Prepared by:Primary Author(s):Gary MarksEdmund WilcoxDaniel OlsenSasank GoliiP Solutions Corp.41784 Higgins WayFremont, CA...
iACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
iiPREFACE••••••••500-03-026
iiiABSTRACT
ivTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................
v3.4 Pumps ..................................................................................................................
viCHAPTER 7: Potential Challenges and Obstacles to Demand Response and Permanent LoadShifting Programs ......................
viiCHAPTER 10: Conclusion....................................................................................................
viiiDo any of the pumps use Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)?................................................. 70Flexibili...
ixLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF TABLES
1EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroduction1
2Purpose and Objectives•••••Key FindingsIdentified Data Skews and Trends from Published Sources and Survey••••••2
3Best Opportunities for Demand Response and Permanent Load ShiftingProgramsGrowing RegionIrrigation SourceIrrigation Metho...
4Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Response and Permanent Load ShiftingProgramsAdequate Irrigation System Capacity•••...
5Excess Irrigation CapacityOn-Farm Water SourcesPermanent Load Shifting vs. Demand ResponseChanging Attitudes toward Remot...
6Potential ChallengesInadequate Irrigation CapacityDistrict-Supplied WaterLack of Automatic ControlsSmart Meter Installati...
7Benefit to California
8CHAPTER 1:Introduction and Background
9
101.1 Purpose•••••1.2 Report Organization•••••••
11CHAPTER 2:Parsing Data on Agricultural Irrigation2.1 Data Sources2.1.1 Discrepancy in Irrigation Water Use4
12
13Table 1: 2003 Irrigation Water UseSources: Burt, et al. 2003, USDA 20032.2 Growing RegionsCalifornia Agricultural WaterE...
14Figure 1: California ETo ZonesSource: California Irrigation Management Information System
15Figure 2: ITRC Modified ETo ZonesSource: Burt et al. 2003
162.2.1 WaterTable 2: Water Applied by ETo ZoneSources: Burt et al. 2003 and California Irrigation Management Information ...
17Table 3: Electical Energy Use by ETo ZoneSources: Burt et al. 2003 and California Irrigation Management Information System
18Figure 3: Percent of Total Energy Use by RegionSource: Burt et al. 2003
19Figure 4: Energy per Arce-Foot of WaterSource: Burt et al. 2003
202.3 Water Source2.3.1 WaterTable 4: AF/year by Source (2007)Source: USDA 2008Table 5: AF/year by Source (2002)Source: US...
21Table 6: Water Applied by ETo Zone and SourceITRC-modifiedDWR ETozoneIrrigationDistrict SurfaceWater Delivered(AF/ year)...
22Table 7: Energy Consumed by ETo Zone and SourceITRC-modifiedDWRETo zoneIrrig. DistrictSurface WaterDelivered(MWh / year)...
23Table 8: Acres Irrigated by Method, 2002 & 20072003 USDA Survey(2002 growing season)2008 USDA Survey(2007 growing season...
24FurrowAll Sprinkler 1,970,056 21%All Drip/Micro 1,811,622 19%Total for All Methods 9,313,003Source: Burt et al. 2001Tabl...
25Table 11: AF by Irrigation Method in 20072008 USDA Survey (combined sections 4 and 8)IrrigationMethodAcresIrrigatedAve.A...
26Table 13: Energy Requirements by Irrigation ActivityActivity Approximate EnergyRequirements (kWh/AF)Flood Irrigation wit...
272.5 Crop Type2.5.1 WaterTable 15: Water Applied by Crop TypeCrop Type Percentage of WaterAppliedAF of WaterAppliedField ...
28Table 16: Percentage of Acres Irrigated by Size of FarmAcres Farms % Acres irrigated %1-49 32,499 72.0 408,070 5.550-99 ...
29Figure 6: Utility Service AreasSource: California Energy Commision
30Table 17: Peak Load and Retail Sales by Utility
31CHAPTER 3:Survey Summary3.1 Crops•••••••••••••••••3.2 Source of Irrigation Water
323.3 Irrigation Method3.4 Pumps3.5 Potential for Demand Response3.5.1 Limitations3.5.2 Automatic Controls
33CHAPTER 4:Best Opportunities for Demand Response andPermanent Load Shifting Programs4.1 Growing Region4.2 Irrigation Sou...
344.3 Irrigation Method4.4 Irrigation Systems with Extra Capacity4.5 Non-Peak ET Irrigation Periods
354.6 Large Growers4.7 Utility Coverage4.8 Irrigation Systems with Variable Frequency Drives
36CHAPTER 5:Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Responseand Permanent Load Shifting Programs5.1 Adequate Irrigation Sys...
375.1.1.3 Reduction in Pressure Losses5.2 Automatic Controls
385.2.1 Minimal Controls with Remote DRAS Client5.2.2 Robust Local Controls with Resident DRAS Client5.2.3 OpenADR
395.3 Storage5.4 VFDs5.5 On-Site Solar Power Generation
40CHAPTER 6:Potential Grower Acceptance of Demand Responseand Permanent Load Shifting Programs6.1 On-Farm Water Supply wit...
416.4 Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response6.5 Manual vs. Automated Demand Response
426.6 Cost of System Upgrades vs. Financial Incentives6.7 Other Possibly Compelling Motivations6.7.1 Energy Efficiency and...
436.7.2 Remote Pump Monitoring and Control
44CHAPTER 7:Potential Challenges and Obstacles to DemandResponse and Permanent Load Shifting Programs7.1 Inadequate Irriga...
457.3 Lack of Automatic Controls7.3.1 Participation with Manual Controls7.3.2 Integrate Automatic Controls into Irrigation...
467.5.2 Integrate VFDs into Irrigation Systems
47CHAPTER 8:Future Studies on How to Gain Grower Acceptance forDemand Response8.1 Reasons for Compliance and Non-Complianc...
488.3 Determine the Level of Financial Incentives Required for AutoDR8.4 ROI Tools8.5 Survey of Potential Incentives for U...
498.7 Best Way to Structure Programs in order to Maximize Participation
50CHAPTER 9:Additional Future Studies9.1 Comprehensive Study on Opportunities for Demand Response inCalifornia Agricultura...
519.3 Study of Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response inCalifornia Agricultural Irrigation9.4 Study that Characterize...
529.6 Potential Benefits of Variable Flow Rates for Flood Irrigation9.7 Survey of Technology that May be Applied to Demand...
53CHAPTER 10:Conclusion••••••
54•••
55ReferencesAkuacom; LBNL. (n.d.). OpenADR Client Development Program. Retrieved from PIER DemandResponse Research Center:...
56Center for Irrigation Technology. (n.d.). Advanced Pumping Efficiency Program. Retrieved frompumpefficiency.org: http://...
57Retrieved from http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/docs/cwpu2005/vol4/vol4-data-surveyofirrigationmethods.pdfPacific Gas a...
58Glossary
59
60Appendix A:Survey / Interview QuestionsFarm InformationContact InformationCrop Types•••
61Crop Information (per crop)Irrigation System
62Pump Information (per pump)Utility InformationDemand ResponseAutoDR
63Appendix B:Top Growers in California
64
65Appendix C:Survey QuestionnaireBusiness InformationContact InformationCrop Types
66Crop Information (per crop)Number of Separate Locations (Farms) where this Crop is grown: ____________
67Location of CropCountyPull-down list of California countiesSub-Basin (if known and applicable)Pull-down list of DWR sub-...
68Figure 7: Groundwater Basins in CaliforniaSource: Department of Water Resources
69What electric utility provides power to this location?Is there any self-generation on-site? Check all that apply.Irrigat...
70Total Quantity of Water Applied Annually (in AF): _________________Total Annual Costs of Irrigation WaterElectric Pumps ...
71Flexibility in Interrupting an Irrigation Cycle:Answer the same questions based on getting a 24-hour notice.Flexibility ...
72Incentives for Shifting or Interrupting Irrigation Cycles
Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study
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Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

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California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation.
The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs.
Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures.
The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as conducting a more comprehensive survey of California growers.

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Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

  1. 1. Prepared by:Primary Author(s):Gary MarksEdmund WilcoxDaniel OlsenSasank GoliiP Solutions Corp.41784 Higgins WayFremont, CA 94539Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory1 Cyclotron RoadBerkeley, CA 94720Contract Number: 500-03-026Prepared for:California Energy CommissionXXXX XXXXXXContract ManagerGolam Kibrya/Anish GautamProject ManagerMichael LozanoOffice ManagerIndustrial/Agricultural/WaterLaurie ten HopeDeputy DirectorEnergy Research and Development DivisionMelissa JonesExecutive DirectorDISCLAIMERThis report was prepared as the result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission. Itdoes not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State ofCalifornia. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors andsubcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the informationin this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe uponprivately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California EnergyCommission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy ofthe information in this report.
  2. 2. iACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  3. 3. iiPREFACE••••••••500-03-026
  4. 4. iiiABSTRACT
  5. 5. ivTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1Purpose and Objectives......................................................................................................................... 2Key Findings ........................................................................................................................................... 2Identified Data Skews and Trends from Published Sources and Survey .................................. 2Best Opportunities for Demand Response and Permanent Load Shifting Programs.............. 3Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Response and Permanent Load Shifting Programs............................................................................................................................................................... 4Potential Grower Acceptance of Demand Response and Permanent Load Shifting ............... 4Potential Challenges .......................................................................................................................... 6Recommendations.................................................................................................................................. 6Benefit to California............................................................................................................................... 7CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Background........................................................................................ 81.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................ 101.2 Report Organization ...................................................................................................................... 10CHAPTER 2: Parsing Data on Agricultural Irrigation..................................................................... 112.1 Data Sources.................................................................................................................................... 112.1.1 Discrepancy in Irrigation Water Use.................................................................................... 112.2 Growing Regions............................................................................................................................ 132.2.1 Water......................................................................................................................................... 162.2.2 Energy....................................................................................................................................... 162.3 Water Source................................................................................................................................... 202.3.1 Water......................................................................................................................................... 202.3.2 Energy....................................................................................................................................... 212.4 Irrigation Method........................................................................................................................... 222.4.1 Water......................................................................................................................................... 242.4.2 Energy....................................................................................................................................... 252.5 Crop Type........................................................................................................................................ 272.5.1 Water......................................................................................................................................... 272.5.2 Energy....................................................................................................................................... 272.6 Grower Business Size..................................................................................................................... 272.7 Utility Coverage ............................................................................................................................. 28CHAPTER 3: Survey Summary ............................................................................................................ 313.1 Crops................................................................................................................................................ 313.2 Source of Irrigation Water............................................................................................................. 313.3 Irrigation Method........................................................................................................................... 32
  6. 6. v3.4 Pumps .............................................................................................................................................. 323.5 Potential for Demand Response................................................................................................... 323.5.1 Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 323.5.2 Automatic Controls................................................................................................................. 32CHAPTER 4: Best Opportunities for Demand Response and Permanent Load ShiftingPrograms ................................................................................................................................................... 334.1 Growing Region ............................................................................................................................. 334.2 Irrigation Source............................................................................................................................. 334.2.1 On-farm Sources of Water vs. District-Supplied Water .................................................... 334.3 Irrigation Method........................................................................................................................... 344.4 Irrigation Systems with Extra Capacity ...................................................................................... 344.5 Non-Peak ET Irrigation Periods................................................................................................... 344.6 Large Growers ................................................................................................................................ 354.7 Utility Coverage ............................................................................................................................. 354.8 Irrigation Systems with Variable Frequency Drives................................................................. 35CHAPTER 5: Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Response and Permanent LoadShifting Programs ................................................................................................................................... 365.1 Adequate Irrigation System Capacity......................................................................................... 365.1.1 Capacity Created by Improved Efficiency .......................................................................... 365.2 Automatic Controls........................................................................................................................ 375.2.1 Minimal Controls with Remote DRAS Client..................................................................... 385.2.2 Robust Local Controls with Resident DRAS Client ........................................................... 385.2.3 OpenADR................................................................................................................................. 385.3 Storage ............................................................................................................................................. 395.4 VFDs................................................................................................................................................. 395.5 On-Site Solar Power Generation .................................................................................................. 39CHAPTER 6: Potential Grower Acceptance of Demand Response and Permanent LoadShifting Programs ................................................................................................................................... 406.1 On-Farm Water Supply with Excess Capacity........................................................................... 406.2 On-Farm Water Supply without Excess Capacity (during peak ET) ..................................... 406.3 District-Supplied Water ................................................................................................................ 406.4 Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response ...................................................................... 416.5 Manual vs. Automated Demand Response................................................................................ 416.6 Cost of System Upgrades vs. Financial Incentives.................................................................... 426.7 Other Possibly Compelling Motivations .................................................................................... 426.7.1 Energy Efficiency and/or Demand Management.............................................................. 426.7.2 Remote Pump Monitoring and Control............................................................................... 43
  7. 7. viCHAPTER 7: Potential Challenges and Obstacles to Demand Response and Permanent LoadShifting Programs ................................................................................................................................... 447.1 Inadequate Irrigation Capacity .................................................................................................... 447.1.1 Load Shifting and Demand Response during Non-Peak ET Periods.............................. 447.1.2 Upgrade Irrigation System Capacity.................................................................................... 447.2 District-Supplied Water ................................................................................................................ 447.2.1 District Participation in Demand Response and/or Permanent Load Shifting............. 447.3 Lack of Automatic Controls.......................................................................................................... 457.3.1 Participation with Manual Controls..................................................................................... 457.3.2 Integrate Automatic Controls into Irrigation Systems ...................................................... 457.4 Smart Meter Installation Schedule............................................................................................... 457.5 Lack of Variable Frequency Drives ............................................................................................. 457.5.1 Participation without VFDs................................................................................................... 457.5.2 Integrate VFDs into Irrigation Systems................................................................................ 46CHAPTER 8: Future Studies on How to Gain Grower Acceptance for Demand Response..... 478.1 Reasons for Compliance and Non-Compliance with Current TOU programs..................... 478.2 Survey and Rank Barriers to Real-Time Demand Response ................................................... 478.3 Determine the Level of Financial Incentives Required for AutoDR....................................... 488.4 ROI Tools......................................................................................................................................... 488.5 Survey of Potential Incentives for Using Automatic Pump Controls .................................... 488.6 How Irrigation Practices would have to Change in order to Accommodate Real-TimeDemand Response................................................................................................................................ 488.7 Best Way to Structure Programs in order to Maximize Participation.................................... 49CHAPTER 9: Additional Future Studies ............................................................................................ 509.1 Comprehensive Study on Opportunities for Demand Response in California AgriculturalIrrigation................................................................................................................................................ 509.2 Update the ITRC Report on California Agricultural Water Electrical Energy Requirements................................................................................................................................................................. 509.3 Study of Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response in California AgriculturalIrrigation................................................................................................................................................ 519.4 Study that Characterizes Growers’ and/or Aggregators’ Ability to Deliver Load Shedding................................................................................................................................................................. 519.5 Studies on Potential Capacity Created by Energy Efficiency Measures and How They MayContribute to Demand Response Participation ............................................................................... 519.6 Potential Benefits of Variable Flow Rates for Flood Irrigation................................................ 529.7 Survey of Technology that May be Applied to Demand Response and Permanent LoadShifting in California Agricultural Irrigation................................................................................... 529.8 Pilot Studies .................................................................................................................................... 529.9 Determine ROI of Upgrading Water Agency Systems for Demand Response..................... 529.10 Study of the Benefits of On-Site Solar Power Generation...................................................... 52
  8. 8. viiCHAPTER 10: Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 53References................................................................................................................................................. 55Glossary .................................................................................................................................................... 58Appendix A: Survey / Interview Questions....................................................................................... 60Farm Information ................................................................................................................................. 60Contact Information......................................................................................................................... 60Crop Types........................................................................................................................................ 60Crop Information (per crop)............................................................................................................... 61Irrigation System.............................................................................................................................. 61Pump Information (per pump) ...................................................................................................... 62Utility Information............................................................................................................................... 62Demand Response................................................................................................................................ 62AutoDR.............................................................................................................................................. 62Appendix B: Top Growers in California ............................................................................................ 63Appendix C: Survey Questionnaire .................................................................................................... 65Business Information ........................................................................................................................... 65Contact Information......................................................................................................................... 65Crop Types........................................................................................................................................ 65Crop Information (per crop)............................................................................................................... 66Number of Separate Locations (Farms) where this Crop is grown: ____________ ................ 66Location of Crop............................................................................................................................... 67Number of Acres for this Crop (at this location)......................................................................... 67Are there irrigation pumps for this crop at this location?.......................................................... 67What types of pumps (by power source) and how many of each are used at this location? 67What electric utility provides power to this location?................................................................ 69Is there any self-generation on-site? Check all that apply. ....................................................... 69Irrigation Method for this Crop ..................................................................................................... 69Method Used to determine when and for how long to irrigate (check all that apply).......... 69Irrigation Season............................................................................................................................... 69Frequency and Length of Time for Irrigation (by month) ......................................................... 69Source of Irrigation Water (check all that apply) ........................................................................ 69Total Quantity of Water Applied Annually (in AF): _________________................................ 70Total Annual Costs of Irrigation Water ........................................................................................ 70Electric Pumps by Category ........................................................................................................... 70Electric Pumps by Power Rating.................................................................................................... 70Pump Efficiency Audits (by utility or other organization)........................................................ 70Pump Control Methods (check all that apply)............................................................................. 70
  9. 9. viiiDo any of the pumps use Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)?................................................. 70Flexibility in Irrigation Cycles............................................................................................................ 70Flexibility in Irrigation Cycle Start Time: ..................................................................................... 70Flexibility in Interrupting an Irrigation Cycle: ............................................................................ 71Answer the same questions based on getting a 24-hour notice. ............................................... 71Flexibility in Irrigation Cycle Start Time with 24-hour notice:.................................................. 71Flexibility in Interrupting an Irrigation Cycle with 24-hour notice:......................................... 71Barriers to Shifting or Interrupting Irrigation Cycles ..................................................................... 71............................................................................................................................................................. 71Incentives for Shifting or Interrupting Irrigation Cycles ............................................................... 72............................................................................................................................................................. 72
  10. 10. ixLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF TABLES
  11. 11. 1EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroduction1
  12. 12. 2Purpose and Objectives•••••Key FindingsIdentified Data Skews and Trends from Published Sources and Survey••••••2
  13. 13. 3Best Opportunities for Demand Response and Permanent Load ShiftingProgramsGrowing RegionIrrigation SourceIrrigation MethodIrrigation System CapacityVariable Frequency DrivesGrower Business SizeUtility Coverage
  14. 14. 4Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Response and Permanent Load ShiftingProgramsAdequate Irrigation System Capacity•••Automatic ControlsStorageVariable Frequency DrivesOn-Site Solar Power GenerationPotential Grower Acceptance of Demand Response and Permanent Load Shifting3The Energy Information Administration defines an aggregator as a
  15. 15. 5Excess Irrigation CapacityOn-Farm Water SourcesPermanent Load Shifting vs. Demand ResponseChanging Attitudes toward Remote Pump Monitoring and Control
  16. 16. 6Potential ChallengesInadequate Irrigation CapacityDistrict-Supplied WaterLack of Automatic ControlsSmart Meter Installation ScheduleLack of Variable Frequency DrivesRecommendations•••
  17. 17. 7Benefit to California
  18. 18. 8CHAPTER 1:Introduction and Background
  19. 19. 9
  20. 20. 101.1 Purpose•••••1.2 Report Organization•••••••
  21. 21. 11CHAPTER 2:Parsing Data on Agricultural Irrigation2.1 Data Sources2.1.1 Discrepancy in Irrigation Water Use4
  22. 22. 12
  23. 23. 13Table 1: 2003 Irrigation Water UseSources: Burt, et al. 2003, USDA 20032.2 Growing RegionsCalifornia Agricultural WaterElectrical Energy Requirements
  24. 24. 14Figure 1: California ETo ZonesSource: California Irrigation Management Information System
  25. 25. 15Figure 2: ITRC Modified ETo ZonesSource: Burt et al. 2003
  26. 26. 162.2.1 WaterTable 2: Water Applied by ETo ZoneSources: Burt et al. 2003 and California Irrigation Management Information System2.2.2 Energy
  27. 27. 17Table 3: Electical Energy Use by ETo ZoneSources: Burt et al. 2003 and California Irrigation Management Information System
  28. 28. 18Figure 3: Percent of Total Energy Use by RegionSource: Burt et al. 2003
  29. 29. 19Figure 4: Energy per Arce-Foot of WaterSource: Burt et al. 2003
  30. 30. 202.3 Water Source2.3.1 WaterTable 4: AF/year by Source (2007)Source: USDA 2008Table 5: AF/year by Source (2002)Source: USDA 2003
  31. 31. 21Table 6: Water Applied by ETo Zone and SourceITRC-modifiedDWR ETozoneIrrigationDistrict SurfaceWater Delivered(AF/ year)IrrigationDistrict GroundWater Pumping(AF/year)On-FarmGround WaterPumping(AF/year)Total AppliedWater by Zone(AF/year)1 0 0 123,965 123,6953 0 0 824,486 824,8464 0 0 138,046 138,0466 0 0 959,939 959,9398 116,140 681 56,387 173,2099 0 0 880,841 880,84110 0 0 669,478 669,47812a 3,025,343 129,393 972,963 4,127,69912b 960,284 41,071 559,014 1,560,36914 8,349,919 14,048 425,118 8,789,08615 4,175,145 505,920 3,880,110 8,561,17516 2,655,088 43,121 2,533,649 5,231,85818 4,128,768 0 61,432 4,190,200Total 23,410,700 734,200 12,085,400 36,230,300Source: Burt et al. 20032.3.2 Energy
  32. 32. 22Table 7: Energy Consumed by ETo Zone and SourceITRC-modifiedDWRETo zoneIrrig. DistrictSurface WaterDelivered(MWh / year)Irrig. DistrictGround WaterPumping(MWh/year)On-FarmGround WaterPumping(MWh /year)On-FarmBoosterPumping(MWh /year)Conveyanceto Irrig.Districts(MWh/year)TotalElectricityused by Zone(MWh/year)1 0 0 54,964 20,852 75,8173 0 0 365,562 145,076 510,3864 0 0 61,207 18,132 79,3396 0 0 401,843 148,034 549,8778 3,896 137 14,573 21,350 39.9579 0 0 255,199 87,567 342,76710 0 0 273,277 58,730 332,07712a 26,171 27,051 283,381 300,329 636,93212b 8,307 8,586 159,637 101,075 277,60614 131,125 2,032 108,394 488,733 450,526 1,180,80915 514,605 199,386 1,659,804 688,121 1,269,062 4,330,97816 137,662 8,840 846,938 380,371 1,373,81118 0 0 14,236 415,152 429,388Total 821,800 246,000 4,499,000 2,873,500 1,719,600 10,159,900Source: Burt et al. 20032.4 Irrigation Method
  33. 33. 23Table 8: Acres Irrigated by Method, 2002 & 20072003 USDA Survey(2002 growing season)2008 USDA Survey(2007 growing season)Irrigation Method Acres Irrigated Acres IrrigatedGravity 5,261,073 60% 4,189,852 53%Sprinkler 1,723,040 20% 1,367,179 17%Drip/Micro 1,706,916 20% 2,336,130 29%Subsurface 58,655 1% 66,282 1%Total for All Methods 8,749,684 7,959,443Source: USDA 2003 & 2008Figure 5: Acres Irrigated by Method, 2002 & 2007Source: USDA 2003 & 2008Table 9: Acres Irrigated by MethodITRC 2001 evaporationAcresAll Furrow 2,380,226 26%All Border Strip and Basin 2,656,321 29%Combination Sprinkler and 494,778 5%
  34. 34. 24FurrowAll Sprinkler 1,970,056 21%All Drip/Micro 1,811,622 19%Total for All Methods 9,313,003Source: Burt et al. 2001Table 10: Percentage of Irrigated Acres by MethodPacific Institute 2001 DataPercentage of TotalIrrigated AcresFlood 59%Sprinkler 15%Drip/Micro 24%Other 2%Source: Cooley et al. 2009; Orang et al. 20052.4.1 Water6The USDA Ranch and Farm Survey “sections” are actually labeled as “Tables”. The term “Sections” issubstituted here in order to avoid confusion with the numbered Tables in this document.
  35. 35. 25Table 11: AF by Irrigation Method in 20072008 USDA Survey (combined sections 4 and 8)IrrigationMethodAcresIrrigatedAve.AF/Acre AF(section 4) (section 8)Gravity 4,189,852 53% 3.3 13,826,512 59%Sprinkler 1,367,179 17% 2.5 3,417,948 15%Drip/Micro 2,336,130 29% 2.6 6,073,938 26%Subirrigation 66,282 1% 0.7 46,397 0%Totals 7,959,443 23,364,795Source: USDA 2008Table 12: AF by Irrigation Method in 20022003 USDA Survey (combined Sections 4 and 8)IrrigationMethodAcresIrrigatedAve.AF/Acre AF(section 4) (section 8)Gravity 5,261,073 60% 3.3 17,361,541 69%Sprinkler 1,723,040 20% 2.3 3,962,992 16%Drip/Micro 1,706,916 20% 2.3 3,925,907 16%Subirrigation 58,655 1% 0 0%Totals 8,749,684 25,250,440Source: USDA 20032.4.2 Energy
  36. 36. 26Table 13: Energy Requirements by Irrigation ActivityActivity Approximate EnergyRequirements (kWh/AF)Flood Irrigation without On-Farm Lift 0Lifting Water 10 feet for Flood Irrigation 30Booster Pumping for Drip/Micro Irrigation 206Booster Pumping for Standard Sprinklers 284Source: Cooley et al. 2008Table 14: Relative Energy by MethodIrrigation Method AFRelativekWh/AFRelativeMWh/yearGravity 17,700,000 0Sprinkler 4,500,000 284 1,278,000Drip/Micro 7,800,000 206 1,606,800Total 30,000,000 2,884,000Derived data from USDA 2008 and Cooley et al. 2008
  37. 37. 272.5 Crop Type2.5.1 WaterTable 15: Water Applied by Crop TypeCrop Type Percentage of WaterAppliedAF of WaterAppliedField Crops 63% 18,900,000Vegetables 10% 3,000,000Fruits and Nuts 27% 8,100,000Total 100% 30,000,000Source: Derived data from Table 14 and Pacific Institute 2008 and 2009 articles (Cooley 2008 & 2009)2.5.2 Energy2.6 Grower Business Size
  38. 38. 28Table 16: Percentage of Acres Irrigated by Size of FarmAcres Farms % Acres irrigated %1-49 32,499 72.0 408,070 5.550-99 2,865 6.3 309,927 4.2100-199 3,285 7.3 477,492 6.4200-499 3,170 7.0 1,012,333 13.6500-999 1,738 3.9 1,225,449 16.51,000 – 1,999 965 2.1 1,307,090 17.62,000+ 614 1.4 2,706,646 36.3Total 45,136 100 7,447,007 100Source: USDA 20082.7 Utility CoverageTable 17
  39. 39. 29Figure 6: Utility Service AreasSource: California Energy Commision
  40. 40. 30Table 17: Peak Load and Retail Sales by Utility
  41. 41. 31CHAPTER 3:Survey Summary3.1 Crops•••••••••••••••••3.2 Source of Irrigation Water
  42. 42. 323.3 Irrigation Method3.4 Pumps3.5 Potential for Demand Response3.5.1 Limitations3.5.2 Automatic Controls
  43. 43. 33CHAPTER 4:Best Opportunities for Demand Response andPermanent Load Shifting Programs4.1 Growing Region4.2 Irrigation Source4.2.1 On-farm Sources of Water vs. District-Supplied Water
  44. 44. 344.3 Irrigation Method4.4 Irrigation Systems with Extra Capacity4.5 Non-Peak ET Irrigation Periods
  45. 45. 354.6 Large Growers4.7 Utility Coverage4.8 Irrigation Systems with Variable Frequency Drives
  46. 46. 36CHAPTER 5:Solutions (or Requirements) for Demand Responseand Permanent Load Shifting Programs5.1 Adequate Irrigation System Capacity5.1.1 Capacity Created by Improved Efficiency5.1.1.1 Pump Efficiency5.1.1.2 Reductions in water applications
  47. 47. 375.1.1.3 Reduction in Pressure Losses5.2 Automatic Controls
  48. 48. 385.2.1 Minimal Controls with Remote DRAS Client5.2.2 Robust Local Controls with Resident DRAS Client5.2.3 OpenADR
  49. 49. 395.3 Storage5.4 VFDs5.5 On-Site Solar Power Generation
  50. 50. 40CHAPTER 6:Potential Grower Acceptance of Demand Responseand Permanent Load Shifting Programs6.1 On-Farm Water Supply with Excess Capacity6.2 On-Farm Water Supply without Excess Capacity (during peak ET)6.3 District-Supplied Water
  51. 51. 416.4 Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response6.5 Manual vs. Automated Demand Response
  52. 52. 426.6 Cost of System Upgrades vs. Financial Incentives6.7 Other Possibly Compelling Motivations6.7.1 Energy Efficiency and/or Demand Management
  53. 53. 436.7.2 Remote Pump Monitoring and Control
  54. 54. 44CHAPTER 7:Potential Challenges and Obstacles to DemandResponse and Permanent Load Shifting Programs7.1 Inadequate Irrigation Capacity7.1.1 Load Shifting and Demand Response during Non-Peak ET Periods7.1.2 Upgrade Irrigation System Capacity7.2 District-Supplied Water7.2.1 District Participation in Demand Response and/or Permanent Load Shifting
  55. 55. 457.3 Lack of Automatic Controls7.3.1 Participation with Manual Controls7.3.2 Integrate Automatic Controls into Irrigation Systems7.4 Smart Meter Installation Schedule7.5 Lack of Variable Frequency Drives7.5.1 Participation without VFDs
  56. 56. 467.5.2 Integrate VFDs into Irrigation Systems
  57. 57. 47CHAPTER 8:Future Studies on How to Gain Grower Acceptance forDemand Response8.1 Reasons for Compliance and Non-Compliance with Current TOUprograms8.2 Survey and Rank Barriers to Real-Time Demand Response
  58. 58. 488.3 Determine the Level of Financial Incentives Required for AutoDR8.4 ROI Tools8.5 Survey of Potential Incentives for Using Automatic Pump Controls8.6 How Irrigation Practices would have to Change in order toAccommodate Real-Time Demand Response
  59. 59. 498.7 Best Way to Structure Programs in order to Maximize Participation
  60. 60. 50CHAPTER 9:Additional Future Studies9.1 Comprehensive Study on Opportunities for Demand Response inCalifornia Agricultural Irrigation••••••9.2 Update the ITRC Report on California Agricultural Water ElectricalEnergy Requirements
  61. 61. 519.3 Study of Permanent Load Shifting vs. Demand Response inCalifornia Agricultural Irrigation9.4 Study that Characterizes Growers’ and/or Aggregators’ Ability toDeliver Load Shedding9.5 Studies on Potential Capacity Created by Energy EfficiencyMeasures and How They May Contribute to Demand ResponseParticipation
  62. 62. 529.6 Potential Benefits of Variable Flow Rates for Flood Irrigation9.7 Survey of Technology that May be Applied to Demand Responseand Permanent Load Shifting in California Agricultural Irrigation9.8 Pilot Studies9.9 Determine ROI of Upgrading Water Agency Systems for DemandResponse9.10 Study of the Benefits of On-Site Solar Power Generation
  63. 63. 53CHAPTER 10:Conclusion••••••
  64. 64. 54•••
  65. 65. 55ReferencesAkuacom; LBNL. (n.d.). OpenADR Client Development Program. Retrieved from PIER DemandResponse Research Center: http://openadr.lbl.gov/pdf/openadr-client-develop.pdfBurt, C. (2011a). Characteristics of Irrigation Pump Performance in Major Irrigated Areas of California.California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), Irrigation Training and ResearchCenter (ITRC). San Luis Obispo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/reports/characteristics.htmBurt, C. (2011b). Irrigation System Components and Potentials for Energy Conservation. San LuisOpsibo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved from http://www.itrc.org/reports/components.htmBurt, C. M. (2011c, March 9). Chairman of the Board, Irrigation Training and Research Center(ITRC). (G. Marks, & E. Wilcox, Interviewers) San Luis Obispo, CA.Burt, C. M., Amon, R., & Cordova, D. (2002, 2007). Electrical Load Shifting in Irrigation Districts- Californias Program. Irrigation Association 28th Annual International Irrigation Show (p.10). San Diego: ITRC, Irrigation Association. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/papers/elecloadshift/elecloadshifting.pdfBurt, C. M., Howes, D. J., & Mutziger, A. (2001). Evapotranspiration Estimates for IrrigatedAgriculture in California. Irrigation Association Conference. San Antonio, TX: IrrigationAssociation. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/papers/evaporationest/evaporationestimates.pdfBurt, C., & Howes, D. (2005). CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program -Water Agencies-.California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), Irrigation Training and ResearchCenter (ITRC). San Luis Obsipo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/reports/cecaplrp/final.pdfBurt, C., & Monte, S. (2008). Conversion to Ground Water Pumping with Drip/Micro IrrigationSystems. California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), Irrigation Training andResearch Center (ITRC). San Luis Obispo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/reports/groundwater/groundwater.pdfBurt, C., Howes, D., & Wilson, G. (2003). California Agricultural Water Electrical EnergyRequirements. California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), Irrigation Training andResearch Center (ITRC). San Luis Obsipo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/reports/energyreq/energyreq.pdfCalifornia Energy Commision (CEC). (n.d.). California Electric Utility Service Areas. Retrievedfrom California Energy Commision (CEC):http://www.energy.ca.gov/maps/serviceareas/Electric_Service_Areas_Detail.pdfCalifornia Farm Bureau Federation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cfbf.com/index.cfmCalifornia Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). (n.d.). ReferenceEvapotransiration (ETo) Zones. Retrieved from California Irrigation ManagementInformation System (CIMIS):http://wwwcimis.water.ca.gov/cimis/cimiSatEtoZones.jspCalifornia Public Utilities Commission. (n.d.). Demand Response. Retrieved from CaliforniaPublic Utilities Commission:http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/Demand+Response/
  66. 66. 56Center for Irrigation Technology. (n.d.). Advanced Pumping Efficiency Program. Retrieved frompumpefficiency.org: http://www.pumpefficiency.org/Chiu, A. (2010, March 3). Lead Product Manager, Demand Response Department, Pacific Gasand Electric. (G. Marks, & E. Wilcox, Interviewers) San Francisco, CA.Cooley, H., Christian-Smith, J., & Gleick, P. (2009). Sustaining California Agriculture in anUncertain Future. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Retrieved fromhttp://www.pacinst.org/reports/california_agriculture/final.pdfCooley, H., Christian-Smith, J., & Gleick, P. H. (2008). More with Less: Agricultural WaterConservation and Efficiency in California, A Special Focus on the Delta. Oakland: PacificInstitute. Retrieved from http://www.pacinst.org/reports/more_with_less_deltaCooley, H., Christian-Smith, J., Gleick, P. H., Cohen, M. J., & Heberger, M. (2010). CaliforniasNext Million Acre-Feet: Saving Water, Energy, and Money. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute.Retrieved from http://www.pacinst.org/reports/next_million_acre_feet/index.htmDepartment of Water Resources. (n.d.). Ground Water Basins in California. Retrieved fromDepartment of Water Resources:http://www.water.ca.gov/groundwater/bulletin118/maps/statewide_basin_map_V3_subbas.pdfEnergy Information Administration. (n.d.) Electricity Terms and Definitions. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/glossary.htmlGriffiths-Sattenspiel, B., & Wilson, W. (2009). The Carbon Footprint of Water. Portland, OR: RiverNetwork. Retrieved from http://www.rivernetwork.org/resource-library/carbon-footprint-waterGrowing Produce: Top 100 growers. (n.d.). Retrieved from Growing Produce:http://www.growingproduce.com/Irrigation Training and Research Center (ITRC). (2002). Benchmarking of Flexibility and Needs,Survey of Non-Federal Irrigation Districts. San Luis Obispo, CA: ITRC. Retrieved fromhttp://www.itrc.org/reports/benchmarking/benchmarking2002.pdfKlein, G., Krebs, M., Hall, V., OBrian, T., & Blevins, B. (2005). Californias Water-EnergyRelationship. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission. Retrieved fromhttp://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-700-2005-011/CEC-700-2005-011-SF.PDFLBNL DRRC. (n.d.). Open Automated Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR orOpen Auto-DR) Development. Retrieved from PIER Demand Response Research Center:http://openadr.lbl.gov/Marks, G. (2010). Precision Irrigation, A Way to Save Water and Energy While Increasing Crop Yield,A Targeted Approach for California Agriculture. Fremont, CA. Retrieved fromhttp://www.slideshare.net/GaryMarks/precision-irrigation-a-method-to-save-water-and-energy-while-increasing-crop-yield-a-targeted-approach-for-california-agricultureMasiello, R., Vu, K., Deng, L., Abrams, A., Corfee, K., Harrison, J., & KEMA. (2010). ResearchEvaluation of Wind Generation, Solar Generation, and Storage Impact on the California Grid.Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) of the California Energy Commission (CEC).Orang, M., Synder, R., & Matyac, S. (2005). Survey of Irrigation Methods in California. Departmentof Water Resources (DWR) and University of California Davis. DWR and UC Davis.
  67. 67. 57Retrieved from http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/docs/cwpu2005/vol4/vol4-data-surveyofirrigationmethods.pdfPacific Gas and Electric. (n.d.). Smart Meter Installation Progress. Retrieved from PG&E:http://www.pge.com/myhome/customerservice/smartmeter/deployment/Perez Urrestarazu, L., & Burt, C. M. (2011). Characterization of Pumps for Irrigation in CentralCalifornia: Potential Energy Savings. San Luis Obispo, CA: ITRC.USDA Census of Agriculture. (2003). Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey. Washington D.C.: USDA.Retrieved from http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2002/FRIS/USDA Census of Agriculture. (2008). Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey. Washington D.C.: USDA.Retrieved fromhttp://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Online_Highlights/Farm_and_Ranch_Irrigation_Survey/index.phpWikler, G., Bran, I., Piette, M. A., & Kiliccote, S. (n.d.). Mystified by Automated Demand Response?Association of Energy Service Professionals. Retrieved from http://70.32.94.23/Auto-DR/files/AESParticle.pdf
  68. 68. 58Glossary
  69. 69. 59
  70. 70. 60Appendix A:Survey / Interview QuestionsFarm InformationContact InformationCrop Types•••
  71. 71. 61Crop Information (per crop)Irrigation System
  72. 72. 62Pump Information (per pump)Utility InformationDemand ResponseAutoDR
  73. 73. 63Appendix B:Top Growers in California
  74. 74. 64
  75. 75. 65Appendix C:Survey QuestionnaireBusiness InformationContact InformationCrop Types
  76. 76. 66Crop Information (per crop)Number of Separate Locations (Farms) where this Crop is grown: ____________
  77. 77. 67Location of CropCountyPull-down list of California countiesSub-Basin (if known and applicable)Pull-down list of DWR sub-basinsNumber of Acres for this Crop (at this location)Are there irrigation pumps for this crop at this location?What types of pumps (by power source) and how many of each are used at thislocation?
  78. 78. 68Figure 7: Groundwater Basins in CaliforniaSource: Department of Water Resources
  79. 79. 69What electric utility provides power to this location?Is there any self-generation on-site? Check all that apply.Irrigation Method for this CropMethod Used to determine when and for how long to irrigate (check all that apply)Irrigation SeasonFrequency and Length of Time for Irrigation (by month)Source of Irrigation Water (check all that apply)
  80. 80. 70Total Quantity of Water Applied Annually (in AF): _________________Total Annual Costs of Irrigation WaterElectric Pumps by CategoryElectric Pumps by Power RatingPump Efficiency Audits (by utility or other organization)Pump Control Methods (check all that apply)Do any of the pumps use Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)?Flexibility in Irrigation CyclesFlexibility in Irrigation Cycle Start Time:
  81. 81. 71Flexibility in Interrupting an Irrigation Cycle:Answer the same questions based on getting a 24-hour notice.Flexibility in Irrigation Cycle Start Time with 24-hour notice:Flexibility in Interrupting an Irrigation Cycle with 24-hour notice:Barriers to Shifting or Interrupting Irrigation Cycles
  82. 82. 72Incentives for Shifting or Interrupting Irrigation Cycles

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