Mapping deprivationCo-production models that ignorematerial inequalities risk failureSlideshow by Gavin BarkerCompass Trai...
What this slideshow cover1. Mapping Deprivation2. The index of MultipleDeprivation3. The Income Deprivationdomain4. Why ar...
1. Mapping deprivationHeat maps as part of a co-designtoolkit
This map looks at income deprivationacross EnglandUse it along with other data to share back to thepublic as the first ste...
Use it as part of your toolkit for whateverproject or activity you are undertakingAreas of high deprivation can thenbe ove...
2. THE INDEX OF MULTIPLEDEPRIVATION
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.IncomeEmplo...
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• Poverty c...
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• Deprivati...
Low income is a central component ofthe definition of multiple deprivation• While people experiencing someforms of depriva...
Low income is a central component ofthe definition of multiple deprivation• These domains are combined, withappropriate we...
The index of multiple deprivation ranks and scorestiny geographical areas called Lower Super OutputAreas or LSOA’s• Lower ...
3. Income Deprivation Domain• This domain measures theproportion of the populationin an area that live in incomedeprived f...
The Income Domain is calculated using thefollowing indicatorsAdults and children in Income Support Families (The word fami...
4. Why are some areas moredeprived than others?There are a multiplicity of factors buttwo stand out as important:‘resident...
Inequalities in income and wealthtranslate into residential segregation Differences in house prices, rents andtenure alon...
The ‘community outlook’ of an area can alsoimpact on a neighbourhood’s chances ofsocial and economic wellbeing• ‘Community...
The result can be neighbourhoods that remainstubbornly impervious to improvement overtimeSouthampton 2007 (prior to recess...
5. Social networks and the Civic CoreA social network map from RSA reportConnected Communities, page 53
The Civic core form 31% of thepopulation. They account for :31%The population ofthe civic core87% of voluntary hours79% of...
Inner core forms 7.6% of the populationand accounts for :49% of voluntary hours40% of charitable giving22% of civic partic...
The civic core – distribution of core andnon core groups by IMD‘Not engaged’ onlyform a tinyproportion of thepopulation :7...
Community development shouldn’t just beabout deprived communitiesResearch shows that while sociallyexcluded communities ha...
Sources• Indices of Deprivation, Department of Communities and LocalGovernment• Why Big Society is Key to re-balancing the...
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Mapping deprivation and co-production

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Some communities are much better equipped than others to shape the area they live in and to use the new opportunities that the Localism agenda affords to co-design and deliver public services. Whether in terms of human and financial capital or levels of volunteering and prevalence of voluntary organisations, it is the more affluent neighbourhoods and communities that have a head start. If we disregard this fact, the whole localist agenda could inadvertently exacerbate existing inequalities rather than closing the gap.

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Mapping deprivation and co-production

  1. 1. Mapping deprivationCo-production models that ignorematerial inequalities risk failureSlideshow by Gavin BarkerCompass TrainingUpdated May2013
  2. 2. What this slideshow cover1. Mapping Deprivation2. The index of MultipleDeprivation3. The Income Deprivationdomain4. Why are some areas moredeprived than others?5. Social networks and the‘Civic core’ – what thismeans in relation to areas ofdeprivation
  3. 3. 1. Mapping deprivationHeat maps as part of a co-designtoolkit
  4. 4. This map looks at income deprivationacross EnglandUse it along with other data to share back to thepublic as the first step in co-designing services• Mapping deprivation is a must ifthe co-design and delivery ofservices is to take account of theimbalance in communityresources between areas ofaffluence and areas ofdeprivation• Without doing so, the localistagenda risks exacerbatinginequalities rather than closingthe gap• There are various differentdimensions or ‘domains’ that canbe mapped - but income is a bigoneClick on the image to access the map,You may have to wait a few seconds for the map toload. Drag the map or use the zoom to zoom in andout to assist loading of informationThen click on an area to get more information
  5. 5. Use it as part of your toolkit for whateverproject or activity you are undertakingAreas of high deprivation can thenbe overlayed with additional data• Add in layers to show thelocation of community centres,resident associations, librariesor wifi locations• Use it as a partnership projectmanagement tool - the valueof information multiplies whenshared• It also leads to bettertargetting of scarce resourcesexample on SouthamptonPlacebookClick the image to see a separate map onhealth deprivation for Southampton
  6. 6. 2. THE INDEX OF MULTIPLEDEPRIVATION
  7. 7. The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.IncomeEmploymentHousing &Barriers toServicesLivingEnvironmentCrimeHealth andDisabilityEducationand SkillsThe Seven Domains of Deprivation• The index of MultipleDeprivation is considered to beone of the most significantpieces of research into povertyand deprivation currentlyavailable.• It is widely used by localauthorities to prioritise andallocate resources and servicesin your area.• It measures poverty anddeprivation across sevendifferent dimensions or‘domains’
  8. 8. The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• Poverty can be defined as alack of financial resources toobtain the types of diet,participate in the activities andhave the living conditions andamenities which are customary,or at least widely encouragedor approved in the society towhich we belongIncomeEmploymentHousing &Barriers toServicesLivingEnvironmentCrimeHealth andDisabilityEducationand SkillsThe Seven Domains of Deprivation
  9. 9. The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• Deprivation can be defined asa lack of resources of all kinds,not just financial. It canencompass a wide range of anindividual’s living conditions,not just lack of moneyIncomeEmploymentHousing &Barriers toServicesLivingEnvironmentCrimeHealth andDisabilityEducationand SkillsThe Seven Domains of Deprivation
  10. 10. Low income is a central component ofthe definition of multiple deprivation• While people experiencing someforms of deprivation may not allhave low income, peopleexperiencing multiple or verysevere forms of deprivation arelikely to have very little incomeand few other resources• Because income is so important(along with employment), it is‘weighted’ when calculating theindex of multiple deprivation• The index of multiple deprivationcombines all the dimensions ofdeprivation into a singlemeasurementIncome23%Employment23%HealthDeprivation &Disability13%Education,Skills andTrainingDeprivation14%Barriers toHousing &Services9%Crime9%LivingEnvironmentDeprivation9%
  11. 11. Low income is a central component ofthe definition of multiple deprivation• These domains are combined, withappropriate weighting, into a singlemeasure of multiple deprivation• However each domain of deprivationcan also be measured and mappedseparatelyIncome23%Employment23%HealthDeprivation &Disability13%Education,Skills andTrainingDeprivation14%Barriers toHousing &Services9%Crime9%LivingEnvironmentDeprivation9%
  12. 12. The index of multiple deprivation ranks and scorestiny geographical areas called Lower Super OutputAreas or LSOA’s• Lower Super Output areas containapproximate populations of 1,000 to1,500 people• There are 32,482 Lower Super OutputAreas or LSOAs in England.• An area is characterised as deprivedrelative to other areas on the basis ofthe proportion of people in the areaexperiencing the type of deprivation inquestion – in other words it is given a‘rank’• Each LSOA area is ranked where 1 isthe most deprived and 32,482 is theleast deprived.
  13. 13. 3. Income Deprivation Domain• This domain measures theproportion of the populationin an area that live in incomedeprived families.• The definition of incomedeprivation adopted by thegovernment includes bothfamilies that are out-of-workand families that are in workbut who have low earnings.• Both have to satisfy therespective means tests toobtain welfare support.
  14. 14. The Income Domain is calculated using thefollowing indicatorsAdults and children in Income Support Families (The word family isused to designate a ‘benefit unit’, that is the claimant, any partnerand any dependent children i.e. those for whom Child Benefit isreceived).Adults and children in income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance familiesAdults and children in Pension Credit (Guarantee) familiesAdults and children in Child Tax Credit families (who are not claimingIncome Support, income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance or PensionCredit) whose equivalised income (excluding housing benefits) isbelow 60% of the median before housing costsAsylum seekers in England in receipt of subsistence support,accommodation support, or both.
  15. 15. 4. Why are some areas moredeprived than others?There are a multiplicity of factors buttwo stand out as important:‘residential sorting effects’ and‘community outlook’Why Big Society is Key to re-balancing the local economyFor more on both these themes, see the report by IPPR
  16. 16. Inequalities in income and wealthtranslate into residential segregation Differences in house prices, rents andtenure along with the labour marketact as a sifting process:while the relatively affluent can choose tolive in certain kinds of neighbourhoods,the less affluent cannot The rationed nature of social housingexacerbates this trend with themost needy and vulnerable whoqualify for housing The result is that the mostvulnerable and those with the leastchoices are concentrated together in‘undesirable’ areas
  17. 17. The ‘community outlook’ of an area can alsoimpact on a neighbourhood’s chances ofsocial and economic wellbeing• ‘Community outlook’ can bedefined as the attitudes, valuesand aspirations of localneighbourhoods• This is shaped by the internal andexternal relationships thatintertwine within a community• Community attitudes can affectwhether or not employment andeducational opportunities aretaken up
  18. 18. The result can be neighbourhoods that remainstubbornly impervious to improvement overtimeSouthampton 2007 (prior to recession) Southampton 2010Income Deprivation compared to other areas of England
  19. 19. 5. Social networks and the Civic CoreA social network map from RSA reportConnected Communities, page 53
  20. 20. The Civic core form 31% of thepopulation. They account for :31%The population ofthe civic core87% of voluntary hours79% of charitable giving72% of civic participationCharacteristics of Civic Core.likely to be:• Middle aged• Have higher educationqualifications• Owner occupiers• Actively practice their religion• Have lived in the sameneighbourhood for at least 10years• Over 60% of middle agedfemales would be counted aspart of the civic coreSource:Third SectorResearch CentreWorking paper 62
  21. 21. Inner core forms 7.6% of the populationand accounts for :49% of voluntary hours40% of charitable giving22% of civic participationCharacteristics of Civic Core(which includes inner core)• Middle aged• Have higher educationqualifications• Owner occupiers• Actively practice their religion• Have lived in the sameneighbourhood for at least 10years• Over 60% of middle agedfemales would be counted aspart of the civic core7.6%Source:Third SectorResearch CentreWorking paper 62
  22. 22. The civic core – distribution of core andnon core groups by IMD‘Not engaged’ onlyform a tinyproportion of thepopulation :7-8%.However, this graphshows that just under16% of the NotEngaged group arefound in decile 10,the most deprivedareas of the country.Just under 8% of thisgroup are foundunder decile 1, theleast deprived areasof the country1 10Source: pg 10 WorkingPaper 62, TSRC
  23. 23. Community development shouldn’t just beabout deprived communitiesResearch shows that while sociallyexcluded communities have highlevels of bonding capital in the formof support networks , they have lowlevels of bridging social capital or‘weak links’ . It is the weak links thatconnect different networks are avaluable conduit through which newideas, information, behaviours andjob opportunities travel .The RSA report suggests thattackling social exclusion includes theneed to ‘reconnect the poor withthe rich’ and that frontline staff canplay a key role as ‘network weavers’.Don’t just focus exclusively onpoor neighbourhoodsweak orbridging linksFind ways to connect poorerneighbourhoods with moreaffluent areas in order topromote the flow of ideas,values and behaviours,including volunteeringFind ways to weave networks between differentneighbourhood areas
  24. 24. Sources• Indices of Deprivation, Department of Communities and LocalGovernment• Why Big Society is Key to re-balancing the local economy report by IPPR• Third Sector Research Centre Working paper 62 ‘Mapping the BigSociety’• Third Sector Research Centre Working paper 65 ‘Voluntary sectororganisations working at the neighbourhood level in England: patterns bylocal area deprivation• Connected Communities report by RSA

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