Development of Radio Networks Personal Broadband Networks ...


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Development of Radio Networks Personal Broadband Networks ...

  1. 1. Faculty of Computing, Engineering & Technology Development of Radio Networks Personal Broadband Networks, PBN (CE74024-3) Alison L Griffiths C203 2004
  2. 2. 2 Objectives Introduction Public Mobile Radio Telephone Services Cellular Mobile Radio Development of Radio Telephone Networks Development of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) DCS 1800 Development of IMT-2000 Development of 4G Frequency Allocations PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Public mobile radio services developed during the 1950’s With a limited coverage area Development of Radio Telephone Networks With a service available to a limited number of subscribers. The rapid development of radio and electronic technology made possible the development of cellular systems during the 1980’s. During the 1990’s, digital cellular radio was introduced During the 2000’s truly multimedia tether less communications will be introduced This section provides a review of these developments PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  4. 4. 4 Development Evolution of Personal Communication System’s Development of Radio Telephone Networks Analogue Digital Multimedia 1980’s 1990’s 2000 + PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  5. 5. 5 Wireless systems: overview of the development cordless wireless LAN cellular phones satellites phones 1980: 1981: CT0 NMT 450 1982: 1983: Inmarsat-A Development of Radio AMPS 1984: Telephone Networks CT1 1986: NMT 900 1987: 1988: CT1+ Inmarsat-C 1989: CT 2 1991: 1991: 1991: 1992: CDMA D-AMPS 1992: DECT 199x: GSM Inmarsat-B proprietary 1993: Inmarsat-M PDC 1994: 1997: DCS 1800 IEEE 802.11 1998: Iridium 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 2000: 2000: analogue GPRS IEEE 802.11a 2001: IMT-2000 digital 200?: Fourth Generation (Internet based) 4G – fourth generation: when and how? Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  6. 6. 6 Mobile phones per 100 people 1999 Germany Greece Spain Belgium Development of Radio Telephone Networks France Netherlands Great Britain Switzerland Ireland Austria Portugal Luxemburg Italy Denmark Norway Sweden Finland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2002: 50-70% penetration in Western Europe Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  7. 7. 7 Worldwide cellular subscriber growth 1200 1000 Development of Radio Telephone Networks Subscribers [million] 800 600 400 200 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Note that the curve starts to flatten in 2000 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  8. 8. 8 Cellular subscribers per region (June 2002) Middle East; 1,6 Development of Radio Telephone Networks Africa; 3,1 Americas (incl. USA/Canada); Asia Pacific; 22 36,9 Europe; 36,4 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  9. 9. 9 Mobile statistics snapshot (Sept 2002:2004) (1) Total Global Mobile Users 869mill: 1.52 billion Total Analogue Users 71m:34m Total US Mobile users 145m: 140m Development of Radio Telephone Networks Total Global GSM users 680m: 1.25 billion Total Global CDMA Users 127m: 202m Total TDMA users 84m: 120m Total European users 283m: 342.43m Total African users 18.5m: 53m Total 3G users 130m: 130m Total South African users 13.2m:19m PBN (CE74024-3) 2004 The figures vary a lot depending on the statistic, creator of the statistic etc.!
  10. 10. 10 Mobile statistics snapshot (Sept 2002:2004) (2) #1 Mobile Country China (139m): (300m) #1 GSM Country China (99m): (282m) #1 SMS Country Philipines Development of Radio #1 Handset Vendor 2Q02/04 Nokia (37.2%) (35.5%) Telephone Networks #1 Network In Africa Vodacom (6.6m): (11m) #1 Network In Asia Unicom (153m) #1 Network In Japan DoCoMo #1 Network In Europe T-Mobil (22.3m) : (28m) #1 In Infrastructure Ericsson: Ericsson Global monthly SMSs/user 36: 36/user SMS Sent Globally 1Q02 60 billion: 135 billion SMS sent in UK 6/02 1.3 billion: 03/04 2.1 billion PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  11. 11. 11 Development of Radio Simple reference model used here Telephone Networks Application Application Transport Transport Network Network Network Network Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Physical Physical Physical Physical Radio Medium Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  12. 12. 12 Influence of mobile communication to the layer model service location Application layer new applications, multimedia adaptive applications congestion and flow control Transport layer Development of Radio quality of service Telephone Networks addressing, routing, device location Network layer hand-over authentication Data link layer media access multiplexing media access control encryption Physical layer modulation interference attenuation frequency Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  13. 13. 13 Overlay Networks - the global goal integration of heterogeneous fixed and mobile networks with varying transmission characteristics Development of Radio regional Telephone Networks vertical handover metropolitan area campus-based horizontal handover in-house Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  14. 14. 14 Development of mobile telecoms systems FDMA CT0/1 AMPS NMT CT2 IMT-FT IS-136 DECT Development of Radio TDMA Telephone Networks TDMA EDGE IMT-SC D-AMPS IS-136HS GSM GPRS UWC-136 PDC IMT-DS UTRA FDD / W-CDMA IMT-TC UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA CDMA IMT-TC TD-SCDMA IS-95 IMT-MC cdma2000 1X cdmaOne cdma2000 1X EV-DO 1X EV-DV 1G 2G 2.5G 3G (3X) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  15. 15. 15 Public Mobile Radio Telephone Services South Lancashire Radio Phone Services. Pilot scheme 1959, two base stations – VHF, FM on 50 KHz channel spacing - manual operation. London Radio Phone Service. Development of Radio Telephone Networks 1965 – as above – area coverage extended to other part of UK. Radio Phone System 4 London – 1981 – Automatic service, VHF, FM, 12.5 KHz channel spacing - replaced previous manual schemes The number of subscribers these systems can support was limited by the number of radio channels. More channels & better system to re-use frequencies was required to extend availability World administrative radio conference (WARC) in 1979 allocated a band around 900 MHz, with 1000, 25 KHz channels In the UK, a part of this spectrum was made available, with part reserved for the (then) future GSM digital cellular system. PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  16. 16. 16 AMPS Control Channels 21 full-duplex 30-kHz control channels Transmit digital data using FSK Data are transmitted in frames Development of Radio Telephone Networks Control information can be transmitted over voice channel during conversation Mobile unit or the base station inserts burst of data Turn off voice FM transmission for about 100 ms Replacing it with an FSK-encoded message Used to exchange urgent messages Change power level Handoff PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  17. 17. 17 Cellular Mobile Radio (1) Fundamental concepts & ideas first proposed by bell telephone labs (1950’s). 1980-Trial cellular radio systems in USA, Japan, Sweden. Development of Radio Telephone Networks UK- Decision to license two competing ‘cellular radio companies’ Allocate half the available channels to each 1) British Telecom & Securicor Telecom Securicor Cellular Radio Ltd TSCR – Trading as Cellnet 2) RACAL Vodaphone Systems operational during 1895 ‘Standard’ TSCR & Racal agreed to adopt a modified version of USA standard {Known as Amps – Advanced mobile phone service} PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  18. 18. 18 Cellular Mobile Radio (2) UK system TACS – Total Access Communications System Frequency bands initially allocated to TACS: Development of Radio Telephone Networks 890 - 915 MHz for the Mobile - Base Station (uplink) 935 - 960 MHz for the Base Station - Mobile (downlink) Channel spacing in the TACS system was 25 kHz Corresponds to 1000 channels in each band Full duplex operation, i.e. a two-way conversation, requires one uplink channel and one downlink channel. Corresponding up and downlink channels are separated by 45MHz. Of the 1000 channels, 600 were made available, 300 to each operator The remaining allocation was reserved for GSM PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  19. 19. 19 Cellular Mobile Radio (3) With the success TACS, & to meet high demand a further allocation of 320 channels was made, the ‘new’ system being known as Development of Radio Telephone Networks Extended TACS or E-TACS. To achieve this allocation, the bandwidth was extended downwards to 872 MHz for the uplink and down to 917 MHZ for the downlink. PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  20. 20. 20 Large Capacity Cellular Systems c 1980’s Japan USA UK Scandinavia System NTT AMPS TACS NMT Tx freq (MHz) 870-885 870-890 935-960 463-467.5 Base Station 925-940 825-845 890-915 453-457.5 Development of Radio Mobile Station Telephone Networks Channel spacing (kHz) 25 30 25 25 No of channels 600 666 1000 180 Coverage radius 5 urban 6 2 1.8 (km) 10 rural 20 20 40 Modulation (speech) FM FM fm fm Deviation + 5 kHz + 12 + 9.5 kHz + 5 kHz kHz Control signal Type FSK FSK FSK FSK Deviation + 4.5 kHz + 8 kHz + 6.4 kHz + 3.5 kHz Data Rate kbps 0.3 10 8 1.2 Measage ‘Echo’ Back Majority Majority ? Protection to sender Decision Decision (CE74024-3) 2004 PBN ?
  21. 21. 21 Development of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) (1) Cellular systems began in the early 1980’s American Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) in the USA Total Access Communication System (TACS) in the Development of Radio UK. Telephone Networks In 1982, the Conference of European Posts & Telecommunications (CEPT) established a committee known as the Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) Their task was to define a set of specifications for a European wide cellular system. In 1988, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) was created and took over the task of developing the work started by ‘GSM’. PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  22. 22. 22 Development of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) (2) In 1990 the development of the specifications were ‘frozen’ known as the ‘interim ETSI Technical Specifications’ Development of Radio Telephone Networks to enable network operators & manufacturers to develop the an ‘actual’ system which was launched in 1992. In the early 1990’s, the committee was renamed the Speciale Mobile Group and ‘GSM’ was renamed the Global System for Mobile Communications PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  23. 23. 23 DCS 1800 A development of GSM was specified in 1991, known as DCS 1800. This operates around the 1800 MHz band and was launched in 1993 in Development of Radio Telephone Networks the UK. DCS 1800 is similar to GSM. PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  24. 24. 24 Second Generation CDMA Higher quality signals Higher data rates Support of digital services Greater capacity Development of Radio Telephone Networks Digital traffic channels Support digital data Voice traffic digitized User traffic (data or digitized voice) converted to analog signal for transmission Encryption Simple to encrypt digital traffic Error detection and correction (See chapter 6) Very clear voice reception Channel access Channel dynamically shared by users via Time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA) PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  25. 25. 25 Code Division Multiple Access Each cell allocated frequency bandwidth Split in two Half for reverse, half for forward Development of Radio Telephone Networks Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  26. 26. 26 Code Division Multiple Access Advantages Frequency diversity Frequency-dependent transmission impairments (noise bursts, selective fading) have less effect Multipath resistance Development of Radio Telephone Networks DSSS overcomes multipath fading by frequency diversity Also, chipping codes used only exhibit low cross correlation and low autocorrelation Version of signal delayed more than one chip interval does not interfere with the dominant signal as much Privacy From spread spectrum Graceful degradation With FDMA or TDMA, fixed number of users can access system simultaneously With CDMA, as more users access the system simultaneously, noise level and hence error rate increases Gradually system degrades PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  27. 27. 27 Code Division Multiple Access Self-jamming Unless all mobile users are perfectly synchronized, arriving transmissions from multiple users will not be perfectly aligned on chip boundaries Development of Radio Telephone Networks Spreading sequences of different users not orthogonal Some cross correlation Distinct from either TDMA or FDMA In which, for reasonable time or frequency guardbands, respectively, received signals are orthogonal or nearly so Near-far problem Signals closer to receiver are received with less attenuation than signals farther away Given lack of complete orthogonality, transmissions from more remote mobile units may be more difficult to recover PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  28. 28. 28 RAKE Receiver If multiple versions of signal arrive more than one chip interval apart, receiver can recover signal by correlating chip sequence with dominant incoming signal Remaining signals treated as noise Development of Radio Better performance if receiver attempts to recover signals from Telephone Networks multiple paths and combine them, with suitable delays Original binary signal is spread by XOR operation with chipping code Spread sequence modulated for transmission over wireless channel Multipath effects generate multiple copies of signal Each with a different amount of time delay (τ1, τ2, etc.) Each with a different attenuation factors (a1, a2, etc.) Receiver demodulates combined signal Demodulated chip stream fed into multiple correlators, each delayed by different amount Signals combined using weighting factors estimated from the channel PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  29. 29. 29 Development of Radio Principle of RAKE Receiver Telephone Networks PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  30. 30. 30 Standardisation Bodies ITU Development of Radio Telephone Networks Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  31. 31. 31 Third Generation Systems Objective to provide fairly high-speed wireless communications to support multimedia, data, and video in addition to voice ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications for the Development of Radio Telephone Networks year 2000 (IMT-2000) initiative defined ITU’s view of third-generation capabilities as: Voice quality comparable to PSTN 144 kbps available to users in vehicles over large areas 384 kbps available to pedestrians over small areas Support for 2.048 Mbps for office use Symmetrical and asymmetrical data rates Support for packet-switched and circuit-switched services Adaptive interface to Internet More efficient use of available spectrum Support for variety of mobile equipment Flexibility to allow introduction of new services and technologies PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  32. 32. 32 Driving Forces Trend toward universal personal telecommunications Ability of person to identify himself and use any communication system in globally, in terms of single account Universal communications access Development of Radio Telephone Networks Using one’s terminal in a wide variety of environments to connect to information services e.g. portable terminal that will work in office, street, and planes equally well GSM cellular telephony with subscriber identity module, is step towards goals Personal communications services (PCSs) and personal communication networks (PCNs) also form objectives for third- generation wireless Technology is digital using time division multiple access or code- division multiple access PCS handsets low power, small and light PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  33. 33. 33 Alternative Interfaces (1) IMT-2000 specification covers set of radio interfaces for optimized performance in different radio environments Five alternatives to enable smooth evolution from existing systems Development of Radio Telephone Networks Alternatives reflect evolution from second generation Two specifications grow out of work at European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Develop a UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system) as Europe's 3G wireless standard Includes two standards Wideband CDMA, or W-CDMA – Fully exploits CDMA technology – Provides high data rates with efficient use of bandwidth IMT-TC, or TD-CDMA – Combination of W-CDMA and TDMA technology – Intended to provide upgrade path for TDMA-based GSM systems PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  34. 34. 34 Alternative Interfaces (2) CDMA2000 North American origin Similar to, but incompatible with, W-CDMA Development of Radio Telephone Networks In part because standards use different chip rates Also, cdma2000 uses multicarrier, not used with W-CDMA IMT-SC designed for TDMA-only networks IMT-FC can be used by both TDMA and FDMA carriers To provide some 3G services Outgrowth of Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  35. 35. 35 IMT-2000 family Interface for Internetworking Development of Radio Telephone Networks IMT-2000 GSM ANSI-41 Core Network IP-Network (MAP) (IS-634) ITU-T Initial UMTS Flexible assignment of (R99 w/ FDD) Core Network and Radio Access IMT-DS IMT-TC IMT-MC IMT-SC IMT-FT (Direct Spread) (Time Code) (Multi Carrier) (Single Carrier) (Freq. Time) IMT-2000 UTRA TDD Radio Access UTRA FDD (TD-CDMA); cdma2000 UWC-136 DECT ITU-R (W-CDMA) TD-SCDMA (EDGE) 3GPP 3GPP 3GPP2 UWCC/3GPP ETSI PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  36. 36. 36 DECT DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) standardized by ETSI (ETS 300.175-x) for cordless telephones standard describes air interface between base-station and mobile phone Development of Radio Telephone Networks DECT has been renamed for international marketing reasons into „Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication“ Characteristics frequency: 1880-1990 MHz channels: 120 full duplex duplex mechanism: TDD (Time Division Duplex) with 10 ms frame length multplexing scheme: FDMA with 10 carrier frequencies, TDMA with 2x 12 slots modulation: digital, Gaußian Minimum Shift Key (GMSK) power: 10 mW average (max. 250 mW) range: approx. 50 m in buildings, 300 m open space PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  37. 37. 37 TETRA - Terrestrial Trunked Radio Trunked radio systems many different radio carriers assign single carrier for a short period to one user/group of Development of Radio users Telephone Networks taxi service, fleet management, rescue teams interfaces to public networks, voice and data services very reliable, fast call setup, local operation TETRA - ETSI standard formerly: Trans European Trunked Radio offers Voice+Data and Packet Data Optimized service point-to-point and point-to-multipoint ad-hoc and infrastructure networks several frequencies: 380-400 MHz, 410-430 MHz FDD, DQPSK group call, broadcast, sub-second group-call setup PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  38. 38. 38 UMTS and IMT-2000 Proposals for IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) UWC-136, cdma2000, WP-CDMA UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) from ETSI UMTS Development of Radio Telephone Networks UTRA (was: UMTS, now: Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) enhancements of GSM EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution): GSM up to 384 kbit/s CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic) VHE (virtual Home Environment) fits into GMM (Global Multimedia Mobility) initiative from ETSI requirements min. 144 kbit/s rural (goal: 384 kbit/s) min. 384 kbit/s suburban (goal: 512 kbit/s) up to 2 Mbit/s urban PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  39. 39. 39 CDMA Design Considerations – Bandwidth & Chip Rate Dominant technology for 3G systems is CDMA Three different CDMA schemes have been adopted Share some common design issues Bandwidth Development of Radio Telephone Networks Limit channel usage to 5 MHz Higher bandwidth improves the receiver's ability to resolve multipath But available spectrum is limited by competing needs 5 MHz reasonable upper limit on what can be allocated for 3G 5 MHz is enoughfordata rates of 144 and 384 kHz Chip rate Given bandwidth, chip rate depends on desired data rate, need for error control, and bandwidth limitations Chip rate of 3 Mcps or more reasonable PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  40. 40. 40 CDMA Design Considerations – Multirate Provision of multiple fixed-data-rate logical channels to a given user Different data rates provided on different logical channels Traffic on each logical channel can be switched independently Development of Radio Telephone Networks through wireless fixed networks to different destinations Flexibly support multiple simultaneous applications from user Efficiently use available capacity by only providing the capacity required for each service Achieved with TDMA scheme within single CDMA channel Different number of slots per frame assigned for different data rates Subchannels at a given data rate protected by error correction and interleaving techniques Alternative: use multiple CDMA codes Separate coding and interleaving Map them to separate CDMA channels PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  41. 41. 41 Access Transmission Speeds User Bit Rate Development of Radio Telephone Networks 2Mbps IMT-2000 384 kbps GSM EDGE 144 kbps Evolved second generation (GSM HSCSD and GPRS, IS-95B) 10 kbps Basic second generation (GSM, IS-95, IS-136, PDC) Fixed/Low Mobility Wide Area/High Mobility PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  42. 42. 42 Development of 4G - Future Satellite Access Network Voice Development of Radio Fixed Telephone Networks Packet Network: Switched Mobile PSTN, ISDN Access Network ATM, IPv4/6, xDSL (UTRAN) Diff Serv, MPLS 3 M Circuit Wireless Swi ched t Personal Area Net (WPAN) Hierarchical M 3 Cell Structure Bluetooth, WI-FI, WLAN, Cellular, Satellite Ad-Hoc PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  43. 43. 43 TACS, E-TACS & GSM Frequency Allocations 960MHz GSM 950 E-GSM Downlink TACS Development of Radio Telephone Networks 935 E-TACS 917 915 Corresponding uplink & downlink frequencies GSM separated by 45 MHz. 905 E-GSM TACS Uplink 890 E-TACS PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  44. 44. 44 DCS 1800 Frequency Allocations 1880MHz Downlink Development of Radio Telephone Networks 1805 1785 Uplink 1710 PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  45. 45. 45 Frequencies for IMT-2000 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz ITU allocation MSS MSS IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Development of Radio (WRC 1992) ↑ ↓ Telephone Networks T T GSM DE UTRA MSS UTRA MSS Europe D D 1800 CT D FDD ↑ ↑ D FDD ↓ ↓ GSM MSS MSS China IMT-2000 ↑ IMT-2000 ↓ 1800 cdma2000 MSS cdma2000 MSS Japan PHS W-CDMA ↑ W-CDMA ↓ MSS MSS North PCS rsv. ↑ ↓ America 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  46. 46. 46 Current Frequencies & regulations ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency bands worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences) Europe USA Japan Development of Radio Telephone Networks Cellular GSM 450-457, 479- AM PS, TDM A, CDM A PDC Phones 486/460-467,489- 824-849, 810-826, 496, 890-915/935- 869-894 940-956, 960, TDM A, CDM A, G SM 1429-1465, 1710-1785/1805- 1850-1910, 1477-1513 1880 1930-1990 UM TS (FDD) 1920- 1980, 2110-2190 UM TS (TDD) 1900- 1920, 2020-2025 Cordless CT1+ 885-887, 930- PACS 1850-1910, 1930- PHS Phones 932 1990 1895-1918 CT2 PACS-UB 1910-1930 JCT 864-868 254-380 DECT 1880-1900 W ireless IEEE 802.11 902-928 IEEE 802.11 LANs 2400-2483 IEEE 802.11 2471-2497 HIPERLAN 2 2400-2483 5150-5250 5150-5350, 5470- 5150-5350, 5725-5825 5725 Others RF-Control RF-Control RF-Control 27, 128, 418, 433, 315, 915 426, 868 868 PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  47. 47. 47 Systems Comparison Channel System No. of Channels Access Spacing TACS 600 25 kHz FDMA Development of Radio Telephone Networks E-TACS 1320 25 kHz FDMA 50 GSM FDMA & (Equivalent to 400 with 200 kHz 900 TDMA TDMA) 125 FDMA & E-GSM (Equivalent to 1000 200 kHz TDMA with TDMA) PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  48. 48. 48 History of GSM History of ITU: Development of Radio Telephone Networks History of IMT-200 History of 3G: UMTS: WCDMA 3G History of 4G DoCoMo tests 4G network - Forums 4G MOBILE PHONE STANDARDIZATION PLAN Fourth generation (4G) wireless communications Expect 4G telephony in 2012 PBN (CE74024-3) 2004
  49. 49. 49 Wireless Internet Institute IEEE is currently working on three standards: Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Development of Radio Telephone Networks Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): BLUETOOTH Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Forum and for information The IETFs request for comments (RFCs) can be accessed from the web site, in which the RFC number can be entered or a word can be searched for within the text. A complete and frequently updated list of RFCs is available at PBN (CE74024-3) 2004