- 1. • A wheel having teeth of uniform formation provided on its circumferential surface. • Gears are used to transmit motion at a definite and constant velocity ratio in situations where the distance b/w the axes of driver & driven shaft is short. • The larger gear is called the gear the smaller, the pinion.
- 2. In comparison with belt and chain drives, gear drive is: • More Compact • Positive (without any slipping) • Can operate at high speed • Transmission of high power Gears are manufactured by casting, machining, stamping. Out of all method of production of gear by machining is mostly used.
- 3. Classification of Gears According to the position of axes of the shafts Parallel (Gears which connect parallel shafts) Intersecting ( would intersect at some angle) Non-intersecting and Non-parallel (Gears which connect non parallel and non intersecting shafts ) 1.Spur Gear 2.Helical Gear 3.Herringbone Gear 4.Rack and Pinion Bevel Gear with straight, screw, spiral teeth's worm and worm gears
- 4. According to the velocity of the gears According to the type of gearing According to the position of tooth on the gear surface Low velocity less than 3 m/s Medium velocity in b/w 3 – 15 m/s High velocity more than 15 m/s External gearing externally meshing Internal gearing mesh internally, annular wheel Rack &pinion straight line gear-rack circular wheel - pinion A) Straight B) Inclined C) Curved
- 5. • The worm gearing is essentially a form of spiral gearing in which the shafts are usually at right angles. • When equal bevel gears (having equal teeth) connect two shafts whose axes are mutually perpendicular, then the bevel gears are known as mitres.
- 7. SPUR GEAR Teeth is parallel to axis of shaft Transmit power from one shaft to another parallel shaft Used in Electric screwdriver, oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing machine and clothes dryer
- 8. EXTERNAL SPUR GEARINTERNAL SPUR GEAR
- 9. HELICAL GEAR The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees. Helical Gear is used in Automobile gear box because it produces less noise than spur gear
- 10. Helicalgears
- 11. HERRINGBONE GEAR (double helical gears) To avoid axial thrust, two helical gears of opposite hand can be mounted side by side, to cancel resulting thrust forces Herringbone gears are mostly used on heavy machinery.
- 12. RACK AND PINION GEARS Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation (From the pinion) into linear motion (of the rack) A perfect example of this is the steering system on many cars
- 13. BEVEL GEARS Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, railway track inspection machines, etc.
- 14. Straight, spiral and hypoid bevel gears
- 15. WORM AND WORM GEAR A worm drive is a cylindrical gear with a shallow spiral thread that engages the worm gear in a non intersecting, perpendicular axes configuration. Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater The worm can easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm Worm gears are used widely in material handling and transportation machinery, machine tools, automobiles etc
- 16. One of the newest designs for differentials is called the Torsen differential. It uses a combination of worms and worm gears that make each wheel independent of the other wheels. These differentials are found in Hummers, large earth-moving vehicles and some off-road vehicles.
- 18. Spur gear ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Spur gears have high power transmission efficiency • They are compact and easy to install. • Unlike belt drives, spur gear drives have no Slip. • They can be used to transmit large amount of power (of the order of 50,000 kW) • Spur gear drives are costly when compared to belt drives • Spur gears produce a lot of noise when operating at high speeds. • They cannot be used for long distance power transmission.
- 19. Helical gear ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Helical gears are much less noisy. • They can handle more load then a spur gear of equivalent width and tooth size. • They can be made to engage at angles. • Efficiency is lost as the angle becomes greater. • Helical gears have a higher load capacity but are expensive to manufacture. • They have an axial thrust, This can however be overcome by the use of double helical gears by having teeth with a 'v' shape.
- 20. Bevel gears ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • This gear makes it possible to change the operating angle. • Differing of the number of teeth (effectively diameter) on each wheel allows mechanical advantage to be changed. By increasing or decreasing the ratio of teeth between the drive and driven wheels one may change the ratio of rotations between the two, meaning that the rotational drive and torque of the second wheel can be changed • One wheel of such gear is designed to work with its complementary wheel and no other. • The shafts' bearings must be capable of supporting significant forces • Must be precisely mounted.
- 21. Worm gear ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Worm gear drives operate silently and smoothly. • They occupy less space. • They have good meshing effectiveness. • They can be used for reducing speed and increasing torque. • Worm gear materials are expensive. • Worm drives have high power losses and low transmission efficiency. • They produce a lot of heat, due to resistance between them.
- 22. NOMENCLATURE OF GEARS 1. Pitch circle It is an imaginary circle on which the teeth of the mating gears are meshed. 2. Pitch circle diameter(PCD) It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. 3. Diameteral pitch (Pd) It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in millimetres. It is denoted by Pd= T /D 4. Circular pitch It is the arc distance measured on the circumference of the pitch circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth. Pc = π* D/T = π*m 5. Module It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in mm to the number of teeth (indicates how big or small a gear is), m = 1/Pd =D/T= Pc /π
- 24. 6. Common tangent It is a common tangent at pitch circle of two mating gears at the pitch points 7. Tooth face It is the surface of the gear tooth above the pitch circle. 8. Tooth flank It is the surface of the gear tooth below the pitch circle. 9. Crest of tooth It is the outside surface of tooth i.e. top surface. 10. Root of tooth It is the junction of tooth with material at the bottom of tooth space. 11. Tooth thickness It is the thickness of the tooth measured along the pitch circle Tooth thickness= Pc /2 = 0.5Pc
- 25. 14. Addendum circle It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle. 15. Dedendum circle It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. 16. line of action it is the common tangent to the two base circles that passes through the pitch point of two mating gears 17. Base circle It is the circle from which the involute profile is generated. 18. Clearance The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the addendum of the mating gear 12. Addendum It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth. 13. Dedendum It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth.
- 26. PRESSURE ANGLE OR ANGLE OF OBLIQUITY • It is the angle between the line of action and common tangent through pitch point. • It is the angle that determines the direction of pressure b/w the mating teeth. • It is also defines the shape of involute teeth and size of base circle. • The pressure angle is generally taken as14.5 or 20 deg. • The larger pressure angles are advantageous as they give strong tooth form with less under cutting. • Higher pressure angle requires wide base and stronger teeth.
- 27. The relationship between radii of base (rb) and pitch circles (r) and the pressure angle (ø ) is: Base circle Common tangent
- 28. BACKLASH IN GEARS • Backlash in gears is purposefully created to avoid jamming of gear teeth. • This is one of the design considerations of gears. • The space between teeth must be made larger than the thickness of tooth, both measured on the pitch circle. Otherwise, the gears could mesh with jamming. • The difference between tooth-space (Ts) and tooth thickness (Tt), both measured on the pitch circle is known as backlash. • In many applications such as instruments, differential gear trains and servo-mechanisms require complete elimination of backlash for proper functioning. Linear back Lash = (Ts-Tb)
- 29. CONTACT RATIO • Contact ratio of gears is one of the important design aspects of spur gear. • This is a number, which indicates the average number of pairs of teeth in contact. • This is the ratio equal to the length of path of contact on pitch circle divided by the circular pitch. • Gears are generally designed to have a contact ratio larger than 1.2, because any inaccuracies in mounting the gears might --reduce the contact ratio --increasing the possibility of impact between the meshing teeth --consequently the noise level. CONTACT RATIO = length of path of contact circular pitch
- 30. TEETH PROFILES 1. CYCLOIDAL TEETH Epicycloid Hypocycloid 2. INVOLUTE TEETH.
- 31. CYCLOIDAL TEETH • A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls without slipping on a fixed straight line. • When a circle rolls without slipping on the outside of a fixed (pitch) circle, the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle is known as epicycloid. • if a circle rolls without slipping on the inside of a fixed (pitch) circle, then the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle is called hypocycloid.
- 33. INVOLUTE TEETH • An involute of a circle is a plane curve generated by a point on a tangent, which rolls on the circle without slipping or by a point on a taut string which is unwrapped from a reel • In connection with toothed wheels, the circle is known as base circle (generating profile by unwrapping string on this circle ). Conditions: 1. When base circle is in b/w addendum and dedendum circle, in this case interference occurs because b/w base circle & dedendum another curve is required.. 2. When base circle is below dedendum circle then no interference occurs because involute curve is from base circle to addendum circle.
- 34. • The radius of curvature of involute varies continuously. • It is zero at point 'a', (on the cylinder) and maximum at point 'c'(far away from the cylinder). xby = line of action
- 35. Involute cycloidal 1. Single curvature ----Involute curve b/w base and addendum circle 1. Double curvature ---epicycloid and hypocycloid 2. Constant pressure angle ---smooth running 2. Pressure angle varies ---less smooth running 3. Centre distance of involute gear can be varied within limits without changing the velocity ratio. 3. To be kept constant to keep velocity ratio constant 4. Manufacturing easy (simple profile) 4. not easy
- 36. 5. Interference problem ---only when Base circle is above than dedendum 5. No interference problem 6. More wear of tooth surface 6. Less wear as convex face engages with concave flank.
- 37. INTERFERENCE IN GEARS A little consideration will show, that if the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O1N, the point of contact L will move from L to N. When this radius is further increased, the point of contact L will be on the inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of tooth on wheel. The tip of tooth on the pinion will then undercut the tooth on the wheel at the root and remove part of the involute profile of tooth on the wheel. This effect is known as interference and occurs when the teeth are being cut. The phenomenon when the tip of a tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is known as interference.
- 38. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Pinion in Order to Avoid Interference
- 39. ELIMINATION OF INTERFERENCE • Use of a larger pressure angle can eliminate interference. ---The advantages of 20° pressure angle system are: (i) Stronger tooth with higher load carrying capacity (ii) Greater length of contact • Interference can be eliminated by under-cutting of tooth. • Elimination of interference is possible by tooth stubbing. • Increasing the number of teeth on the gear can also eliminate the chances of interference. ---The min. no. of teeth to avoid interference is : • Increasing slightly the centre distance between the meshing gears would also eliminate interference.
- 40. When two or more gears are made to mesh with each other to transmit power from one shaft to another, such a combination is called ‘gear train or train of toothed wheels’.
- 41. Advantages 1. It transmits exact velocity ratio. 2. It may be used to transmit large power. 3. It may be used for small centre distances of shafts. 4. It has high efficiency. 5. It has reliable service. 6. It has compact layout. Disadvantages 1. Since the manufacture of gears require special tools and equipment, therefore it is costlier than other drives. 2. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibrations and noise during operation. 3. It requires suitable lubricant and reliable method of applying it, for the proper operation of gear drives.
- 42. Types of gear trains 1. Simple gear train 2. Compound gear train 3. Reverted gear train 4. Epicyclic gear train
- 43. Simple gear train • When there is only one gear on each shaft as shown in fig, it is known as simple gear train. • When the distance between two shafts is small, the two gears 1 and 2 are made to mesh with each other to transmit motion from one shaft to other as shown in fig. • Since the gear 1 drives 2, therefore gear 1 is called the driver and the gear 2 is called the driven or follower.
- 44. Since the speed ratio of gear train is the ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of the driven or follower and the ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth, therefore It may be noted that ratio of the speed of the driven to the speed of the driver is known as train value of the gear train. Mathematically, =Speed ratio = =Train value (Gear ratio) = teeth
- 45. Sometimes, the distance between the two gears is large. The motion from one gear to another, in such a case, may be transmitted by either of the following two methods : 1. By providing the large sized gear, or 2. By providing one or more intermediate gears. It may be noted that when the number of intermediate gears odd, the motion of both gears is like but if the number of intermediate gears even, the motion of both gears is unlike. It is seen that the speed ratio and the train value of gears, is independent of the size and the number of intermediate gears.
- 46. These intermediate gears are called idler gears, as they do not effect the speed ratio or train value of the system. The idler gears are used for the following two purposes : 1. To connect gears where a large distance is required, and 2. To obtain the desired direction of motion of the driven gear(i.e. clockwise or anticlockwise).
- 47. Compound gear train • When there are more than one gear on a shaft as shown in fig., it is known as compound gear train. • Compound gear trains are useful in bridging over the space between the driver and the driven. • In this case, each intermediate shaft has two gears rigidly fixed to it so they may have the same speed.
- 48. • Whenever the distance between the driver and the driven has to be bridged over by intermediate gears and at the same time a great speed ratio is required, then the advantage of intermediate gears is intensified by providing compound gears on intermediate shafts. • One of these two gears mashes with the driver and the other with the driven attached to the next shaft as shown in fig.
- 49. • Speed ratio of compound gear train is given by, • Train value of compound gear train is given by, • The advantage of compound train over a simple train is that a much longer speed reduction from one shaft to the last shaft can be obtained with small gears. Speed ratio Train value
- 50. Reverted gear train When the axes of the first gear and the last gear are co-axial, then the gear train is known as reverted gear train Here the gear 1 drives the gear 2 in the opposite direction. Since the gear 2 and 3 form a compound gear and the gear 3 will rotate in the same direction as of gear 2. the gear 3 will drive the gear 4 in the same direction as of gear 1. hence the motion of the first gear and the last gear is like.
- 51. Let T1=number teeth on gear 1, r1=pitch circle radius of gear 1, and N1=speed of gear 1 in r.p.m. Similarly, T2, T3, T4= number of teeth on respective gears, r2, r3, r4= pitch circle radius of respective gears, and N2, N3, N4= speed of respective gears in r.p.m. • Since the distance between the centers of the shafts of gears 1 and 2 as well as gears 3 and 4 is same, therefore r1+r2 = r3+r4 • Also the pitch of the gears assumed to be the same, therefore number of teeth on each gear is directly proportional to its circumference or radius. T1+T2 = T3+T4 And Speed ratio
- 52. Epicyclic gear train In an epicyclic gear train, the axis of the shafts, over which the gears are mounted, may move relative to a fixed axis. When a gear 1 and arm 3 and gear 2 and arm 3 have a common axis. If the arm is fixed, the gear train is simple and gear 1 can drive gear 2 or vice-versa, but if gear 1 is fixed and the arm is rotated about the axis then the gear 2 is forced to rotate upon and around the gear 1. Such a motion is called epicyclic.
- 53. Compound epicylic gear train-sun and planet gear
- 54. Epicylic gear train with bevel gears : Humpage’s speed reduction gear. Differential gear of an automobile.