Introduction

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Introduction

  1. 1. Group Project Table of Contents 1.Introduction................................................................................................1 2.Frequency....................................................................................................1 3.GSM Statistics............................................................................................1 3.1 GSM in North America..............................................................................................1 3.2 Global Subscriber base..............................................................................................2 4.GSM Alliance..............................................................................................2 5.Smart Card.................................................................................................4 5.2 Smart Card Functionality...........................................................................................4 5.3 Formats of Smart Card...............................................................................................4 5.4 Security......................................................................................................................4 6.Quality of Service.......................................................................................5 7.Advantages of GSM...................................................................................5 7.1 Total System Specification........................................................................................5 7.2 Advanced Services Functionality..............................................................................6 7.3 Voice Quality.............................................................................................................6 7.4 Nationwide Roaming.................................................................................................7 7.5 Secure Communications and Personal Safety............................................................7 8.GSM Architecture......................................................................................8 9.3G Evolution path to 2G Technologies.....................................................9 10.References...............................................................................................10 _______________________________________________________________________ _TCOM Overview GSM
  2. 2. Group Project 1. Introduction GSM is Global System for Mobile Communications. The first GSM systems began commercial operation in 1991 in Europe, and in late 1995 in North America. Since then, GSM has become the most widely used digital wireless phone service in the world and now represents more than two-thirds of the world's total market for digital wireless services. GSM leads the world as the fastest growing, most reliable and advanced digital technology available in the marketplace today. GSM provides integrated voice mail, high-speed data, fax, paging and short message services capabilities. GSM customers enjoy secure communications, and GSM offers unparalleled call privacy and fraud prevention. As members of the GSM Global Network, GSM subscribers can use their phones at home, across town, across the continent, or around the world. 2. Frequency GSM operates on the multiple spectrum frequency bands used around the world, GSM400: Operates at 450.4 – 457.6 MHz paired with 460.4 – 467.6 MHz. GSM900: Operates at 880 – 915 MHz paired with 925 – 960 MHz. GSM1800: Operates at 1710 – 1785 MHz paired with 1805 – 1880 MHz. GSM1900: Operates at 1850 – 1910 MHz paired with 1930 – 1990 MHz. 3. GSM Statistics 3.1 GSM in North America North American customers: 10.5 Million U.S. States with commercial GSM service: 48 Canadian Provinces with commercial service: 6 North American Cities with commercial GSM service: 6,500 Employees: 14,000 Total U.S. Licensed POPS: 260 Million Covered POPS in active markets to date: 181 Million GSM is extremely popular in the United States and Canada. By the end of 2000, GSM customers in North America totaled 8 million. And customers are being added at a rate of 6 per minute in North America. GSM Page 1 of 12
  3. 3. Group Project 3.2 Global Subscriber base Global subscriber base can be shown as, GSM 66% TDMA PDC 10% 10% CDMA 14% Figure 1 4. GSM Alliance The North American GSM Alliance, LLC is a Limited Liability Corporation incorporated in 1997. Its purpose is to maximize the competitive success of member companies through coordination and promotion of GSM technology and to realize the commercial benefits of North American scope and scale. And although the GSM Alliance, LLC is not an affiliate of the GSM Association, all GSM Alliance, LLC members are also members of GSM North Amercia. GSM Page 2 of 12
  4. 4. Group Project The interworking of GSMNA and the GSM Alliance, LLC rests on several shared principles: • Separation of business issues from technology development to ensure clear priorities and project ownership. • GSM Alliance, LLC market recommendations come into GSMNA as technical project requests. • GSMNA technical reviews go into the GSM Alliance, LLC to influence marketing decisions. The Alliance's collaborative efforts focus on serving wireless customers most efficiently by addressing the areas of roaming, customer care, national distribution and data communications. North American GSM Alliance members include: • Airadigm Communications, Inc. • Cingular Wireless • Conestoga Wireless Company • Cook Inlet VoiceStream PCS • DIGIPH PCS • Iowa Wireless Services, LP • Microcell Telecommunications Inc. • NPI Wireless • Powertel, Inc. • SOL Communications • Telemetrix Technologies • TWS, Inc. • VoiceStream Wireless Corp. • Wireless 2000 PCS The GSM Alliance works in cooperation with North American GSM equipment manufacturers: • Siemens • Motorola • Lucent Technologies • Nortel Networks • Nokia • Ericsson GSM Alliance member companies operate their own businesses and market under their own names. GSM Page 3 of 12
  5. 5. Group Project 5. Smart Card The SIM (Subscriber Information Module) card - a.k.a. "smart card" - holds all of a subscriber's personal information and phone settings. In essence, it is the subscriber's authorization to use the network. It also holds the phone number, personal security key and other data necessary for the handset to function. The card can be switched from phone to phone, making the new phone receive all calls to the subscriber's number. The SIM card is one of the security devices on the GSM network, making it difficult to steal numbers or otherwise make fraudulent phone calls. The card also allows roaming with other GSM operators around the world. In addition, the card stores personal phone numbers, missed calls, voice mail notifications, text messages, etc. And the card may soon be used for other purposes, such as a debit card, credit card, bus pass, or at other points of sale. The possibilities of SIM card technology are practically endless. 5.2 Smart Card Functionality The SIM (smart card) is inside each handset and functions as its digital brain. The authentication and encryption capabilities of the SIM prevent your phone from being stolen and your calls from being eavesdropped on. The SIM's digital memory, which stores information like your rate plan and service features, also allows you to easily personalize your service and contains user ID and billing information that can be switched between different phones. So, with your SIM card installed, you can make or receive calls personally even when you're using a borrowed phone. 5.3 Formats of Smart Card Smart cards come in two formats, which are functionally identical. One version resembles a small chip and is semi-permanently placed inside the phone. The second version is similar to a credit card and can be used in phones equipped with a slot for the smart card. Either format can be ported into a borrowed or rented phone providing the size of the smart card matches the size of the smart card holder or slot in the phone. 5.4 Security In GSM networks, an encryption algorithm scrambles the digitized voice transmission between the handset and the GSM transmission site. The information that is required to decode the encryption is hidden within the smart GSM Page 4 of 12
  6. 6. Group Project card. This feature provides the industry's most effective prevention of radio- based eavesdropping and cloning fraud. 6. Quality of Service Excellent voice quality is one of the primary requirements for our subscribers. That is why the GSM community developed the 13 kbps Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) vocoder, which provides voice quality that is competitive with wireline service. The selection of this vocoder was a cooperative effort between GSM service providers and equipment manufacturers. In the near future, a new GSM/3G vocoder called the Adaptive Multirate Vocoder (AMR) will become available, furthter improving voice quality and services for GSM subscribers worldwide. The GSM teamwork approach demonstrates the common commitment that the entire GSM community has to the standardization and continuing evolution of this technology. 7. Advantages of GSM The overwhelming success of this technology is based on several key factors: • Total System Specification • Advanced Services Functionality • Voice Quality • Nationwide Roaming • Secure Communications 7.1 Total System Specification The GSM standard was developed through an unparalleled exercise in technological cooperation between standards committees, operators and equipment manufacturers. The end result is that GSM is one of the most powerful and evolutionary telecommunications platforms ever developed. Both GSM North America, the North American Interest group of the GSM Association, and the North American GSM Alliance LLC are taking that one step further with their mission of bringing operators and manufacturers together to jointly address issues that guarantee that GSM 1900 will stay at the forefront of North American PCS technologies. Major advantages that GSM has over other PCS technologies are that it is a total system specification and it is an "open interface" standard. GSM Page 5 of 12
  7. 7. Group Project GSM specifications include the functionality provided by the switching centers, location registers, base station controllers and base transceiver stations as well as the Smart Card and handsets. Since the interfaces are "open", equipment from multiple vendors can co- exist in the same network. This provides operators with the option to purchase equipment from multiple suppliers. Only an open system fosters competition between the equipment manufacturers and ultimately benefits PCS operators and their subscribers. 7.2 Advanced Services Functionality One of the objectives for the GSM-based platform was to offer advanced services and functionality from a single network. To meet this goal, the designers based the architecture on the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) call model. GSM operators have the flexibility to offer integrated voice, high speed data, fax and short message services capabilities from a single network. GSM also has the Intelligent Network (IN) functionality required to offer advanced subscriber features needed for private virtual networks such as call forwarding, abbreviated dialing, restrictions on incoming or outgoing calls and call handling procedures based on location or time of day. The versatility and advanced feature functionality of GSM allows operators to be extremely creative and diverse with their marketing strategies and service offerings. This is crucial for success in what is a very competitive PCS market. 7.3 Voice Quality Excellent voice quality is one of the primary requirements for PCS subscribers. The current GSM vocoder provides the best digital wireless voice quality in the world today. And this tradition of excellence is being taken one step further through the development of the Advanced Multirate Vocoder (AMR), which has recently been adopted as the industry standard for 3rd Generation W-CDMA networks, as well. It will provide voice quality that is competitive with wire line service. From the onset, the selection of the vocoder was a cooperative effort between the GSM Association and GSM equipment manufacturers. The goal was to select one common vocoder for GSM and 3G handsets based on open standards so that any manufacturer can produce the handsets. Operators and equipment manufacturers are working together to insure that the AMR vocoder progresses through the final testing and development phases required for standardization. This teamwork approach demonstrates the common commitment of the GSM community to the continuing evolution of this technology. GSM Page 6 of 12
  8. 8. Group Project 7.4 Nationwide Roaming GSM architecture supports full-featured seamless roaming between GSM networks in North America and around the world. This inherent roaming capability allows operators to easily exchange common services, billing records and location information. Roaming agreements have been established between the various North American GSM operators and GSM coverage is being supplemented further through roaming agreements between GSM operators and other wireless service providers. GSM is the pioneer in global roaming, which enables customers from a wireless carrier in one country to make or receive calls on another company's network in another country as well as at home. 7.5 Secure Communications and Personal Safety By design, GSM digital technology has several features, which ensure the privacy, integrity and confidentiality of all calls. Smart Cards GSM incorporates into each handset a "Smart Card" which contains the subscriber's personal identification as well as service profile information such as billing, predefined speed dial numbers and calling services. For added security, the subscriber may request that the Smart Card require the use of a Personal Identity Number (PIN). Smart Cards come in two formats. One version resembles a small chip and is semi-permanently placed inside the phone. The second version is credit card size and can be used in phones that are equipped with a slot for the Smart Card. If subscribers want to rent a phone for a weekend outside of North America, all they have to do is insert their Smart Cards into the phone and it will automatically contain all their personal information. Secure Communications GSM communications are 100% digital and provide authentication and encryption to verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. This functionality protects network operators from many types of fraud found in the cellular industry today. Authentication checks the validity of each call and makes sure that the Smart Card is active and that the subscription is current. If a Smart Card is stolen, the network operator simply deactivates the card. Fully digital encrypted wireless communications guarantees the complete confidentiality of all voice and data calls over GSM networks. Personal Safety During the past several years, the number of mobile phone users has increased exponentially and explosive growth is expected to continue for GSM Page 7 of 12
  9. 9. Group Project the foreseeable future. Mobile phones have become an important tool for our every day lives and play a key role in safeguarding our personal safety. Just knowing that the phone is available makes users feel more secure. 8. GSM Architecture Figure 2 MS – Mobile Station BTS – Base Transceiver Station BSC – Base Station Controller GSM Page 8 of 12
  10. 10. Group Project EIR – Equipment Identity Register AUC – Authentication Center OSS – Operational Subsystem MSC – Mobile Services Switching Center HLR – Home Location Register VLR – Visitor Location Register 9. 3G Evolution path to 2G Technologies Mobile operators around the world are currently in the process of evolving their networks to offer subscribers 3G services. They are moving from the current voice and simple data services to offer also high speed value-added services. To do so, they must upgrade their wireless networks from second generation (2G) to next generation (2.5G and subsequently 3G) systems. The major 2G mobile telephony systems are based on the GSM, TDMA, CDMA and PDC technologies. As illustrated in Figure 3, the generally accepted 3G migration path for the GSM technology is GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA, for cdmaOne it is CDMA2000, and for PDC it is WCDMA. These same paths are also available for TDMA. During the past 12 months most TDMA operators have begun to plan for the introduction of a new wireless technology in parallel with their existing TDMA networks, to evolve to 3G. Several network operators in the Americas including AT&T Wireless Services (US), Rogers AT&T (Canada), Telcel (Mexico) and Telecom, Personal (Argentina), have decided to deploy, GSM/GPRS services. It is clear that the majority of, TDMA operators are choosing the GSM path to 3G. There are two main reasons for choosing GSM. 1. As a most popular and dominant 2G technology, GSM offers important competitive benefits. 2. It is obvious that the GSM technology path (GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA) will become the most widely accepted standard for 3G services. GSM Page 9 of 12
  11. 11. Group Project Figure 3 10.References www.gsmworld.com www.gsm-pcs.org GSM Page 10 of 12

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