Health and socialinequalityIn Brighton and HoveThe average life hides significant ...and the quality of lifeexpectancy... variation based on your fellow citizens lead where you live..
This slideshow looks at Brighton and Hove and isbased on ‘Fair Society Healthy Lives’, a landmarkreport by Professor MarmotThe slideshow is divided into two parts: 1. Key indicators of health inequalities laid down by the Marmot report 2. Indicators relating to the social determinants of health inequalities Young people not People in receipt Means tested Children achieving a in employment, of means tested benefits by area of good level of education or benefits deprivation development aged 5 training The Marmot report covers much more, including Show a detailed range of policy initiatives me
In Brighton and Hove the average life expectancy at birthis 77.7 years for men and 83.2 for women Data for years 2008 to 2010
But those living in the most deprived areas of Brighton and Hove have a lower life expectancy compared to those in the more affluent areas Data for years 2006 to 2010 Most deprived Decile range Least deprived areas areas 10.6 The inequality in male life expectancy(years) in Brighton Area based deprivation is often and Hove between the most and least deprived areas measured tenths or „Deciles‟ using the Indices of Deprivation. Inequalities in income and wealth translate into The inequality in female life expectancy(years) in Brighton residential segregation. 6.6 and Hove between the most and least deprived areas
And the inequality in „disability-free life expectancy‟ (DFLE) is even greater The inequality in male life The inequality in Disability -free10.6 11.9 expectancy (years) life expectancy (years) for men between the most and least between the most and least deprived areas deprived areas The inequality in female life The inequality in Disability -free6.6 expectancy (years) between 9.1 life expectancy (years) for women the most and least deprived between the most and least areas deprived areasThose living in areas of high Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is the averagedeprivation not only die earlier number of years a person can expect to live without an illness or health problem that limits their daily activities.but also spend more of their An inequality of 11.9 years means that a DFLE for theyears coping with a disability best off in Brighton and Hove is nearly 12 years higher than for the worst off.
The geography of inequality See heatmap to check which decile your neighbourhood falls into. You can also click on an area of the map for more information Click here to go to interactive map Inequalities in wealth and wealth translate into residential segregation. Differences in house prices, rents and tenure along with the labour market act as a sifting process. The result is that the most vulnerable and those with the least choices are often concentrated together in the least desirable areas.
Health inequalities result from social inequalities Social inequality indicators used to predict health outcomes* The London HealthObservatory (LHO) and Children Young people not People in receipt Means testedthe UCL Institute ofHealth Equity have achieving a good in employment, of means tested benefits by area ofproduced the following level of education or benefits deprivationkey indicators relating to development trainingthe social determinants aged 5of health outcomes
In Brighton and Hove 64.5% of children achieved a good level of development at age 5 (Year 2011) The highest priority in the Marmot Review is the aim to give every child the best start in life, as this is crucial to reducing health inequalities across the life course. As the foundations of human development are laid in early childhood, the review proposed an indicator of readiness for school to capture early years development. The percentage of children achieving a good level of development is presented for this indicator, based on the local authority where each child was living, rather than the location of the school. As LAs are only required to report results for the schools and nurseries they maintain, results may be affected for this indicator, for some areas, if a large proportion of their child population is in private schools. indicators used Children achieving Young people not People in receipt Means testedto predict health a good level of in employment, of means tested benefits by area ofoutcomes development aged education or benefits deprivation 5 training
In Brighton and Hove 8.4 % of young people are not in employment, education or training (NEETs) Non-participation of young people in education, employment or training between the ages of 16 and 19 is a major predictor of later unemployment, low income, depression, involvement in crime and poor mental health This was recognised in the Marmot Review which proposed an indicator to measure young people not in education, employment or training in order to capture skill development during the school years and the control that school leavers have over their lives. This indicator is therefore a wider measure than just youth unemployment as it also includes young people who are not being prepared for work indicators used Children Young people People in Means testedto predict health achieving a not in receipt of benefits by areaoutcomes good level of employment, means tested of deprivation development education or benefits aged 5 training
In Brighton and Hove, 15.3% of people were in receipt of means tested benefits (Year 2008) The importance of reducing income inequality, and the negative consequences of relative poverty, was emphasised in the Marmot Review, which noted that: “An adequate and fair healthy standard of living is critical to reducing health inequalities. Insufficient income is associated with worse outcomes across virtually all domains, including long-term health and life expectancy.” (page 120) 22.1% : the percentage of children under 16 living in poverty in Brighton & Hove (defined as living in families whose reported income is less than 60% of the median income) see HM Revenue site indicators usedto predict health Children Young people People in Means testedoutcomes achieving a not in receipt of benefits good level of employment, means tested development education or benefits aged 5 training
The figure for means tested benefits(15.3%) masks significant variations between areas of high and low deprivation – the Slope Index of Inequality The Slope Index of Inequality summarises the social inequality found in each local authority area. The higher the percentage, the greater the inequality within the local authority. The figure for Brighton 28.3% (year 2008) represents the difference in percentages between the least and most deprived areas within the local authority, based on a statistical analysis of the relationship between the percentage in receipt of means-tested benefits and deprivation scores across the whole authority. indicators usedto predict health Children Young people People in Means testedoutcomes achieving a not in receipt of benefits by area good level of employment, means tested of deprivation development education or benefits aged 5 training
The figure for means tested benefits (15.3 %) broken down by area of deprivation For example those areas falling into the bottom decile (decile 10) have a far higher concentration of their population on benefits (around 37%) compared to decile 1 (around 6%) indicators usedto predict health Children Young people People in Means testedoutcomes achieving a not in receipt of benefits by area good level of employment, means tested of deprivation development education or benefits aged 5 training
The average life expectancy... hides significant variation ...and the quality of life your based on where you live.. fellow citizens leadTo summarise: The social indicators below are a predictor of the health outcomes above The London HealthObservatory (LHO) andthe UCL Institute ofHealth Equity have Children achieving Young people not People in receipt Means testedproduced the followingkey indicators relating to a good level of in employment, of means tested benefits by area ofthe social determinants development aged education or benefits deprivationof health outcomes 5 training
Doing nothing is not an optionThe Marmot report outlines a range of policy initiatives fromearly years education to a minimum income for healthy living.Those who claim that such policies are unaffordable inthe present economic climate, must weigh that claimagainst the cost of doing nothing: • £31-33 billion in productivity losses • £20-32 billion in lost taxes and higher welfare payments • costs in excess of £5.5 billion in additional NHS healthcare costs every year Marmot report
Additional notesHEAT MAP SHOWING INDEXOF MULTIPLE DEPRIVATIONFOR YOUR AREAThis presentation also comes with aheat map showing small area basedlevels of deprivation in your localauthority area. This uses the Index ofMultiple Deprivation data which both theMarmot report and the UCL Institute ofHealth Equity refer to.The map is there to make it easier foryou to refer and compare differentneighbourhoods in your area. It includesa radial graph showing the sevendomains of deprivation that go to makeup the Index of Multiple Deprivation. Fortechnical reasons both the map andradial graph reverse the numberrange contained in the Marmot report:Decile 1 is now least deprived andDecile 10 = most deprived.This is so that the data is aligned to theDecile range shown in the accompanyingheat map and radial graph.
Slideshow by Gavin Barker KEY SOURCES www.gavin-barker.com London Health Observatory UCL Institute of Health EquityYOU ARE FREE TO DOWNLOAD AND USE THISSLIDESHOW AS A TEMPLATE FOR YOUR OWNLOCAL AREAShould you do so, please delete my name and substitute the picture in slide14. To embed a section of the map in your website, please contact firstname.lastname@example.orgUse the data for your local authority located at the London Health ObservatoryThis is available for upper tier local authorities in England only (excluding the Cityof London and Isles of Scilly)