La Toile (Web) et les réseaux d'ordinateurs

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  • Http://www.gsm.com
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  • La Toile (Web) et les réseaux d'ordinateurs

    1. 1. Réseaux et Télécommunications 3 - Introduction aux réseaux cellulaires Edoardo Berera Telelinea
    2. 2. Plan <ul><li>Intelligent Network </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cellular networks </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of mobile communications </li></ul><ul><li>GSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSM evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS General Packet Radio Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP Wireless Application Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i-mode (internet mode) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency bands </li></ul><ul><li>Layered architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Key technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Operators </li></ul>
    3. 3. PSTN / Intelligent Network (IN) <ul><li>Les trois niveaux de l’architecture des réseaux téléphoniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>signalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>services intelligents (ordinateurs, bases de données et applications) </li></ul></ul>Source: Modarressi, BellSouth and Mohan, Comverse (IEEE Communications, Oct. 2000, p. 96)
    4. 4. Digital Cellular Networks <ul><li>Les réseaux cellulaires sont une extension des réseaux de téléphonie fixe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grâce aux services intelligents fournis par les </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HLR, Home Location Registers, et les VLR, Visitor Location Registers </li></ul></ul>Source: Oliphant, IFR (IEEE Spectrum, Aug. 1999, p. 21)
    5. 5. Digital Cellular Networks <ul><li>PSTN Public Switched Telephone System </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication Center (vérification abonné) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Location Register (données abonné) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitor Location Register (localisation abonné) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations & Maintenance Center (réseau) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commutation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Switching Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway Mobile Switching Center (i/f réseau fixe) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrateurs et émetteurs/récepteurs radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Station Controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Transceiver Station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Interface (radio), interfaces MSC/BSC/BTS (A, Abis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Téléphone cellulaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Station </li></ul></ul>Source: Oliphant, IFR (IEEE Spectrum, Aug. 1999, p. 21)
    6. 6. Multiple frequency allocation <ul><li>En 2ème génération (GSM) séparation par fréquence (FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing) </li></ul><ul><li>En 3ème génération (G3, UMTS) séparation par codage ( CDM Code Division Multiplexing) </li></ul>Source: Lei and Slimane, Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (IEEE Communications, Oct. 2000, p. 87)
    7. 7. Generations of mobile communications systems <ul><li>GSM: Global System for Mobile communications </li></ul><ul><li>Recherchez les autres acronymes sur Internet </li></ul>Source: Ohmori, MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 135)
    8. 8. Mobility and data rates Source: Ohmori, MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 134)
    9. 9. Future-generation mobile communications Source: Ohmori, MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 138)
    10. 10. Intelligent Transport System (ITS) communications Source: Ohmori , MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 139)
    11. 11. High Altitude stratospheric Platform Station (HAPS) Source: Ohmori , MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 139)
    12. 12. GSM evolution : toward the third generation (3G) <ul><li>HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS General Packet Radio Service </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE Enhanced Data rate for Global (GSM) Evolution </li></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser , Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 123)
    13. 13. Electromagnetic Spectrum Source: Microsoft Corp.
    14. 14. Frequency Bands - ISM <ul><li>Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands </li></ul><ul><li>Unlicensed (free) channel bandwidth </li></ul>Source: Chuck Bartel, Carnegie-Mellon University, “Wireless Technologies, Directions in Wireless Networking”, April 2001 Extremely Low Very Low Low Medium High Very High Ultra High Super High Infrared Visible Light Ultra- violet X-Rays Audio AM Broadcast Short Wave Radio FM Broadcast Television Infrared wireless LAN 902 - 928 MHz 26 MHz Cellular (840MHz) NPCS (1.9GHz) 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz 83.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11) 5 GHz (IEEE 802.11) HyperLAN HyperLAN2
    15. 15. New frequency ranges Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser , Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 126)
    16. 16. International frequency allocation <ul><li>Différences entre Europe USA et Japon </li></ul><ul><li>Place très importante allouée par les USA aux transmission sans licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quelles sont les conséquences pour les industriels ? </li></ul></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser , Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 127)
    17. 17. Layered structure of seamless future networks <ul><li>Les Hot Spots (terminaux des aéroports, centres de congrès, et un jour peut-être stations-service, etc.) utilisent Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><li>Comparez les hot spots Wi-Fi et les services UMTS (G3) </li></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser , Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 130)
    18. 18. Key technologies in wireless access networks Source: Ohmori , MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 141)
    19. 19. Cellular system software architecture Source: Ohmori , MPT Japan, Yamao and Nakajima, NTT (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 141)
    20. 20. GPRS UMTS <ul><li>Universal coverage IMT-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>GSM to UMTS transition </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul><ul><li>Network operators </li></ul><ul><li>Service providers </li></ul>
    21. 21. Universal coverage Source: UMTS Forum
    22. 22. ITU IMT-2000 <ul><li>UMTS is one of the major new third generation mobile communications systems being developed within the framework which has been defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and known as IMT-2000 for International Mobile Telecommunications for the 2000's.. </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS will deliver low-cost, high-capacity mobile communications offering data rates up to 2Mbit/sec with global roaming and other advanced capabilities </li></ul>
    23. 23. UMTS Terminals <ul><ul><li>Video Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist watches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-book readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>Source: UMTS Forum
    24. 24. Market and services <ul><li>UMTS will play a key role in creating the future mass market for high-quality wireless multimedia communications that will approach 2 billion users worldwide by the year 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS will enable tomorrow’s wireless Information Society, delivering high-value broadband information, commerce and entertainment services to mobile users via fixed, wireless and satellite networks </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS will speed convergence between telecommunications, IT, media and content industries to deliver new services and create fresh revenue-generating opportunities </li></ul>
    25. 25. Universal standards ? <ul><li>Two US standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UWC-136 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Wireless Comms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rest of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wideband CDMA </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Oliphant , Tektronix (IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 2000, p. 55)
    26. 26. GSM to UMTS network transition <ul><li>Step 0: GSM (2G) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit switched network (Voice and Data) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Source: Oliphant , Tektronix (IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 2000, p. 56)
    27. 27. GSM to UMTS network transition <ul><li>Step 1: GSM (2.5G) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ GPRS General Packet Radio Service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit switched network (Voice) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switched network (Data): 92 kb/s max (plus data compression) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ EDGE Enhanced Data rate for GSM/Global Evolution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit switched network (Voice) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switched network (Data): 384 kb/s max (plus data compression) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. GPRS <ul><li>General Packet Radio Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCU Packet Control Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS Internet Gateway </li></ul></ul>Source: Oliphant , Tektronix (IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 2000, p. 56)
    29. 29. UMTS Phases <ul><li>Step 2: UMTS (3G) Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit switched network (Voice) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switched network (Data) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mb/s max (plus data compression) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: UMTS (3G) Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switched network (Voice and Data) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All IP network (Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. UMTS Phase 1 <ul><li>UTRAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban areas coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual mode phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non IP core network </li></ul>Source: Oliphant , Tektronix (IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 2000, p. 56)
    31. 31. UMTS Phase 2 <ul><li>IP-based core network </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite universal coverage </li></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser, Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 129)
    32. 32. WAP <ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>WAP Gateways </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul>
    33. 33. System Elements <ul><li>Mobile Terminals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIM Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul>Nokia 9210 Communicator
    34. 34. Terminals <ul><li>Cellular Phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIM Card Subscriber Identity Module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIM Toolkit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Combined PDA/Cellphones </li></ul>
    35. 35. WAP Gateway Source: Neal Leavitt, Leavitt Communications (© IEEE Computer, Dec. 2000, p. 128)
    36. 36. Wireless Application Protocol Stack Source: Riku Mettala, Nokia (© Bluetooth White Paper, Aug. 1999, p. 10)
    37. 37. Wireless Markup Language
    38. 38. i-mode <ul><li>NTT DoCoMo Japan (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 million users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bouygues Telecom (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>charges based on volume of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplified HTML (cHTML - compact HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>page size (including GIF) < 10 kbytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simpler than WAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see Eurotechnology for comparison </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Services <ul><li>Communication services </li></ul><ul><li>Information Services </li></ul><ul><li>M-Commerce Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull and Push Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Personalisation </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Communications and Information Services <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalized agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Forums and chat </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Timetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train, Airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies, Theatres </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. M-Commerce Services <ul><li>Phone orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or electronic delivery and payment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music, Books (e-songs MP3Pro, e-articles) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reservations and tickets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation, Transportation and Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial and banking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts management, money orders, stock exchange transactions </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. M-Commerce Security and Payments <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones tends to be individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone terminal and SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) Card allow for authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypted communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Payments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Accounts managed by Mobile Net Operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepaid Cards are one form of e-cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator may become financial intermediary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>especially if it owns content </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. New role model and service delivery for UMTS <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users and subscribers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access network operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core transport network operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-added service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service brokers </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. New role model and service delivery for UMTS <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users and subscribers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access network operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core transport network operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers </li></ul></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser, Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 124)
    45. 45. Core Transport Network Operator <ul><li>France Telecom </li></ul><ul><li>Cegetel 7 Pro </li></ul><ul><li>9 Telecom </li></ul><ul><li>Tele2 </li></ul><ul><li>BT (British Telecom) </li></ul><ul><li>FLAG ( Fiber Link Around the Globe) </li></ul><ul><li>CTR </li></ul><ul><li>Completel </li></ul><ul><li>Kast Telecom </li></ul>
    46. 46. UMTS Access Network Operators <ul><li>France - UMTS operators (Licence 4.95 B euros / 15 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SFR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bouygues Telecom (candidate) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom - UMTS operators (Licence for 20 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vodafone (9.95 B euros) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellnet (6.73 B euros) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange (6.84 B euros) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One2One (6.68 B euros) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchison (7.32 B euros) </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. UMTS Access Network Operators <ul><li>Germany - UMTS operators (Licence 8.4 B euros / 20 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mannesmann </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T-Mobil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viag Interkom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MobilCom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group3G </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Italy - UMTS operators (Licence 2.4 B euros / 15 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnitel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. UMTS Access Network Operators <ul><li>Finland - UMTS operators (Free licence for 20 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolonja </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suomen Kolne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gee (Tele2 Group) </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Service providers <ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-added service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service brokers </li></ul></ul>Source: Mohr and Konhaeuser, Siemens (IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, p. 124)
    50. 50. Service providers <ul><li>Internet Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infonie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanadoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mageos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecom Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrefour Telecom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value-added Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voila </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lycos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altavista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vizzavi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Content Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNSA (Université en ligne) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CERAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MBDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canal + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euronews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reuters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bloomberg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Brokers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Management Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Service Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nav-Link </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. References <ul><li>William Johnston, &quot;Europe's future mobile telephony system&quot;, IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 1998, pp. 49-53 </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm W. Oliphant, &quot; The mobile phone meets the Internet&quot;, IEEE Spectrum, Aug. 1999, pp. 21-28 </li></ul><ul><li>William Sweet, &quot;Cell phones answer Internet's call&quot;, IEEE Spectrum, Aug. 2000, pp. 42-46 </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm W. Oliphant, &quot;Radio interfaces make the difference in 3G cellular systems&quot;, IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 2000, pp. 53-58 </li></ul><ul><li>Abdi R. Modarressi, BellSouth and Seshadri Mohan, Comverse Network Systems, “Control and Management in Next Generation Networks: Challenges and Opportunities”, IEEE Communications, Oct. 2000, pp. 94-102 </li></ul><ul><li>Marcel Mampaey, Alcatel, “TINA for Services and Advanced Signaling and Control in Next-Generation Networks”, IEEE Communications, Oct. 2000, pp. 104-110 </li></ul><ul><li>Zhu Lei, Slimane Ben Slimane, Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, “A Multicarrier Allocation (MCA) Scheme for Variable-Rate 3G Wireless Systems”, (IEEE Communications, Oct. 2000, pp. 86-91 </li></ul><ul><li>Shingo Ohmori, MPT Japan, Yasushi Yamao, Nobuo Nakajima, NTT, “The Future Generations of Mobile Communications Based on Broadband Access Technologies”, IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, pp. 134-142 </li></ul><ul><li>Werner Mohr, Walter Konhäuser, Siemens, ”Access Network Evolution Beyond Third Generation Mobile Communications”, IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, pp. 122-133 </li></ul><ul><li>Chuck Bartel, Carnegie-Mellon University, “Wireless Technologies, Directions in Wireless Networking”, April 2001 </li></ul>
    52. 52. References <ul><li>Malcolm W. Oliphant, &quot;Radio interfaces make the difference in 3G cellular systems&quot;, IEEE Spectrum , Oct. 2000, pp. 53-58 </li></ul><ul><li>Werner Mohr, Walter Konhäuser, Siemens, ”Access Network Evolution Beyond Third Generation Mobile Communications”, IEEE Communications, Dec. 2000, pp. 122-133 </li></ul><ul><li>Christian David, Thierry Gadault et al., &quot;Le Dossier UMTS&quot;, L'Expansion , 18-31 janvier 2001 </li></ul>
    53. 53. Web sites <ul><li>European Telecommunications Standards Institute (Europe) www. etsi .org </li></ul><ul><li>International Telecommunications Union (World) www. itu .org </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Mobile Telecommunications Services Forum (World) www. umts -forum.org </li></ul><ul><li>3G Partnership Project (3GPP) (World) www.3gpp.org </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP2 (USA) www.3gpp2.org </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Wireless Communications Consortium (USA) www. uwcc .org </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Engineering Task Force www. ietf .org </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Consortium www.w3.org </li></ul>
    54. 54. Online Resources <ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM Association’s Mobile Service Initiative (M-Services) http://www. gsm .com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM World http://www. gsmworld .com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAP Forum http://www. wapforum .org </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developers kits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia WAP Toolkit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.forum. nokia .com/developers/ wap / wap . htm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ericsson WapIDE SDK </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. ericsson .com/ wap /developer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phone.com UP SDK </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// updev .phone.com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Online Resources (2) <ul><ul><ul><li>WML Editors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAPtor http://www. wapdrive .com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAPPage http://www. wapmine .com/ downnew .asp </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia WML Studio for Dreamweaver http://www.macromedia.com/exchange (browsers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAP Browsers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M3Gate http://www.m3gate.com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAPMan http:// edgematrix .com/products </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YourWAP Wireless Companion http://www. yourwap .com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i-mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bouygues http://www. imode . fr </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eurotechnology http://www. eurotechnology .com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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