Using GSM Cell Information on Mobile Phone


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Using GSM Cell Information on Mobile Phone

  1. 1. Final Year Project LYU0301 Using GSM Cell Information on Mobile Phone Mok Ming Fai CEG mfmok1@cse Lee Kwok Chau CEG leekc1@cse
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Symbian OS </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based services (LBS) </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity of GSM base stations and mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Using GSM cell information </li></ul><ul><li>Example application: MTRTravaller </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Symbian and Symbian OS <ul><li>Symbian: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a software licensing company owned by Ericsson, Nokia, Panasonic, Psion, Samsung Electronics Siemens and Sony Ericsson. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbian OS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard operating system for data-enabled mobile devices </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Symbian OS <ul><li>Currently supported mobile phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia 6600, 7650, 3650, N-Gage and 9210 Communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony Ericsson P800, P900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola A920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fujitsu F2051, F2102V </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New mobile phones supporting Symbian OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samsung SGH-D700 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens SX1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sendo X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BenQ P30 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Symbian OS <ul><li>Integrated multimode mobile telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Open application environment </li></ul><ul><li>Open standards and interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Fully object-oriented and component based </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible user interface design </li></ul>
  6. 6. Special Features in Symbian OS <ul><li>Error Handling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanup Stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-phase Constructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implements multi-tasking without using multithread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One active scheduler per thread cooperating with one or mor active objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-preemptive, no mutual exclusion codes are needed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Programs Written for Symbian OS <ul><li>Robot Hello World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations of the use of GUI components and basic APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nokia Square </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations of the basic APIs and the structure of Symbian- based applications </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Location-Based Services (LBS) <ul><li>Services are provided based on user’s current location. </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable on different fields: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games and Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each of them requires different accuracy and latency. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Current Technologies on LBS <ul><li>1) Global Positioning System (GPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Accuracy: 30-100m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor indoor and urban-area capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally high power consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) 3 rd Generation GSM (3G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need time to replace current mobile network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Modified SIM Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation with telco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common regular mobile phone network standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available on ordinary cell phones </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operation of Mobile Phone Connectivity Location: [50] Cell ID: [1] Location: [50] Cell ID: [2] Location: [50] Cell ID: [3] Location: [50] Cell ID: [4]
  11. 11. Using GSM Cell Information <ul><li>Main idea: each base station may somehow indicate certain ‘information’ about location or region </li></ul><ul><li>Cell information includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Received Signal Strength </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Traditional Cell Information Collection Methods <ul><li>1) Communicating with GSM modem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using AT command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require different kinds of hardware </li></ul></ul>AT+CREG? +CREG: <n>,<stat>[,50,7474] Location: [50] Cell ID: [7474]
  13. 13. Traditional Cell Information Collection Methods <ul><li>2) Phone engineering mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell you a list of cell information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to record them manually </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Getting Cell Information via Symbian API <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Nokia SDK doesn’t provide any method for retrieving GSM cell information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The internal library of the phone actually contains such API </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use header file from other Symbian SDK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSMStatus </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate current cell information and application </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cell Information for LBS <ul><li>Accuracy depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base station deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pico-cell: 10-1000m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-cell: 100-1000m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Macro-cell: 1000-3000m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Macro-cell: 3000-30km </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not accurate enough telling where you are </li></ul><ul><li>How can we make use of such information? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Problem of Pure Cell ID Detection <ul><li>Different registered cell in a particular location each time </li></ul>Location: [50] Cell ID: [1] Location: [50] Cell ID: [2] Location: [50] Cell ID: [3] Location: [50] Cell ID: [4]
  17. 17. Pure Cell Detection VS Cell Change Event <ul><li>Event of Entering / Leaving a boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transition Information (from 1 cell to another) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cell IDs in the 2D Space <ul><li>Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To locate the approximate location of a mobile phone uses with a program run on Symbian OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining GSM cells coverage and their distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot a cell ID-to-location map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate current position of a mobile device </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cell ID Data Collection <ul><li>Collected location ID and cell ID pairs for two telcos in the CU campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static Method for SmarTone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Change Method for Peoples </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Principle of the two data collection methods <ul><li>Static Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for a sufficiently long period of time at a specific point in the 2D map to see the strength and stability of a cell strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the location ID and cell ID of that specific location after observing for a period of time </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Principle of the two data collection methods <ul><li>Cell Change Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk around the campus and find the “boundaries” of different cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When cell change occurs we note down the change and try to find out the boundaries of the cells </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Methods <ul><li>Static Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate at those specific point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment only done on a set of specific points selected from the 2D map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes a longer time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot figure out the cell boundary clearly unless those sample points are dense enough </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Methods <ul><li>Cell Change Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the cell boundaries can be detected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can discover different overlapping of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use less time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries detected are “regions” instead of sharp lines </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Expectations <ul><li>We expected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM Cells are of similar size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only small overlapped region at the cell boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No large cell completely covering a smaller cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be modeled as hexagonal shape covering the area. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Experimental Result For Peoples
  26. 26. Experimental Result
  27. 27. Experimental Result For SmarTone
  28. 28. Experimental Result
  29. 29. Inconsistencies with Our Expectations <ul><li>Cells vary greatly in size and shape </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale of cell overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Some marco-cell encapsulating smaller micro-cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells may change shapes under different environment condition at different time </li></ul><ul><li>Cells in CU are too large to get an accurate location of the mobile device </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusion on the Experiment <ul><li>Potential difficulties in 2D Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID-to-location map drawn not accurate enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot locate the location of a mobile device to an acceptable accuracy owing to the large size of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of cells make it even harder to locate your current position </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Idea of Cell IDs in 1D Space <ul><li>Owing to the difficulties and inaccuracy of the detection of cell ID in 2-dimensional space, we turn to the 1-dimensional space </li></ul><ul><li>Only travel in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the Entrance of a region </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation in 1D space helps to ease the inaccuracy. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cell IDs in 1D Space Location: [50] Cell ID: [1] Location: [50] Cell ID: [2] Location: [50] Cell ID: [3] Location: [50] Cell ID: [4] Cell ID: [1->2] Cell ID: [2->3]
  33. 33. MTRTraveller for Stations in Subway <ul><li>Apply to traffic route </li></ul><ul><li>MTRTraveller - tell user the station arrival </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Observation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between two stations in subway, there is exactly one change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This event can tell user that you are going from one station to another station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due to the shape of antenna in these stations </li></ul>Station 2 Station 1 Cell ID Changes Here
  34. 34. MTRTraveller for Stations in Open Area <ul><li>KCR Stations in open area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cell IDs in between two stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A station platform may also involve multiple cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition pair => in between S1 and S2 </li></ul><ul><li>Station cell => in the station platform </li></ul>Transition Pairs: [S1, S2, O], [S1, S2, B], [S1, S2, P], [S1, S2, G] Station 2 Station 1 Station Cells: [S1, O], [S1, B] Station Cells: [S1, O], [S1, B], [S1, P]
  35. 35. MTR Cell ID Data <ul><li>Peoples </li></ul>
  36. 36. KCR Cell ID Data <ul><li>Peoples </li></ul>
  37. 37. MTR Cell ID Data <ul><li>SmarTone </li></ul>
  38. 38. KCR Cell ID Data <ul><li>SmarTone </li></ul>
  39. 39. MTR Cell ID Data <ul><li>Sunday </li></ul>
  40. 40. Statistics <ul><li>Time of ‘station arrival’ event occurrence before entering that station </li></ul><ul><li>Should be enough for user to figure out the change </li></ul>Entering station in open area
  41. 41. Demonstration <ul><li>Map data, station data, transition data </li></ul><ul><li>Movie in actual stations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul>
  42. 42. Potential Problems <ul><li>All cell data depends on cell deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot control time to tell user the event of station arrival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem occurred if two or more stations share the same cell ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-to-date cell information required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developers - collect data regularly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic cell information collection kit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users - update their data regularly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient update using SMS / GPRS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. More to Improve… <ul><li>Personalize </li></ul><ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Fancy user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed intelligence </li></ul>
  44. 44. Other Possible Applications <ul><li>Bus route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All bus stops are in open area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tram route for tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just tell tourists that they are in a particular district (e.g. Causeway Bay, Wan Chai) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Other Possible Applications <ul><li>Detection of car speed detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make use of inaccuracy of GSM cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More data have to be stored </li></ul></ul>I am caught! Oh, there is speed detector!
  46. 46. Future Work <ul><li>Automatic cell information collection kit </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement on MTRTraveller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generic middleware/library for developers </li></ul><ul><li>Other applications </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>Symbian OS for mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>GSM provides location-related information </li></ul><ul><li>Using GSM cell information in Symbian program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not accurate enough for positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily available for ordinary mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure cell ID detection VS cell ID change event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design special applications mastering these information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MTRTraveller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other applications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. End of Presentation <ul><li>Thank you very much! </li></ul>