General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Mobile Telematics 2004 Ivar Jørstad
References <ul><li>Ganz et. al. (Release 5) </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP TS 23.060  (Service Description, Stage 2, Release 6) </...
Introduction <ul><li>Packet switched data on top of GSM network </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of GPRS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eff...
Architecture Overview <ul><li>A lot of releases (R97, R98, R99, R4 etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>A *lot* of specifications... </...
GPRS Release 5/6 <ul><li>Two modes determined by generation of core network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G core => A/Gb </li></...
GERAN Reference Architecture 3GPP TS 43.051 (Release 6)
A/Gb mode <ul><li>Class A: MS can operate simultaneous packet switched and circuit switched services </li></ul><ul><li>Cla...
Iu mode <ul><li>CS/PS mode: Same as Class A in A/Gb mode </li></ul><ul><li>PS mode: MS can only operate packet switched se...
User Plane Protocol Architecture
Control Plane Protocol Architecture
Service Types <ul><li>Point-to-Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access by user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-to-Multipo...
Internet (IP) Multimedia Subsystem <ul><li>New in Release 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous access to multiple different ty...
Radio Interface Protocols <ul><li>User plane and Control Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Three layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer ...
Physical Layer <ul><li>Combined Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (GSM) <...
Release 5 Protocol Arch. <ul><li>Physical Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Logical, Control and Traffic Channels </li></ul><ul><...
Physical Channels <ul><li>Defined by timeslot (0-7) and radio frequency channel </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Basic Physical Su...
Physical Channels <ul><li>Packet Data Channel (PDCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to packet data traffic from logical c...
Logical Channels
Logical Channels <ul><li>Mapped by the MAC to physical channels </li></ul><ul><li>Control channels for control, synchroniz...
Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging (PPCH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Dedicated Control Channel (PDCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations on DBPSCH </li></ul></u...
Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency correction channels </li...
Packet Traffic Channels <ul><li>Traffic Channels (TCH) </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding of speech or user data </li></ul><ul><li...
Media Access Control (MAC) <ul><li>Connection oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Connections are called Temporary Block Flows (TBF...
MAC: TBF Establishment <ul><li>MS initiated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Phase  Access, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Pha...
MAC: TBF Establishment <ul><li>Network initiated </li></ul>MS BSS PACKET PAGING REQUEST PPCH PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PRACH ...
MAC: Channel Access & Resource Allocation <ul><li>Slotted Aloha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in PRACH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
MAC: Resource Allocation Mechanisms <ul><li>Uplink State Flag (USF, 3bits) associated with an assigned PDCH (USF on each d...
Radio Link Control <ul><li>Can provide reliability for MAC transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent mode </li></ul><ul>...
Radio Resource Control/Radio Resource <ul><li>Radio resource management </li></ul><ul><li>RRC in Iu mode </li></ul><ul><ul...
QoS Support <ul><li>End-to-end QoS may be specified by Service Level Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that IP multimed...
QoS Profile for GPRS Bearers <ul><li>Describes applications characteristics and QoS requirements </li></ul><ul><li>4 param...
QoS Profile for GPRS Bearers <ul><li>QoS profile is included in Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context </li></ul><ul><li>Negot...
Packet Classification and Scheduling <ul><li>TBF tagged with TFI </li></ul><ul><li>TFI different for each TBF </li></ul><u...
Mobility Management <ul><li>Two procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS Attach/Detach (towards SGSN/HLR) </li></ul></ul><ul...
GPRS Mobile “Station” States  <ul><li>GPRS protocol stack (MS) can take on 3 different states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDLE <...
Routing to MS <ul><li>IDLE state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No logical PDP context activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No netw...
Routing to MS <ul><li>STANDBY state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only routing area is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RA is ...
Routing to MS <ul><li>ACTIVE state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SGSN knows the cell of the MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDP cont...
PDP Contexts <ul><li>Packet Data Protocol (PDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical tunnel be...
PDP Context Procedures <ul><li>MS initiated </li></ul>MS BSS SGSN GGSN Activate PDP Context Request Create PDP Context  Re...
PDP Context Procedures <ul><li>GGSN initiated </li></ul>MS BSS SGSN GGSN Activate PDP Context Request Create PDP Context  ...
Secondary PDP Contexts <ul><li>Used when the QoS requirements differ from Primary PDP Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same I...
The end... (a bit sudden?) <ul><li>Thanks for listening on our ?SBPSCH? ;) </li></ul>
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General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

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General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

  1. 1. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Mobile Telematics 2004 Ivar Jørstad
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Ganz et. al. (Release 5) </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP TS 23.060 (Service Description, Stage 2, Release 6) </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP TS 43.051 (Radio Access Network, Overall Description, Stage 2, Release 6) </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS Protocol Stack White Paper </li></ul><ul><li>(Vocal Technologies Ltd. http://www.vocal.com) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Packet switched data on top of GSM network </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of GPRS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient bandwidth usage for bursty data traffic (e.g. Internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher data rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New charging models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially specified by ETSI </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications handed over to 3GPP </li></ul>
  4. 4. Architecture Overview <ul><li>A lot of releases (R97, R98, R99, R4 etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>A *lot* of specifications... </li></ul><ul><li>Considered in this overview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release 5 (Ganz) / 6 (most recent TS at 3GPP) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. GPRS Release 5/6 <ul><li>Two modes determined by generation of core network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G core => A/Gb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G core => Iu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iu interface added in rel. 5 to align with UMTS </li></ul>
  6. 6. GERAN Reference Architecture 3GPP TS 43.051 (Release 6)
  7. 7. A/Gb mode <ul><li>Class A: MS can operate simultaneous packet switched and circuit switched services </li></ul><ul><li>Class B: MS can operate either one at one time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common for handsets today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class C: MS can operate only packet switched services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. expansion cards for laptops </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Iu mode <ul><li>CS/PS mode: Same as Class A in A/Gb mode </li></ul><ul><li>PS mode: MS can only operate packet switched services </li></ul><ul><li>CS mode: MS can only operate circuit switched services </li></ul>
  9. 9. User Plane Protocol Architecture
  10. 10. Control Plane Protocol Architecture
  11. 11. Service Types <ul><li>Point-to-Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access by user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-to-Multipoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of information (e.g. news) to multiple locations or interactive conference applications </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Internet (IP) Multimedia Subsystem <ul><li>New in Release 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous access to multiple different types of real-time and non-real-time traffic </li></ul><ul><li>IMS provides synchronization between such components </li></ul>
  13. 13. Radio Interface Protocols <ul><li>User plane and Control Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Three layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer 1; Physical (PHY) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer 2; Data Link, Media Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC) and Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer 3; Radio Resource Control (RRC) for Iu mode and Radio Resource (RR) for A/Gb mode </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Physical Layer <ul><li>Combined Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (GSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Channel separation: 200 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Power output control; find minimum acceptable level </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization with base station </li></ul><ul><li>Handover </li></ul><ul><li>Quality monitoring </li></ul>
  15. 15. Release 5 Protocol Arch. <ul><li>Physical Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Logical, Control and Traffic Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Media Access Control and Radio Link Control </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Resource Control and Radio Resource </li></ul>
  16. 16. Physical Channels <ul><li>Defined by timeslot (0-7) and radio frequency channel </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Basic Physical Sub Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared among several users (up to 8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink Stage Flag (USF) controls multiple access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Basic Physical Sub Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One user </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Physical Channels <ul><li>Packet Data Channel (PDCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to packet data traffic from logical channels (next slide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Logical Channels
  19. 19. Logical Channels <ul><li>Mapped by the MAC to physical channels </li></ul><ul><li>Control channels for control, synchronization and signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Packet Traffic channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded data </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging (PPCH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Access (PRACH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant (PAGCH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet Notification (PNCH) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Dedicated Control Channel (PDCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations on DBPSCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio measurements and data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMS transfer during calls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For one Traffic Channel (TCH) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Control Channels <ul><li>Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency correction channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronization channel (MS freq. vs. BS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast control channel for general information on the base station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet broadcast channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast parameters that MS needs to access network for packet transmission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Packet Traffic Channels <ul><li>Traffic Channels (TCH) </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding of speech or user data </li></ul><ul><li>Channels are either predetermined multiplexed or multiplexing determined by MAC </li></ul><ul><li>Full rate/half rate </li></ul><ul><li>On both SBPSCH and DBPSCH </li></ul><ul><li>Modulation techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GMSK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-PSK </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Media Access Control (MAC) <ul><li>Connection oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Connections are called Temporary Block Flows (TBF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical unidirectional connection between two MAC entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated resources on PDCH(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One PDCH can accomodate multiple TBFs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) is unique among concurrent TBFs in the same direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global_TFI to each station </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. MAC: TBF Establishment <ul><li>MS initiated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Phase Access, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Phase Access </li></ul></ul>PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PRACH TBF Est. By MS: One Phase Access PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PRACH PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST PACCH TBF Est. By MS: Two Phase Access MS BSS MS BSS PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT PAGCH PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT PACCH PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT PAGCH
  26. 26. MAC: TBF Establishment <ul><li>Network initiated </li></ul>MS BSS PACKET PAGING REQUEST PPCH PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PRACH PACKET PAGING RESPONSE PACCH PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT PACCH or PAGCH TBF Est. By Network PACKET IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT PAGCH
  27. 27. MAC: Channel Access & Resource Allocation <ul><li>Slotted Aloha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in PRACH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MSs send packets in uplink direction at the beginning of a slot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collision: Back off -> timer (arbitrary) -> re-transmit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined slots allocated by BSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contention-free channel access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All logical channels except PRACH </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. MAC: Resource Allocation Mechanisms <ul><li>Uplink State Flag (USF, 3bits) associated with an assigned PDCH (USF on each downlink Radio Block) </li></ul><ul><li>USF_GRANULARITY assigned during TBF est. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS finds it’s USF in RLC/MAC PDU header. On the next uplink block: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If USF_GRANULARITY=0, transmit one radio block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If USF_GRANULARITY=1, transmit four cons. radio blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extended Dynamic Allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as Dynamic, except the four radio blocks are transmitted on different PDCHs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Allocation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Radio Link Control <ul><li>Can provide reliability for MAC transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acknowledged mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Repeat ARQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender: Window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver: Uplink ACK/NACK or Downlink ACK/NACK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unacknowledged mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by numbering within TBF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No retransmissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces missing packets with dummy information bits </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Radio Resource Control/Radio Resource <ul><li>Radio resource management </li></ul><ul><li>RRC in Iu mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasts system information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers QoS requirements and ensures allocation of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RR in A/Gb mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains at least one PDCH for user data and control signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allocates new DBPSCHs </li></ul><ul><li>Intracell handover of DBPSCHs </li></ul>
  31. 31. QoS Support <ul><li>End-to-end QoS may be specified by Service Level Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that IP multimedia applications are able to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define their requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate their capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and select available media components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPRS specifies signaling that enable support for various traffic streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant/variable bit rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection oriented/connection less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. QoS Profile for GPRS Bearers <ul><li>Describes applications characteristics and QoS requirements </li></ul><ul><li>4 parameters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service precedence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability parameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput parameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum and mean bit rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. QoS Profile for GPRS Bearers <ul><li>QoS profile is included in Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation managed through PDP procedures (activation, modification and deactivation) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Packet Classification and Scheduling <ul><li>TBF tagged with TFI </li></ul><ul><li>TFI different for each TBF </li></ul><ul><li>Packet scheduling algorithms are not defined by the standard; defined and implemented by GPRS network designers and carriers </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS *can* enable per-flow quantitative QoS services with proper packet classification and scheduling algorithms...Hmmm. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mobility Management <ul><li>Two procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS Attach/Detach (towards SGSN/HLR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes MS available for SMS over GPRS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paging via SGSN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notification of incoming packet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDP Context Activation/Deactivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associate with a GGSN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain PDP address (e.g. IP) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. GPRS Mobile “Station” States <ul><li>GPRS protocol stack (MS) can take on 3 different states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STANDBY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTIVE/READY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data can only be transmitted in the ACTIVE state </li></ul>
  37. 37. Routing to MS <ul><li>IDLE state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No logical PDP context activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No network address (IP) registered for the terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No routing of external data possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only multicast messages to all GPRS handsets available </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Routing to MS <ul><li>STANDBY state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only routing area is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RA is defined by operator => allows individual optimizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When downlink data is available, packet paging message is sent to routing area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon reception, MS sends it's cell location to the SGSN and enters the ACTIVE state </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Routing to MS <ul><li>ACTIVE state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SGSN knows the cell of the MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDP contexts can be activated/deactivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can remain in this state even if not data is transmitted (controlled by timer) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. PDP Contexts <ul><li>Packet Data Protocol (PDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical tunnel between MS and GGSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchored GGSN for session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDP activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deactivation </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. PDP Context Procedures <ul><li>MS initiated </li></ul>MS BSS SGSN GGSN Activate PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Response Activate PDP Context Accept
  42. 42. PDP Context Procedures <ul><li>GGSN initiated </li></ul>MS BSS SGSN GGSN Activate PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Response Activate PDP Context Accept Packets from ext. nw. PDU notification req. PDU notification resp. Request PDP Context activation
  43. 43. Secondary PDP Contexts <ul><li>Used when the QoS requirements differ from Primary PDP Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same APN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g., for IMS; signaling on primary PDP context and user data on secondary PDP context </li></ul>
  44. 44. The end... (a bit sudden?) <ul><li>Thanks for listening on our ?SBPSCH? ;) </li></ul>

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