France 13 5. Digital Transformation through the Lens of Strategic Frameworks 16 a) PESTEL....................................................... 17 b) Porter’s Five Forces...................................... 24 c) VRIO Competency Assessment .................... 30 6. The Customer Journey Map: a Mirror on Digital Transformation 32 PART II, VAL DIGITAL and COMPAGNIE DES ALPES .... 36 7. Digital Transformation of French Ski Stations of Compagnie des Alpes 36 8. Benchmark................................................. 44 a) Compagnie des Alpes Ski Resorts ................. 44 b) Val Thorens, social networks’ leader in France 47 c) Whistler Blackcomb, a world leader for digital ski resorts 49 9. Val Digital Project....................................... 53 a) Project Overview ......................................... 53 b) SubǦProjects................................................ 61 10. KPIs for Val Digital...................................... 75 11. Recommendations for Val Digital after 1 year of Existence 76
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  37. 37. 79 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 i What is digital transformation, Howard King, The Guardian, November 21st, 2013 ii P. 9, Roland Berger en collaboration avec capǦdigital, du rattrapage à la transformation, l’aventure numérique, une chance pour la France, Septembre 2014 iii George Westerman, Didier Bonnet and Andrew McAfee, MIT Sloane Review, The Nine Elements of Digital Transformation, January 7th , 2014 iv Mc Kinsey & Company, What “digital” really means, Karel Dörner and David Edelman, McKinsey Digital, July 2015 v P. 40, Gary Hamel with Bill Bree, The Future of Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2007. vi P. 3, Roland Berger en collaboration avec capǦdigital, du rattrapage à la transformation, l’aventure numérique, une chance pour la France, September 2014 vii Cap Gemini Consulting, Digital Transformation : Définition, Enjeux, Illustrations, November 2014 viii McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014 ix Roland Berger en collaboration avec capǦdigital, du rattrapage à la transformation, l’aventure numérique, une chance pour la France, September 2014 x CSC, Barometre de la Transformation Digitale, Les Secrets des Super Héros du Digital, 2015 xi Roland Berger en collaboration avec capǦdigital, du rattrapage à la transformation, l’aventure numérique, une chance pour la France, September 2014 xii McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014 xiii Key Facts on Tourism, Direction Générale des Entreprises, Ministère de l’Economie, de l’Industrie et du Numérique, Edition 2014. xiv McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014 xv Roland Berger en collaboration avec capǦdigital, du rattrapage à la transformation, l’aventure numérique, une chance pour la France, September 2014 xvi McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014 xvii Thomas Lawton, Foundations of Strategic Thinking Course (XESST), EM Lyon Executive MBA Module, November 13th Ǧ15th , 2014.
  38. 38. 80 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 xviii Gerry Johnson, Richard Whittington, Kevan Scholes, Duncan Angwin, Patrick Regnér et Frédéric Fréry, Stratégique (10e édition), Pearson, 2014, pp. 37Ǧ43. xix M.E. Porter, The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review 57 (January 2008), p57Ǧ71 xx http://www.lemonde.fr/economie/live/2015/06/25/laǦgreveǦdesǦtaxisǦcontreǦuberpopǦprovoqueǦ desǦincidentsǦaǦparis_4661266_3234.html xxi McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014, p 5 xxii McKinsey France, Accélérer la mutation numérique des entreprises : un gisement de croissance et de compétitivité pour la France, September 2014, p 2 xxiii https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdsourcing xxiv https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdfunding (mention on the page as article being outdated already in April 2014, but the definition is valid for the purpose of this paper) xxv Banque Populaire d’Investissement, le Lab, Le Numérique Déroutant, February 2015, p 39 xxvi http://rue89.nouvelobs.com/2015/08/17/fautǦcourǦinternationaleǦlinternetǦ260768 xxvii CSC, Barometre de la Transformation Digitale, Les Secrets des Super Héros du Digital, 2015 xxviii http://www.actionco.fr/Thematique/businessǦ1018/Breves/FordǦStoreǦcommentǦpoursuivreǦ parcoursǦdigitalǦclientǦconcessionǦ258843.htm xxix http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottdavis/2014/03/27/burberrysǦblurredǦlinesǦtheǦintegratedǦ customerǦexperience/ xxx EǦtransformation du Parcours Client, Présentation du 25 juin 2015, Travail de groupe MBA Marketing et Commerce sur Internet, Institut Leonard de Vinci (#MBAMCI), La Défense, Promo Part Time 2014/2015 xxxi The Battle is for the Customer Interface, Tom Goodwin, TechCrunch, 3 March 2015 http://techcrunch.com/2015/03/03/inǦtheǦageǦofǦdisintermediationǦtheǦbattleǦisǦallǦforǦtheǦ customerǦinterface/#.ntdj8f:0sCd xxxii Banque Populaire d’Investissement, le Lab, Le Numérique Déroutant, February 2015 xxxiii Banque Populaire d’Investissement, le Lab, Le Numérique Déroutant, February 2015 xxxiv http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/6605541/taylorǦswiftǦpensǦopenǦletterǦexplainingǦ whyǦ1989ǦwontǦbeǦonǦappleǦmusic
  39. 39. 81 Gayé DELAHOUSSE Executive MBA EM LYON Strategic Initiative Project, November 2015 xxxv Thomas Lawton, Foundations of Strategic Thinking Course (XESST), EM Lyon Executive MBA Module, November 13th Ǧ15th , 2014, the VRIO criteria derive from the work of Barney (1991 and 2005). xxxvi Digital Transformation and the Customer Experience, Overcoming Barriers & a Framework for Success, May 23rd , 2014, http://fr.slideshare.net/MFiddy/digitalǦtransformationǦandǦtheǦcustomerǦ experienceǦ35052981?qid=d3ac9fccǦ033aǦ4466Ǧac70Ǧe4caf0561369&v=default&b=&from_search=1 xxxvii Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Impacts et mise en œuvre de la transition numérique à la Compagnie des Alpes, Document de synthèse, Avril 2015. xxxviii Office de Tourisme de Val Thorens, Val Thorens United – Un Plan pour Une Action Globale, April 2012 xxxix Cap’com, Val Thorens Invente un nouveau modèle de marketing intégré, 2 juin 2014. http://www.capǦcom.org/content/valǦthorensǦinventeǦunǦnouveauǦmod%C3%A8leǦdeǦmarketingǦ int%C3%A9gr%C3%A9 xl Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Impacts et mise en œuvre de la transition numérique à la Compagnie des Alpes, Document de synthèse, Avril 2015. xli http://www.origindesign.ca/whistlerǦblackcombǦ2014Ǧ15ǦwinterǦcampaign xlii http://twentytengroup.com/caseǦstudies/whistlerǦblackcomb/ xliii Val d’Isère Téléphériques Sales Statistiques, obtained by asking all clients buying a ski pass of 2 days or more: « Where do you come from ». xliv GfK Baromètre de Satisfaction 2014Ǧ2015. xlv GfK Baromètre de Satisfaction 2014Ǧ2015.

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