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  1. 1. FOUR FLOWSTHE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAYCOMPETITION TO DEVELOP INNOVATIVE DESIGN OPTIONS FOR THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY ANDLAKE SHORE BOULEVARD RECONFIGURATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTTORONTO, CANADA
  2. 2. 2 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. 3FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECONTENTSNARRATIVE SUMMARYFLOW 1: PEOPLEFLOW 2: TRANSPORTATIONFLOW 3: LANDSCAPE AND WATERFLOW 4: DEVELOPMENTAPPENDIX4719334561
  4. 4. 4 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE4 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAYNARRATIVE SUMMARYFOUR FLOWS:THE EVOLUTION OF THEGARDINER EXPRESSWAYAdrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture LLP (AS+GG)is pleased to present our proposal for the reconfigura-tion of the Gardiner Expressway and Keating ChannelPrecinct. We’ve strived to create an innovative andeconomically-sound vision for the revitalization of thisvital piece of Toronto’s waterfront and infrastructure.AS+GG recommends removing the elevated GardinerExpressway and replacing it with:1. A new Gardiner Tunnel, serving through-traffic travel-ling north and south on the Don Valley Parkway, and;2. A new Lake Shore Boulevard, an innovative andsustainable addition to Toronto’s downtown roadwaynetwork.We have entitled our design scheme “Four Flows: TheEvolution of Gardiner Expressway”.We have chosen these words carefully. The words “flow”and “evolution” imply definitive change, yet offer the pos-sibility of a relatively seamless transition and a metamor-phosis into something better. Our proposal offers thesepossibilities and much more to the people of Toronto.The “four flows” refer to four distinct elements that areintegral to the reinvention of Gardiner: 1) People, 2)Transportation, 3) Natural Systems, and 4) Development.The harmonious “flow” of these elements throughout thesite is basis of our design scheme and the linchpin to thecreation of a sustainable, successful 21st century districtfor Toronto.Flow 1: People. The seamless movement of people tothe water’s edge will create a vibrant waterfront districtand enhance the quality of life for Toronto’s citizens.Flow 2: Transportation. Roads and transit systemsmust promote access to the new Gardiner Expresswaywhile also providing the necessary capacity for thosetraveling through Gardiner as a central thoroughfare inthe city.Flow 3: Natural Systems. Environmental assets suchas the waterfront, Don River and new public parks willcreate a rich landscape environment.Flow 4: Development. An expanded tax base willencourage development that creates long-term benefitsfor the citizens of Toronto.Finally, we use the word “evolution” to describe ourproposed metamorphosis of the Gardiner Expressway. Itis neither desirable nor possible to remove all vestiges ofthe Gardiner. As with all things, it is time for the Gardinerto move into the next phase of its existence, thus requir-ing an evolution into the Gardiner Tunnel.Design Team:Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill ArchitectureChicago, IllinoisAdrian Smith, PartnerGordon Gill, PartnerRobert Forest, Partner312.920.1888Hoerr Schaudt Landscape ArchitectsChicago, IllinoisHalcrow /HalcrowYollesToronto, CanadaCB Richard EllisToronto, CanadaRDH ArchitectsToronto, CanadaIBMToronto, Canada30 June 2010
  5. 5. 5FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREthe Gardiner), thus maintaining almost all current trafficcapacity. Additionally, we have provided future capacitywithin Lake Shore Boulevard’s right-of-way that could beused either for transit or an expanded lane design.4. We have maintained and enhanced all public-transitplans currently in place, and have provided areas fortransit expansion.Lens 4: Urban DesignThe defining characteristic of our urban design proposalis our focus on people: enabling Torontonians to “flow”to the lakefront. Our plan is designed to allow all citizensaccess to the water while providing both innovative andtime-tested urban design concepts, including:1. A system of appropriately-scaled development blocksbetween .75 and 1.5 hectares, enabling exceptionalaccess through the development from north to south.2. Incorporation of all current waterfront Toronto urbandesign plans that fit with the proposed design.3. A major new waterfront park, “Queens Landing”, toorganize and focus development in Keating Channel.4. Refined street cross-sections that a create pedestrian-friendly public-realm with 4 to 5-meter sidewalks.Finally, we feel the 30% increase in newdevelopment land that will yield tremendousrevenue for the city of Toronto. We feel thisrevenue will contribute significantly if notentirely to the cost of the Gardiner tunneland bridge.Our “Four Flows” concept correlates directly with thefour lenses described by Waterfront Toronto for theproject evaluation:Lens 1: Environment equals Flow 3: Natural SystemsLens 2: Economics equals Flow 4: DevelopmentLens 3: Transportation equals Flow 2: Transportation; andLens 4: Urban Design equals Flow 1: PeopleAS+GG’s proposal addresses Waterfront Toronto’s fourlenses with the following recommendations:Lens 1: Environment1. The citizens of Toronto will benefit from over 60,000square meters (sm) of new parks within Keating ChannelPrecinct and over 170,000 sm of new public streets,providing unprecedented access to the waterfront.2. We have succeeded in providing continuous north-south “green streets” every +/-100 meters, connectingneighborhoods directly to the water and offeringinnovative stormwater-cleansing techniques throughbio-filtration swales.3. The waterfront is completely connected andaccessible from public streets along its entire length.4. It is recommended that the Don River flood-controland landscape design be completed, further expandingthe network of new parks at the Don River mouth.Lens 2: Economics1. We have created 30% more development land forthe citizens of Toronto than the previous KeatingChannel Precinct scheme, thus providing a long-andshort-term source of capital for proposed infrastructureimprovements.2. Our proposal creates consolidated lakefront property,with no parcel more than 200 meters from the water.We believe the market desirability of this design willsupport densities of up to 8-10 floor-area-ratio for anaverage development block. This ratio, combinedwith the increased land area, has significant economicbenefits.3. The increase of the total development area in KeatingChannel will allow a significant gain in tax revenue forthis area. Further, much of the new development areaoccurs on publicly-owned land previously unavailablefor development due to the existence of the GardinerExpressway.Lens 3: Transportation1. At the east end of the project site, the GardinerTunnel would emerge from the ground at the EastPortal and transition into a remarkable new GreenBridge, representing the next evolution of sustainableinfrastructure, over the Don River. At the west end ofthe site, the Gardiner Tunnel would emerge at theWest Portal and ramp back up to the elevatedGardiner Expressway.2. Between the east and west tunnel portals, a new andvastly improved sustainable Lake Shore Boulevard,aligned directly above the Gardiner Tunnel, would set anew standard for innovative infrastructure in Toronto.3. All existing Gardiner traffic and lane capacitycan be maintained under the proposed design. Exceptfor Lake Shore Boulevard, we have neither added norremoved lanes to any street in the project area (including5FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAYINTEGRATED RESPONSE
  6. 6. PLANNING FOR THE GROWTH OFANY CITY IS ULTIMATELY ABOUT THERESIDENTS AND WORKERS. IT IS THEIRQUALITY OF LIFE THAT SHOULD BE ATTHE FOREFRONT OF ALL DECISIONS.
  7. 7. PEOPLE
  8. 8. 8 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREOVERALL VISIONThe new Keating Channel District, Lake Shore Boule-vard and proposed Gardiner Tunnel together will definea new future for the east end of the Toronto waterfront.Our design extends and strengthens the tremendouswork that has been completed in the Don Lands andestablishes a distinct vision for this unique precinct.Planning for the growth of any city is ultimately aboutthe people that will reside, visit, shop and work in thenew district. It is their quality of life that should be at theforefront of all decisions. Infrastructure exists to servetheir needs, rather than the inverse. We have kept theseprinciples in mind as we have prepared our proposal.Thus, our first design principle is to ensure the flow ofpeople to, within and from the Keating Channel Districtand the waterfront. All decisions have been made tothis end.AERIAL VIEW OF PROPOSED KEATING CHANNEL PRECINCT
  9. 9. 9FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREOVERALL VISIONAERIAL VIEW OF PROPOSED KEATING CHANNEL PRECINCT, FROM SOUTH
  10. 10. 10 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREVIEW OF PROPOSED BOULEVARD, LOOKING WESTOur model for the planning of the Keating Channel Pre-cinct is Battery Park City in New York, one of the mostsuccessful North American waterfront districts in the last20 years. Incorporating some aspects of this precedent,the proposed AS+GG “Four Flows” scheme offers thefollowing design recommendations that will ensure theflow of Toronto citizens to the lakefront.• All north-south streets are aligned with current orproposed Toronto streets, ensuring complete andclear access to the waterfront.• A focus on an active and positive pedestrian experi-ence on all streets, with large sidewalks, extensivelandscaping and safe, accessible travel routes.• A signature new “Queens Landing” park, providinga clear focal point to the Precinct and around whichtransit and density can be organized.• A hierarchy of streets, including 1) north-south“green finger” streets that lead residents to the waterfrom northern neighborhoods; 2) Secondary, internalstreets for service and local access; and 3) Two east-west boulevards (Queen’s Quay and Lake Shore) toconnect the Precinct to adjacent development androadways.• A completely accessible and continuous waterfrontconnecting to the new Don River Park to ParliamentSlip.We have designed the plan to ensure that people flowthrough the Keating Channel District, gathering at keycivic places, strolling along the waterfront, biking throughthe new park and street system, and shopping, workingand living in a mixed-use environment.THE FLOW OF PEOPLETHE URBAN DESIGN OF THEKEATING CHANNEL PRECINCT
  11. 11. 11FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREIN PROGRESSEYE LEVEL VIEW OF PROPOSED LAKE SHORE BOULEVARD, LOOKING EAST
  12. 12. 12 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREILLUSTRATIVE PLAN1234567891011121314151718491017171616CHERRYSTREETPARLIAMENTSTREET
  13. 13. 13FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREPRIMARY PLAN ELEMENTS1 Queen’s Quay Boulevard2 Parliament Slip3 School Park4 Green Fingers5 Queen’s Landing Park6 Waterfront Park7 Don River Mouth Park8 Don River Greenway9 Lake Shore Boulevard10 Boulevard Bikeway (“The Berm”)11 Tunnel Below Boulevard12 ‘Green Bridge” – DVP Fly-over13 Don Valley Parkway (DVP)14 Elevated Gardiner Expressway15 New Lake Shore Boulevard Bridge16 Primary Green Streets17 Secondary Green Streets18 New bridge to Lower Don LandsILLUSTRATIVE PLAN9 9
  14. 14. 14 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREWhat is perhaps most compelling about the location of the KeatingChannel District and the Lower Don Lands is their location within thedevelopment, transportation and natural systems of the eastern down-town area. The Don River ecosystem is the defining characteristic ofthis area, with its unique flora and hydrologic systems. We have studiedthese systems and brought the most appropriate elements forward inour recommendations. These include:• An understanding that the Keating Channel District should be con-sidered the eastern edge of the downtown core, and as such needsto have land uses that express this unique condition: both residentialand commercial.• The seasonal fluctuations of the Don River, as it passes the site,should be acknowledged through the creation of floodplains andplant species that thrive in these areas.DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM DIAGRAMGREEN SYSTEM DIAGRAM OVERLAYED SYSTEM DIAGRAMSYSTEM DIAGRAMSTRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DIAGRAMWATER SYSTEM DIAGRAM
  15. 15. 15FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECONTEXT PLANThe context of the Gardiner Expressway and the KeatingChannel presents a unique opportunity for Toronto. Thissite and transportation system is the eastern gateway forthe downtown, and also the future start of the downtownwaterfront. As one travels east, it is the departure pointfor the central business district and a gateway to theeastern neighborhoods of Toronto.When these development aspects are combined withthe exceptionally unique natural assets of the shorelineand the Don River, the result is a site of very strong civicimportance.• The Gardiner Expressway and its connection to theDon valley Parkway is a critical transportations cor-ridor and must be maintained.• The flora and fauna of both Lake Ontario and theDon River has been accommodated in our planning.We feel it is critical to reconnect these fracturedecosystems in a way that begins to strengthen theecology of this unique area.
  16. 16. 16 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREElement 1:Beautiful and Effective Roadway InfrastructureThe plan creates a comprehensive and hierarchicalroadway structure that allows complete accessthroughout the districts. The roads have been carefullysized relative to their position in the plan, and all havegenerous sidewalks for pedestrian movement. Streettrees will be present on all streets, and many streets willbe lined with retail shops or active uses.Element 2:Transform the Ground PlaneWe have designed the ground plane carefully,considering not only soft surfaces, such as landscaping,but also hard surfaces and porous paving. What definesthis plan is the integration of landscape and pavedsurfaces, each carefully balanced. Paved surfacesguide pedestrians to key focal points in the plan, whilelandscape surfaces provide areas for storm-waterrecovery and heat-island mitigation.Element 3:Increase Redevelopment PotentialThe AS+GG design increases the land available fordevelopment by 30% over the previous plan. Further,due to the optimized waterfront parcels and accessto transportation systems, the plan recommends theslightly increased density, resulting in over 600,000sm gross floor-area of development (an average of6 FAR on development parcels). When higher landvalues, property taxes, and other returns to the city arecalculated, we feel strongly this plan will demonstratesignificant long-term economic benefit to the city.Element 4:Complement Existing PlansOur proposal incorporates all plans that correlate withour overall goals. These include: aligning new streets toconnect to existing streets; Creating proposed streetswhere potential future connections may be desired;linking, via a new bridge, to the proposed Lower DonLands Development; incorporating and extending transitlines; and creating a fully interconnected network ofopen space that enhances what is currently planned.Element 5:Enhance North-South ConnectivityThe five primary north-south streets in our proposal alignexactly with planned or existing streets in neighboringdevelopments. This design allows connections that canbe made today to be realized, and connections that maybe desirable in the future to also be considered. Further,we have created a hierarchy in the street system whereprimary north-south streets, enhanced with landscapedparkways that guide people to the waterfront fromnorthern neighborhoods. Even young children can safelyride their bikes to the waterfront without altering theirroute or losing their way…it is that clear.Element 6:Beautify the Rail BermWe have proposed several options for beautifying theand all north-south streets will graciously connect to theircounterparts north of the railroad.Element 9:Develop a Signature Don River CrossingPerhaps the most striking aspect of our proposed planis the new Don River crossing, which we have entitledthe Green Bridge. This bridge is not like any other inthe world, and will become an immediate landmark forToronto. Its unique structural shape combined with itsgraceful arc over the river is both understated and highlyinnovative. Additionally, we propose several sustainablefeatures for the bride, including landscaped screens andwater-purification systems built into the bridge.Element 10:Promote Sustainability and InnovationMany elements of this proposal are both sustainableand innovative, and those that are not make significantcontributions to the civic life of Toronto. Starting with thecore proposal of a Smart Boulevard that serves multiplesustainable functions while providing a gracious civicboulevard for the city, the plan includes green streetsthat manage storm-water, a new Don River Park thataccepts river fluctuations, and a waterfront that cleanseswater before releasing it into Lake Ontario. As the planevolves, even more sustainable attributes canbe imagined.rail berm, but the primary strategy is two-fold: 1) tocreate a much richer landscape experience that protectsand shelters bicyclists, and 2) to provide sustainableand public art opportunities. We recommend creatingan undulating and stepped rail berm that can beheavily landscaped, allowing the berm to act as a CO2dispersal unit for the Tunnel. These stepped surfacescan also hold public art or LED signage that will provideinformation to motorists regarding traffic or weatherconditions.Element 7:Strengthen View Corridors to WaterIn addition to guiding people to the waterfront, thelandscaped parks adjacent to north-south streetsreinforce views to the water. Further, our proposal placesno structures at the terminus of north-south streets.This strategy places the water view as the premiumexperience in the Precinct, an experience that everycitizen, if this plan is adopted, will have.Element 8:Devise Elegant Connections to ExistingInfrastructureAs the Gardiner Expressway joins the Gardiner Tunneland then emerges to become the new Green Bridgeacross the Don River, we will join Toronto’s 20th-centuryinfrastructure to its 21st. This exciting bridge will createa new definition of infrastructure and elegantly connectthe old to the new. Likewise, Lake Shore Boulevard willcompletely redefine the idea of what a boulevard can be,MEETING WATERFRONT TORONTO’STEN REQUIRED DESIGN ELEMENTS
  17. 17. 17FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREBEAUTIFUL AND EFFECTIVE ROADWAY INFRASTRUCTURE COMPLEMENT EXISTING PLANS STRENGTHEN VIEW CORRIDORS TO WATERDEVELOP A SIGNATURE DON RIVER CROSSINGTRANSFORM THE GROUND PLANEINCREASE REDEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL
  18. 18. THE NEW DON RIVER BRIDGE WILL BEA MODERN LANDMARK FOR THE CITY,GRACEFULLY ARCHING FROM THEGARDINER TUNNEL TO THE DONVALLEY PARKWAY.
  19. 19. TRANSPORTATION
  20. 20. 20FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE1234567891011 121314910CHERRYSTREETPARLIAMENTSTREET10TRANSPORTATION
  21. 21. 21FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREPRIMARY TRANSPORT ELEMENTS1 West Lake Shore Boulevard2 Boulevard Bikeway (“The Berm”)3 Tunnel Below Boulevard4 ‘Green Bridge” – DVP Fly-over5 Don Valley Parkway (DVP)6 Sloped transition to Gardiner Expressway7 Elevated Gardiner Expressway8 New Lake Shore Boulevard Bridge9 North Green Streets10 South Green Streets11 Secondary Green Streets12 Alley13 Queen’s Quay Boulevard14 New bridge to Lower Don lands15 East Lake Shore Boulevard15TRANSPORTATION
  22. 22. 22 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECANOPYThe canopy serves several purposes. It provides a support structurefor the integrated photovoltaics, which will generate grid-connectedelectricity to offset the demands from the lighting and trafficmanagement systems. The North face of the canopy will support agreen wall structure that will absorb some of the wind energy fromthe North as well as attenuating rain and snowfall, providing shelterto traffic on the bridge. Although, it is only expected to a smallamount, the greenwall biomass, in spring and summer will serve toabsorb some of the pollutants and carbon dioxide from traffic onthe bridge.THE BRIDGE, STRUCTURE AND ROAD SURFACEThe bridge will be manufactured using as much reclaimed material(aggregate from crushed concrete, reclaimed asphalt for thepavement, recycled steel for reinforcement etc.) as possible. Thiswill significantly reduce the environmental impact of constructingthe new bridge and of demolishing the existing structures. Lightingof the road will be achieved using low energy traffic volumeresponsive luminaires, lane and edge markings will be via solarpowered LED systems and traffic signage will also be illuminatedusing LEDs. The road shall include embedded heating elements tomaintain an ice-free surface.STORM WATERWater will drain from the highest point of the bridge by gravity in awesterly direction and in a northerly direction. The northern flowswill discharge (via sediment traps and Stormwater interceptors)into the Don River. The westerly flows will discharge via standingpipes at each column into bioswales within the wetland park. Thesebioswales will direct Stormwater into a reedbed on the edge ofthe river that will serve to reduce any pollutant load entering thechannel.THE GREEN PARKAlthough described in detail elsewhere in the document, it isworthwhile noting that a gently undulating topography will beintroduced into the currently flat green park and this will beachieved using spoil material from the tunnel excavation – thusserving to further reduce the environmental impact of hauling spoilto a remote disposal site.A SUSTAINABLE “GREEN BRIDGE”SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY COLLECTIONON BOARD TRAFFIC ANNOUNCEMENTSSOLAR POWERED LED EDGE MARKINGSCONCRETE BRIDGE FROMRECLAIMED MATERIALSNATURAL BIOFILTRATIONBIOSWALEGREEN WALL BIOMASSABSORBS POLLUTANTSLOW ENERGYLED LIGHTINGSMART HIGHWAYMONITORING SYSTEMS
  23. 23. 23FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREA NEW DON RIVER BRIDGEThe new Don River Bridge will be a modern landmarkfor the city, gracefully arcing from the Gardiner Tunnelto the Don Valley Parkway. The bridge is formed by awing-shaped cross-section, providing structural rigiditywhile sheltering cars from prevailing northwest winds.Open to the south and east, the bridge will offer viewsto Lake Ontario and to the city skyline. Plants may coverthe wire-mesh screen above the roadway. The newlandmark will provide adequate clearance over the CNrail lines and meet the north-bound DVP before theRichmond Street overpass.
  24. 24. 24 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURETHE SMART BOULEVARDCO2CO2CO2CO2512 GARDINER 501 KEATINGPLANT BASEDFILTRATIONSYSTEMINTEGRATED THERMALCOUPLINGL A K E S H O R E B O U L E V A R DG A R D I N E R E X P R E S S W A YConcrete walls functions as thermal conductive heat exchangerExcess heat frombuilding can be used towarm road surfaces andassist snow meltModular HDPE rain waterinfiltration chambers will providea sustainable drainage solutionfor water run off from theBoulevard and bicycle path1. Restructured Railway EmbankmentThe railway embankment will be restructured usingcrushed concrete from the existing structures, backfilledwith spoil from the tunnel excavation. It will be plantedwith evergreen trees to provide a visual barrier againstthe railway and also to assist in the management ofStormwater flows through infiltration.for the air intakesto the building. In this way the road and buildings workharmoniously to serve each other in reducing theoverall energy demands of the district and thereforereducing carbon dioxide emissions resulting frompower generation.2. Cycle PathThe network of cycle pathways is described later; how-ever, the pavement will be asphalt concrete manufac-tured from material reclaimed from the surfaces of theGardiner and the Boulevard, combined with shreddedtyres. The base course will manufactured using snowfree technology – an asphalt mixture that has additionalgraphite added and contains embedded heating ele-ments (resistors) to keep the pavement useable all yearround. The energy used for these heating elements willbe offset by energy produced using photovoltaics duringthe sunnier seasons. Lighting will be responsive solarpowered LED lighting and the cycle path markings willbe solar powered LED studs.3. Ground Source Heat PumpsGround Source Heat Pumps are commonly usedthroughout Toronto and Canada to reduce the energydemand of heating and cooling. We have adaptedthis same principal and applied it to the Boulevard andadjacent buildings. In winter, the road will be kept freefrom ice through using heat that has been rejected fromthe adjacent building’s HVAC systems coupled withground sourced heat. In summer, the system can be ap-plied in reverse; heat from the buildings being rejecteddeeper into the ground to mitigate the urban heat islandeffect as well as using the relatively cool soil to provideprecooling for the air intakes to the building. In this waythe road and buildings work harmoniously to serve eachother in reducing the overall energy demands of thedistrict and therefore reducing carbon dioxide emissionsresulting from power generation.4. The BoulevardThe boulevard will be driveable year round, withoutthe need for expensive and environmentally pollut-ing road salting, through being heated in winter usingreject heating from the buildings. The pedestrian andsignage lighting as well as lane delineation studs will beenergy efficient LED, powered by photovoltaics. Thepedestrian areas will be surfaced with permeable pavingsystems above modular rainwater infiltration chambersbelow grade. Trees will be selected from a palette ofnative species and will be planted in insulated contain-ers to ensure that whilst the road adjacent is relativelywarm in winter, the soil around the trees remains at anormal temperature to allow a natural spring - fall cyclefor the vegetation. The surface of the boulevard will beconstructed using crushed concrete (from demolishedmaterials), reclaimed asphalt and will incorporate rubberfrom shredded tyres and potentially glass cullet.1233
  25. 25. 25FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREA new “smart” Lake Shore Boulevard is the techno-logical and transportation foundation of our proposal.What makes it so smart? We have proposed a 45-meter(ROW) boulevard that not only is beautiful and func-tional but also provides many sustainable attributes, withthe resulting combination raising this boulevard to trulynew levels of intelligence.The TunnelThe tunnel will be built to the greatest extent possibleusing recycled materials (concrete, asphalt etc.). Asmuch as possible of the tunnel will be pre-cast to allowfor the use of supplementary cementitious materials(such as blast furnace slag or fly ash cement) to reducethe embodied carbon of the built structure. Minimis-ing the amount of excavation spoil is a priority, as thehaulage, and treatment, in case of contamination, is bothexpensive and has an environmental impact. Opportuni-ties to reduce this impact include re-use of spoil to buildup the embankment, minimising the cross-sectional areaof the tunnel and minimizing the depth below grade .The tunnel will be illuminated through a combination oflight tubes (punched through the boulevard above) aswell as LED lighting, sensors within the tunnel will ensurethat the lighting intensity responds to traffic flows andnatural lighting intensity, much in the way that smartlighting sensors work in offices. Ventilation will be drivenby the air movement of traffic, carbon monoxide sen-sors will control mechanical ventilation systems so thatenergy consumption is minimized.BOULEVARD SECTION-PERSPECTIVETHE SMART BOULEVARD
  26. 26. 26 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREPRECINCT TRANSPORTATIONHISTORIC WALKAUTOMOBIILETRANSITHISTORIC/ART WALKMain Road SystemTunnelPrimary Regional Bicycle TrailSecondary Bicycle TrailCommuter Bicycle TrailTransit systemSecondary Road SystemHeritage PathArts PathHERITAGE PATHARTS PATHMAIN ROAD SYSTEMSECONDARY ROAD SYSTEMTUNNELMain Road SystemTunnelPrimary Regional Bicycle TrailSecondary Bicycle TrailCommuter Bicycle TrailTransit systemSecondary Road SystemHeritage PathArts PathPRIMARY REGIONAL BICYCLE TRAILSECONDARY BICYCLE TRAILCOMMUTER BICYCLE TRAILTRANSIT SYSTEMCOOPER STREET JARVIS STREET SHERBOURNE STREET
  27. 27. 27FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe Precinct will be served by a comprehensive systemof transportation routes and opportunities, includingbike, car, bus, streetcar, light-rail, and pedestrian provi-sions. The compact network of streets provides a matrixon which many modes can operate and not conflict. Forinstance, bike lanes may be more suitable for smallerstreets rather than larger streets, and can be positionedto not conflict with heavy automobile usage. Publictransit will be primarily directed to the two east-westboulevards, where proper provisions can be made fortheir operation. We have positioned the new Queen’sLanding Park as a major transit hub for the Precinct.Highlights Include:• No development parcel is more than 150 metersfrom planned transit routes.• The entire district will be within a 5 minute walk oftransit stations.• Queens Quay light-rail can be extended to the newQueen’s Landing Park, and beyond if desired.• Lake Shore Boulevard has been designed to accom-modate light rail or bus rapid-transit.• Service access will be provided through a system ofalleys, bisecting all blocks.PRECINCT TRANSPORTATION
  28. 28. 28 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECITY TRANSPORTATIONThe evolution of the Gardiner Expressway into theGardiner Tunnel may have implications for city-widetransportation, though we have designed the system tocarry the same number of lanes as currently serve theDon Valley Parkway. Regardless, as part of the “SmartBoulevard” concept we expect that certain technologiescan be included in the project that will provide real-time information about traffic movements in otherparts of the city. This self-correcting system of trafficmanagement may provide Toronto with a more efficientutilization of their transportation infrastructure.• For south- and west-bound traffic approaching thecity, real-time information systems should provideupdates on Don Valley Parkway traffic loads.• Alternate routes from the DVP to the downtowncore should be optimized.• Mass-transit should continue to be enhanced andexpanded. As the waterfront continues to evolve,transit routes will be more significant in a regionaltransportation plan.• Connect neighborhoods, such as the Beaches, withsupplemental transit alternatives such as water-taxis.TAXI
  29. 29. 29FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREWATERFRONT TRANSPORTATIONConsistent with the goals of Waterfront Toronto, weenvision the precedents established with the new LakeShore Boulevard to serve as models for future road andtransit changes throughout the waterfront.As the eastern-most precinct of the waterfront, KeatingChannel Precinct serves as both the terminus andbeginning point for waterfront transit. This will includethe Queen’s Quay light rail/tram system, bus routes andbikeways. It may also include future water taxi routes orother emerging concepts.The key connective elements of the waterfront are thetwo boulevards running east-west, and as such they mustbe designed for flexibility and evolution in themselves.We believe we have illustrated a prototype for thisflexible street design.STUDY AREABATHURSTSPADINAAVEYONGEJARVISGERRARDDUNDASQUEENBUSINESSDISTRICTSMARTBOULEVARDTUNNELEXISTINGRAPIDTRANSITFUTURELIGHT RAPIDTRANSITFUTURERAPID TRANISTAM Peak VehiclesDVP/Lakeshore toGardinerDVP/Lakeshore toLakeshore WestBRIDGE
  30. 30. 30 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURESMART GRIDComplex interconnected & dependent System of SystemsCOMPLEX INTERCONNECTED AND DEPENDENT SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS INFUSION OF INTELLIGENCE INTO THE WAY THE WORLD WORKS...IT CREATES NEW OPPORTUNITIES ACROSS INDUSTRIES AND COUNTRIES...OUR PLANET IS BECOMING SMARTERINTERCONNECTEDINSTRUMENTEDINTELLIGENTOUR WORLD ISBECOMING...THE SMART PRINCIPLE - ACCUMULATING REAL WORLD DATA CONTAINS VALUABLE INFORMATION ABOUT PATTERNS OF BEHAVIORToll collection only-disconnected operational dataTransaction data from themanagement of paymentsLittle automated use is madeof real-time traffic dataMore granular charging bylocationAnalysis of traffic patterns tomanage city congestionModeling traffic to predictand manage entire systemDynamic and congestion-based pricingRoute planning and advice,shippers, concrete haulers,limo companies, theaters,taxis, etc.City-wide, dynamic trafficoptimization
  31. 31. 31FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURESMART GRIDTRAININGLEARNING STYLECOMMUNICATION STYLEPROBLEM-SOLVINGDECISION-MAKINGLEADERSHIP STYLEFEEDBACKTECHNOLOGY USEJOB CHANGINGThe Hard WayClassroomTop DownHierarchicalSeeks ApprovalCommand andControlNo News isGood NewsUncomfortableUnwiseToo Much andI’ll LeaveFacilitatedGuardedHorizontalTeam InformedGet out ofthe WayOnce Per YearUnsureSets Me BackRequired toKeep MeIndependentHub and SpokeIndependentTeam IncludesCoachWeekly/DailyUnable to WorkWithout ItNecessaryContinuous andExpectedCollaborativeand NetworkedCollaborativeCollaborativeTeam DecidesPartnerOn DemandUnfathomableif Not ProvidedPart of MyDaily RoutineTRADITIONALIST BOOMER GEN X GAMING GEN• HYDROLOGICAL & GROUNDWATER MODELING• FLASH FLOOD FORECAST• CATCHMENT ESTIMATION• TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES (POLLUTANTS, ETC)• LAND USE (WATERSHEDS, VEG RESTORATION)• WATER MANAGEMENT, RESOURCE ALLOCATIONOPTIMIZATION, PLANNING, ETCMOBILITY SERVICES• REDUCE TRAFFIC AND POLLUTION• RETAIN AND ATTRACT TALENT• CUT FACILITY COSTS/IMPACTINTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS• REDUCE TRAFFIC CONGESTION• REDUCE CO2 EMISSIONS• INCREASE MASS TRANSIT USAGE• IMPROVE ENVIRONMENT• STOCKHOLM CASE STUDY: REDUCED TRAFFICCONGESTION 25%, CARBON EMISSIONS 15%INTELLIGENT UTILITY NETWORKS• REDUCE ENERGY USAGE• IMPROVE GRID MANAGEMENT, REDUCE OUTAGES• U.S. CASE STUDY: 10% ENERGY USE REDUCTION, UP TO50% REDUCED LOAD ON ELECTRIC GRIDADVANCED WATER MANAGEMENT• FLOOD AVOIDANCE• REDUCE WATER USAGE• IBM CASE STUDY: 27% REDUCED WATER USAGE, WITH30% INCREASE IN MANUFACTURING OUTPUT, SAVING INENERGY AND WATER COSTSUSTAINABLE BUSINESS SOLUTIONS & SERVICES• STRATEGY• CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY• GREEN SIGMA TM• BUSINESS OPERATIONS/SUPPLY CHAIN - SNOW• SMARTER CITIES• SMARTER BUILDINGS• CAP AND TRADE SYSTEMSALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESEARCH• IBM KNOW-HOW IN THIN FILMS, SEMICONDUCTORS,ADVANCED PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS, APPLYINGIT COOLING TECHNOLOGIES TO CONCENTRATORPHOTOVOLTAICS, IT TO ET, NANOMEMBRANES FORDESALINATION, ENERGY STORAGE, ETC.APPLYING IBM GREEN INNOVATIONS (IBM.COM/GREEN) CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICSTo improve roadway performance, experience and safety an intelligent roadwaystrategy is proposed. The strategy is based upon bidirectional sensing, trafficbehavior prediction and optimization, safety management and other systemsto improve the holistic performance of the roadway. The intelligent roadwayachieves this through a ubiquitous network of wireless and wired sensors, camerasand feedback systems such as electronic signs and on-board vehicle communica-tion technologies.The intelligent roadway system extends beyond the motive infrastructure net-work, actively engaging the neighboring developments that take advantage of theroadway. Pricing signals can be sent to encourage commuters to take alternativeforms of transportation to work and school, emergency response can be bettercoordinated and district scale low carbon energy solutions such as geothermalheat exchange and photovoltaic power can be intelligently managed. The defini-tion of a smart roadway extends to the construction and operation managementof the roadway as well. Computer based infrastructure lifecycle managementtools can enable lower cost and environmental impact from operations, procure-ment and deconstruction at the end of life.
  32. 32. THE RESTORATIVE POWEROF LANDSCAPE: REBUILDINGWATERFRONT ACCESS, TRANSFORMINGSTREETS, AND CREATING AN URBANOPEN SPACE NETWORK FOR THEPEOPLE OF TORONTO.
  33. 33. LANDSCAPE AND WATER
  34. 34. 34 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe landscape treatment of the project area derivesinspiration from the flow of vegetation, traffic and waterthrough the space. Each zone of the project will in-corporate multi-use spaces that provide regenerativefunctions.The Boulevard, located over the Gardiner ExpresswayTunnel, will make a powerful statement of commitmentto urban forestry. A robust landscape berm on the north-ern edge of the boulevard will provide screening of therailroad and focus the neighborhood toward the water.North-South Green Streets reconnect the West DonLands Precinct to the Keating Channel Precinct and thewater’s edge. These wide “green fingers” willprovide public amenity space while conveying andfiltering stormwater.The Waterfront of the Keating Channel will be signifi-cantly transformed by removing the elevated express-way, creating opportunities for a new experience of thewaterfront.123 1367 89451261094CHERRYSTREETPARLIAMENTSTREET4311LANDSCAPE AND WATER
  35. 35. 35FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe nexus of the Don River and the KeatingChannel provides an opportunity for a major piece ofpublic space influenced by the Don River Ecosystemand also an exciting gateway experience for users of theexpressway.The new Keating Channel District, Lake ShoreBoulevard and proposed Gardiner Tunnel togetherwill define a new future for the east end of the Torontowaterfront. Our design extends and strengthens thetremendous work that has been completed in the DonLands and establishes a distinct vision for this uniqueprecinct.Planning for the growth of any city is ultimately aboutthe people that will reside, visit, shop and work in thenew district. It is their quality of life that should be at theforefront of all decisions. Infrastructure exists to servetheir needs, rather than the inverse. We have kept theseprinciples in mind as we have prepared our proposal.Thus, our first design principle is to ensure the flow ofpeople to, within and from the Keating Channel Districtand the waterfront. All decisions have been made tothis end.PRIMARY LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS1 West Lake Shore Boulevard2 Boulevard Bikeway (“The Berm”)3 North Green Streets4 South Green Streets5 Secondary Green Streets6 Queen’s Quay Boulevard7 Parliament Slip Park8 School Park9 Green Fingers10 Queen’s Landing Park11 Waterfront Park12 Don River Mouth Park13 Don River Greenway14 East Lake Shore Boulevard14LANDSCAPE AND WATER
  36. 36. 36 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe “Smart Boulevard” will extend eastward from Sher-bourne Street and will be constructed at grade on topof the proposed expressway tunnel. East of the tunnel itwill curve southward, on grade, towards the Lake ShoreBoulevard Bridge, connecting to the Port Lands District.The boulevard plantings will incorporate a unique urbanforestry approach: Fast growing trees will be planted be-tween slower-growing trees to provide rapid tree canopycover. As the slow growing trees reach maturity the fastgrowing trees will be harvested, allowing the longer-livedtrees to thrive. (See diagram)Construction of a landscaped berm at the North edgeof the Boulevard will utilize excavated materials from thetunnel to expand the shoulder of the adjacent railroadright-of-way. The vertical South face of the berm willincorporate three treatments including terraces, climb-ing vines, and illuminated photovoltaic canopies linkedto the IBM Smart Grid. The crest of the berm will beplanted with evergreen trees to screen the railroad andrail yard.Concept• The Boulevard will be the most distinctive Street inToronto.• It will serve as a prototype for an urban forestryconcept for the rest of the Gardiner expressway.• The urban forestry palette includes varieties of “fast”and “slow” growing native trees to introduce diver-sity and shade canopy.• The berm will screen the railroad to the North.• Elements of the berm will interact with the IBMSmart Grid to interpret traffic flow conditions.THE BOULEVARDAcer rubrum /Red MapleGymnocladus dioicus /Kentucky Coffee TreeLiriodendron tulipifera/TuliptreeTilia americana/American LindenQuercus macrocarpa /Burr OakPlatanus acerifolia/London Plane Tree‘FAST’ GROWING TREES‘SLOW’ GROWING TREESAcer rubrum /Red MapleGymnocladus dioicus /Kentucky Coffee TreeLiriodendron tulipifera/TuliptreeTilia americana/American LindenQuercus macrocarpa /Burr OakPlatanus acerifolia/London Plane Tree‘FAST’ GROWING TREES‘SLOW’ GROWING TREES‘SLOW’ GROWING TREESRAIL EMANKMENT BERM TREATMENTS‘FAST’ GROWING TREESTERRACED BERMTREATMENTBERM WITH PHOTOVOLTAIC CANOPYBERM WITH VINES ON CABLETRELLISEvergreenTree ScreenRail TracksPlantedTerraceThe BoulevardEvergreenTree ScreenRail TracksPhotovoltaincCanopy withSmart GridLighting DisplayThe BoulevardEvergreenTree ScreenRail TracksCable Trellis WithVines at3 meter SpacingThe BoulevardFillFillFill
  37. 37. 37FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE5 YEARS 15 YEARS 30 YEARSSLOW GROWINGFAST GROWINGMEDIUMEVERGREENTREE CANOPIESSLOW GROWING SLOW GROWINGFAST GROWINGMEDIUMMEDIUMEVERGREENEVERGREENTREE CANOPIES TREE CANOPIES5YEARS15YEARS30YEARSSMART BOULEVARD URBAN FORESTRY STRATEGYKey PlanTHE BOULEVARD
  38. 38. 38 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURESherbourne Street, Parliament Street, Trinity Street,Cherry Street and Lawrence Street will become “GreenStreets” that improve North-South connectivity and ac-cess to the water.Generous setbacks will allow sufficient space for thesegreen fingers to fulfil the important the functions ofconveying, filtering and infiltrating stormwater as well asproviding public space in the street environment. Greenspaces will incorporate Best Management Practices forstormwater management—including permeable pave-ments, vegetated swales, flow-through planters andinfiltration planters. Ample root zone soil volume will beprovided to ensure street trees will develop large cano-pies.Concept:• Utilize the North-South neighborhood streets asgreen linear open space linking communities to thewaterfront.• The open spaces provide a stormwater function andreduce infrastructure costs.• Green Streets will create a higher real estate valuesfor North-South street addresses.GREEN STREETSOREGON STREETSCAPE 12TH AVE GREEN STREET, SEATTLE WASEATTLE CIVIC CENTERRUSH HOSPITAL, CHICAGO
  39. 39. 39FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURETYPICAL GREEN STREET SECTIONContinuous“Green Finger” Park2 LanesSouthboundVegetated Infiltration BasinSoil Infiltration Zone2 LanesNorthboundPermeablePavementContinuous SoilVolume in SidewalkContinuous SoilVolume in SidewalkPipe Connection toKeating ChannelFlow-through PlantersKey PlanGREEN STREETS
  40. 40. 40FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe Don River Valley Parkway Landscape (see photo) isthe inspiration for this significant “elbow” of open spaceat the confluence of the Don River andKeating Channel.As well as proving recreational space with access to theshoreline and Don River, the park will form a naturalvisual terminus to the Smart Boulevard. It will alsoprovide a rich experience for drivers entering and exitingthe expressway tunnel and iconic Don River bridge.Concept• Drivers traveling east will exit the tunnel surroundedby a wooded prospect landscape and rise above thetree canopy on the bridge.• After crossing the Don River bridge, driverstraveling west will glimpse a treetops of forestedforeground screening the Sediment and Debrisfacility.• Bike trails going north along the Don River will bere-aligned west around the tunnel ramp. To thesouth trails connect via Green Streets to thewaterfront of the Keating Channel• Plantings will be native to Southern Ontario with adiversity of deciduous trees for fall color, and someconifers for year round interest and permanentscreening.• The area of the park within the floodplain will beplanted with native wetland and marginal plants inzones adapted to different flood levels and floodingfrequencies. The result is a series of wetlands andfood meadows.DON RIVER ECOSYSTEMGreen Bridge Park, Hilversum NetherlandsEXISTING DON VALLEY PARKWAYHONG KONG WETLAND PARK, JAPAN KEATING CHANNEL PLAN PRECINCT PLAN( “Keating Channel Urban Design Guidelines” , 2009 Michael van VaulkenburgAssociates Inc, pg 77)
  41. 41. 41FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREKey PlanSedimentDebrisManagementFacilityTunnelMouthLandscape BermWetland andFlood MeadowMeadowParkDon RiverBike TrailParkParkWilson YardOverflowFlood ControlWetlandBridgeNativeDon ValleyWoodlandRail YardScreenLakeshore Boulevard EastN0METERS50 100 150 200Bike TrailBike TrailDonValleyParkwayBike Trail Access toKeating ChannelBoulevardG a r d i n e r E x p r e s s w a y B r i d g eWoodlandScreenDON RIVER ECOSYSTEM
  42. 42. 42 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREThe absence of the massive structure on the top ofthe channel wall will create new opportunities for useand experience of the Keating Channel waterfront andwould extend Toronto’s waterfront potential the com-plete length of the Keating Channel all the way east tothe Don River.This dramatic change allows the addition of regenerativegreen features to the previous design for theKeating Channel Waterfront: Open rows of trees willmirror the waterfront planned at East Bay Front Precinct.Waterfront park space will visually connect to the DonRiver Flood Plain green open space by the introductionof infiltration strips of wetland, woodland and permeablepavement.The waterfront space will merge into the “Green Street”North-South “fingers” at the terminus of each street.Concept• Create generous public waterfront open space• Echo native vegetation of the Don River ecosystemin the design of functional stormwater infiltrationzones.• Connect to flood plain open space at the conflu-ence of the Keating Channel and Don River.THE WATERFRONTFigure 53Trinity StreetTIANJIN QIAOYUAN PARK, CHINAWAITANGI PARK, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALANDOIYMPIC SCULPTURE PARK, SEATTLETRINITY STREET( “Keating Channel Urban Design Guidelines” , 2009 Michael van VaulkenburgAssociates Inc, pg 77)
  43. 43. 43FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREKEATING CHANNEL PROMENADE AND GARDINER COLONNADE( “Keating Channel Urban Design Guidelines” , 2009 Michael van VaulkenburgAssociates Inc, pg 77)PROPOSED WATERFRONT EDGEContinuous“Green Finger” ParkPromenadeBoardwalkVegetated Infiltration Wetland PermeablePavementBermSoil Infiltration ZonePipe Connection to Keating ChannelKey PlanHistoricChannel WallTHE WATERFRONT
  44. 44. THE DEVELOPMENT CHARACTEROF THE KEATING CHANNELPRECINCT IS PREDICATED ONWALKABILITY, APPROPRIATELY-SCALEDINFRASTRUCTURE, AND A RICHMIX OF LAND USES.
  45. 45. DEVELOPMENT
  46. 46. CHERRYSTREETPARLIAMENTSTREETKEATING CHANNEL PRECINCTLOWER DON LANDS46FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT
  47. 47. The development character of the project will be one ofvariety at the street-level, enhanced with elegant consis-tency in the architecture. We recommend the develop-ment of simple, yet focused design guidelines to controlthe materials, massing and fundamental urban principlesof the plan.• Queens Quay should have a strong street-wall, andbe positioned as a “main street”• Larger floor-plate buildings should be located alongLake Shore Boulevard.• Place tallest buildings around Queen’s Landing Parkto maximize value of that investment.• Given the 30% increase in land area manyopportunities exist for land utilization.47FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT
  48. 48. 48FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT CHARACTERThe development character of the Keating Channel Pre-cinct, as with all successful urban districts, is predicatedon walkability, appropriately scaled infrastructure, andrich mix of land uses.A modern and innovative design standard can beestablished that is consistent with the classic principles ofgreat urbanism: holding street edges, a consistent ma-terials palette, front doors on primary street, and servicethrough alleys behind buildings. Toronto must be thebeneficiary of a stable implementation of developmentof the highest character.
  49. 49. CURRENT PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS CURRENT PLAN PROPOSED PLANPROPOSED PLAN CURRENT PLAN PROPOSED PLAN49FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT CHARACTER
  50. 50. 50FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURELAND USERESIDENTIALOFFICELEGENDINSTITUTIONALOPEN SPACE0107131920210612 18051117041016030915020814BATTERY PARK CITYLIMIT OF STUDY AREAThe land uses within the Keating Channel District areplanned to ensure variety and flexibility as the project isimplemented. We propose mixed-use blocks through-out the project. Mixed-use buildings may be appropri-ate in some areas. Our core land use distribution consistsof approximately 25% office, 50% residential, 15% retail,and 10% civic and institutional. These uses have beendistributed so that office and employment is primar-ily between Queens Quay and Lake Shore Boulevard,giving access to transit. Residential development will beplaced throughout the Precinct, with a heavy emphasison waterfront sites and water views.• Queen’s Quay will form the primary retail streets,though some retail will be support from pedestrianmovement along north-south streets.• Restaurant and entertainment uses will be focusedaround Queen’s Landing Park, providing an enter-tainment nexus.• Business addresses will be primarily along LakeShore Boulevard.
  51. 51. 51FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURELAND USE
  52. 52. 52 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREAdditional massing concepts include:• Queens Quay should be strongly reinforced with aconsistent streetwall.• Some building setbacks may be appropriate toprovide variety and create more intimate spacesalong streets.• Building heights will be lowest at the water’sedge and increase in height towards Lake ShoreBoulevard.• North-South Streets will have taller buildings,emphasizing these important corridors.TYPICAL NORTH/SOUTH SECTION, LOOKING WESTMASSING CONCEPTSEAST/WEST SECTION
  53. 53. 53FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREWater views and water frontage have been carefullyconsidered, as they will generate higher land values andgreater chance of timely implementation. Therefore, ourproposal for the massing of buildings within the Precinctconsists of several key principles:• Place lower buildings closer to the water, and in-crease height as buildings move away from thewater.• Tallest buildings should be along Lake Shore Boule-vard, where they can maintain water views and haveaccess to transit.TYPICAL NORTH/SOUTH SECTION, LOOKING EAST THROUGH QUEEN’S LANDING PARKMASSING CONCEPTS
  54. 54. 54 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURESCHEME A:BASE SCHEME:INCREASED DEVELOPMENT SITES BY 30 %ECONOMIC SUMMARYMAINTAINS BASE GFA, LOWER BASE DENSITYMAINTAINS BASE GFA, INCREASES OPEN SPACE, INCREAS-ES PARCEL VALUEA.1 B.1 INCREASES BASE GFA BY 15%, MAINTAINS BASE DENSITYINCREASES BASE GFA BY 15%, INCREASES OPEN SPACE, INCREASESPARCEL VALUEC.1 INCREASES BASE GFA BY 30%, INCREASED DENSITYINCREASES BASE GFA BY 30%, INCREASES OPEN SPACE, INCREASESPARCEL VALUEA.2B.2 C.230% INCREASE IN DEVELOPMENTSITES SHOWN IN GREEN TONE BASE SCHEME30% MOREDEVELOPMENTLANDLOCATION PLAN OF STUDY AREABASE LINE GFA
  55. 55. 55FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREECONOMIC OVERVIEWIn addition to creating a practicalsolution to the replacement of theGardiner Expressway, the designproposal substantially increases theland value of parcels in the immediatearea, primarily located within theKeating Channel Precinct. This isachieved without deviating fromthe vision that has already beenestablished in the Keating ChannelPrecinct Plan- we believe our designproposal further advancesits principles.By eliminating the GardinerExpressway and relocating LakeShore Boulevard, the design proposalachieves a number of financialbenefits. Of primary importance,approximately 30% more developableland is created within the precinctwith the proposed AS+GG design.Most of this additional land is onpublic property and thus directlycontributes to Toronto’s revenuestream as parcels are sold.Additionally, the reorganizationof these thoroughfares enablesa contiguous district that is notbisected by a large, elevatedexpressway which generates noise,reduces access to daylight and is aphysical and visual obstruction. Thisresults in a substantial improvementto the quality of the public realm,which in turn adds supplementaryvalue to the adjacent parcels. Ourresearch suggests that the qualitativeimprovements can increase the valueof land by an additional 30%.When combined, the increase inland quantity and quality providesup to approximately 60-70% morevalue when compared to the plancurrently in place. In addition to thesebenefits, the City can expect anincrease to tax revenues on an annualbasis due to the increase in landand gross floor area, and qualitativeimprovements. Over a 25 year period,we estimate that this district couldyield significant additional cumulativetax revenues. While more study isneeded to determine the precisecosts of infrastructure changes andthe consequential financial benefits,we believe the revenues from the30% development increase willsignificantly contribute to the cost ofthe proposed tunnel and bridgeFinally, our research also projects thatcommercial and residential rents, aswell as housing sales will increasein the order of 25% - 35% due toqualitative improvements providedin the design proposal. This may alsocontribute to higher land values.Due to the size of the project, weexpect that it will be phased andconstructed over a number of years.The additional land and gross floorarea afforded by the design proposalwill provide a development cushionand allow future flexibility to adjustthe district development as portionscome online. In other words, laterdevelopment phases can respond toactual trends in real estate demand,parking requirements and traffic.The values provided herein,particularly those related to taxrevenues, should be consideredpreliminary. They are projectionsbased on previous trends and can beinfluenced by many factors beyondour control.
  56. 56. 56 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREPHASINGPhasing of the proposed AS+GG plan will need to becarefully considered, as any disruption in traffic move-ments may present logistical and political challenges.However, we believe any short-term inconvenienceswill be mitigated by the long-term benefits of the plan.Generally, phasing for the development sites willoccur from west to east. A suggested phasing planmay consist of:PHASE 1: 0-3 YearsTransportation: Develop alternate access routes fromGardiner Expressway to the Don valley Parkway.These may include temporary widening of Lake ShoreBoulevard or identification of alternate routes to thenorth of the Precinct. Begin demolition of Gardiner fromJarvis to DVP.Development: Clear western sites, initiate constructionon appropriate streets.PHASE 2: 3-6 YearsTransportation: Initiate construction of the GardinerTunnel, Lake Shore Boulevard and new Green Bridge.Create alternate route for Lake Shore Boulevard Bridge.Development: Clear central sites, initiate constructionon appropriate streets. Initiate construction on westernsites, finish appropriate streets and parks.PHASE 3: 6-9 YearsTransportation: Finalize construction of the GardinerTunnel, Lake Shore Boulevard and new Green Bridge.Re-build Lake Shore Boulevard Bridge.Development: Clear eastern sites, initiate constructionon appropriate streets. Initiate construction on centralsites, finish appropriate streets and parks. Finalizeconstruction on western sites.PHASE 4: 9-12 YearsTransportation: Complete transit and light-rail systems,as required.Development: Initiate construction on eastern sites,finish appropriate streets and parks. Finalize constructionon central sites.INITIAL TECHNICAL PHASING CONCEPTS INITIAL TECHNICAL PHASING CONCEPTS
  57. 57. Innovative Design Competition ALTERNATE 1: 6.6 FAR (SAME GFA)Master Plan Summary Table TEAM: AS+GGSUMMARYA B C D D.1 E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R SBlockNumberBlock Description Block Type Site Area(Hectares)Site Area(meters 2)MaximumBlock Height(m)AverageBlock Height(m)MaximumBuildingStoreysTotal(GFA m2)Office % Office(GFA m2)Retail % Retail(GFA m2)Residential%Residential(GFA m2)Other % Other(GFA m2)Phase # District Area(Hectares)NotesDistrict Area 2801 Development Site Ds 0.64 6,366.68 70 36 22 47,750 35% 16,713 10% 4,775 50% 23,875 5% 2,388 102 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,769.23 47 30 11 35,769 35% 12,519 10% 3,577 50% 17,885 5% 1,788 103 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,817.15 47 27 11 36,129 35% 12,645 10% 3,613 50% 18,064 5% 1,806 104 Development Site Ds 0.58 5,852.41 58 29 18 43,893 35% 15,363 10% 4,389 50% 21,947 5% 2,195 205 Development Site Ds 0.61 6,080.13 60 28 18 45,601 30% 13,680 15% 6,840 50% 22,800 5% 2,280 206 Development Site Ds 0.60 5,960.75 40 23 12 44,706 30% 13,412 15% 6,706 45% 20,118 10% 4,471 207 Development Site Ds 0.57 5,679.17 64 33 20 42,594 30% 12,778 15% 6,389 50% 21,297 5% 2,130 308 Development Site Ds 0.33 3,337.11 35 31 10 25,028 40% 10,011 10% 2,503 45% 11,263 5% 1,251 309 Development Site Ds 0.84 8,383.31 40 25 12 50,300 0% 0 5% 2,515 70% 35,210 25% 12,575 1 School located in this block10 Development Site Ds 1.16 11,594.00 52 30 16 69,564 0% 0 5% 3,478 70% 48,695 25% 17,391 1 Silos located in this block11 Development Site Ds 0.82 8,242.00 35 22 9 41,210 5% 2,061 10% 4,121 75% 30,908 10% 4,121 112 Development Site Ds 0.65 6,465.00 34 18 8 32,325 15% 4,849 15% 4,849 65% 21,011 5% 1,616 213 Development Site Ds 0.76 7,657.00 41 19 13 38,285 10% 3,829 15% 5,743 70% 26,800 5% 1,914 214 Development Site Ds 0.55 5,482.80 55 27 17 27,414 10% 2,741 15% 4,112 65% 17,819 10% 2,741 215 Park Pa 0.38 3,836.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park16 Development Site Ds 0.41 4,138.00 100 41 33 37,242 10% 3,724 5% 1,862 80% 29,794 5% 1,862 317 Development Site Ds 0.60 6,023.00 67 31 21 48,184 15% 7,228 5% 2,409 65% 31,320 15% 7,228 318 Park Pa 1.03 10,342.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park19 Park Pa 2.46 24,638.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park20 Park Is 0.50 5,017.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park21 Park Pa 1.98 19,726.73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 2 ParkStreet Areas ST 11.6028.02 164,407.93 665,994 131,552 67,881 398,803 67,757 28.02PHASES 19.8% 10.2% 60% 10.2% 100.0%BPhaseNumber Total GFA 665,994 sm1 Study Area 28.02 ha 280,249 sm Approximate Residential Population2 Development sites 10.07 ha 100,743 sm 11,9643 Parks 6.35 ha Approximate UnitsStreets 11.60 ha 3,988GROSS FAR 2.4 (Against total study area)NET FAR 6.6 (Against development blocks only)ADescriptionWest Sub-PrecinctCentral Sub-PrecinctEast Sub PrecinctDONROADWAYSTUDY AREAKEATING CHANNEL57FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT QUANTITIESMASTER PLAN SUMMARY TABLEMASTER PLAN KEY MAP
  58. 58. Innovative Design CompetitionMaster Plan Summary Table TEAM: AS+GG ALTERNATE 2: 7.5 FAR (+15% GFA)SUMMARYA B C D D.1 E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R SBlockNumberBlock Description Block Type Site Area(Hectares)Site Area(meters 2)MaximumBlock Height(m)AverageBlock Height(m)MaximumBuildingStoreysTotal(GFA m2)Office % Office(GFA m2)Retail % Retail(GFA m2)Residential%Residential(GFA m2)Other % Other(GFA m2)Phase # District Area(Hectares)NotesDistrict Area 2801 Development Site Ds 0.64 6,366.68 70 36 22 54,117 30% 16,235 10% 5,412 55% 29,764 5% 2,706 102 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,769.23 47 30 11 38,154 30% 11,446 10% 3,815 55% 20,985 5% 1,908 103 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,817.15 47 27 11 40,946 30% 12,284 10% 4,095 55% 22,520 5% 2,047 104 Development Site Ds 0.58 5,852.41 58 29 18 46,819 30% 14,046 10% 4,682 55% 25,751 5% 2,341 205 Development Site Ds 0.61 6,080.13 60 28 18 51,681 30% 15,504 15% 7,752 50% 25,841 5% 2,584 206 Development Site Ds 0.60 5,960.75 40 23 12 50,666 30% 15,200 15% 7,600 45% 22,800 10% 5,067 207 Development Site Ds 0.57 5,679.17 64 33 20 45,433 30% 13,630 15% 6,815 50% 22,717 5% 2,272 308 Development Site Ds 0.33 3,337.11 35 31 10 26,697 30% 8,009 10% 2,670 55% 14,683 5% 1,335 309 Development Site Ds 0.84 8,383.31 40 25 12 58,683 0% 0 5% 2,934 70% 41,078 25% 14,671 1 School located in this block10 Development Site Ds 1.16 11,594.00 52 30 16 81,158 0% 0 5% 4,058 70% 56,811 25% 20,290 1 Silos located in this block11 Development Site Ds 0.82 8,242.00 35 22 9 49,452 10% 4,945 10% 4,945 75% 37,089 10% 4,945 112 Development Site Ds 0.65 6,465.00 34 18 8 38,790 10% 3,879 15% 5,819 70% 27,153 5% 1,940 213 Development Site Ds 0.76 7,657.00 41 19 13 45,942 10% 4,594 15% 6,891 70% 32,159 5% 2,297 214 Development Site Ds 0.55 5,482.80 55 27 17 32,897 10% 3,290 15% 4,935 65% 21,383 10% 3,290 215 Park Pa 0.38 3,836.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park16 Development Site Ds 0.41 4,138.00 100 41 33 41,380 10% 4,138 5% 2,069 80% 33,104 5% 2,069 317 Development Site Ds 0.60 6,023.00 67 31 21 54,207 15% 8,131 5% 2,710 65% 35,235 15% 8,131 318 Park Pa 1.03 10,342.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park19 Park Pa 2.46 24,638.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park20 Park Is 0.50 5,017.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park21 Park Pa 1.98 19,726.73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 2 ParkStreet Areas ST 11.6028.02 164,407.93 757,022 135,331 77,201 469,072 77,891 28.02PHASES 17.9% 10.2% 62% 10.3% 100.3%BPhaseNumber Total GFA 757,022 sm1 Study Area 28.02 ha 280,249 sm Approximate Residential Population2 Development sites 10.07 ha 100,743 sm 14,0723 Parks 6.35 ha Approximate UnitsStreets 11.60 ha 4,691Gross FAR 2.70 (Against total study area)Net FAR 7.51 (Against development blocks only)ADescriptionWest Sub-PrecinctCentral Sub-PrecinctEast Sub PrecinctDONROADWAYSTUDY AREAKEATING CHANNELMASTER PLAN KEY MAP58 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT QUANTITIES: OPTION 2
  59. 59. Innovative Design Competition ALTERNATE 3: 8.5 FAR (+30% GFA)Master Plan Summary Table TEAM: AS+GGSUMMARYA B C D D.1 E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R SBlockNumberBlock Description Block Type Site Area(Hectares)Site Area(meters 2)MaximumBlock Height(m)AverageBlock Height(m)MaximumBuildingStoreysTotal(GFA m2)Office % Office(GFA m2)Retail % Retail(GFA m2)Residential%Residential(GFA m2)Other % Other(GFA m2)Phase # District Area(Hectares)NotesDistrict Area 2801 Development Site Ds 0.64 6,366.68 70 36 22 57,300 30% 17,190 10% 5,730 55% 31,515 5% 2,865 102 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,769.23 47 30 11 42,923 30% 12,877 10% 4,292 55% 23,608 5% 2,146 103 Development Site Ds 0.48 4,817.15 47 27 11 43,354 30% 13,006 10% 4,335 55% 23,845 5% 2,168 104 Development Site Ds 0.58 5,852.41 58 29 18 52,672 30% 15,802 10% 5,267 55% 28,969 5% 2,634 205 Development Site Ds 0.61 6,080.13 60 28 18 54,721 30% 16,416 15% 8,208 50% 27,361 5% 2,736 206 Development Site Ds 0.60 5,960.75 40 23 12 53,647 30% 16,094 15% 8,047 45% 24,141 10% 5,365 207 Development Site Ds 0.57 5,679.17 64 33 20 51,113 30% 15,334 15% 7,667 50% 25,556 5% 2,556 308 Development Site Ds 0.33 3,337.11 35 31 10 30,034 30% 9,010 10% 3,003 55% 16,519 5% 1,502 309 Development Site Ds 0.84 8,383.31 40 25 12 75,450 0% 0 5% 3,772 70% 52,815 25% 18,862 1 School located in this block10 Development Site Ds 1.16 11,594.00 52 30 16 81,158 0% 0 5% 4,058 70% 56,811 25% 20,290 1 Silos located in this block11 Development Site Ds 0.82 8,242.00 35 22 9 49,452 10% 4,945 10% 4,945 75% 37,089 10% 4,945 112 Development Site Ds 0.65 6,465.00 34 18 8 51,720 10% 5,172 15% 7,758 70% 36,204 5% 2,586 213 Development Site Ds 0.76 7,657.00 41 19 13 61,256 10% 6,126 15% 9,188 70% 42,879 5% 3,063 214 Development Site Ds 0.55 5,482.80 55 27 17 43,862 10% 4,386 15% 6,579 65% 28,511 10% 4,386 215 Park Pa 0.38 3,836.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park16 Development Site Ds 0.41 4,138.00 100 41 33 49,656 10% 4,966 5% 2,483 80% 39,725 5% 2,483 317 Development Site Ds 0.60 6,023.00 67 31 21 60,230 15% 9,035 5% 3,012 65% 39,150 15% 9,035 318 Park Pa 1.03 10,342.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park19 Park Pa 2.46 24,638.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park20 Park Is 0.50 5,017.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 3 Park21 Park Pa 1.98 19,726.73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% 0 2 ParkStreet Areas ST 11.6028.02 164,407.93 858,548 150,358 88,346 534,696 87,620 28.02PHASES 17.5% 10.3% 62% 10.2% 100.3%BPhaseNumber Total GFA 858,548 sm1 Study Area 28.02 ha 280,249 sm Approximate Residential Population2 Development sites 10.07 ha 100,743 sm 16,0413 Parks 6.35 ha Approximate UnitsStreets 11.60 ha 5,347Potential Tax Revenue Per YearGross FAR 3.06 (Against total study area) 20Net FAR 8.52 (Against development blocks only) YRS$42,927,393 $858,547,860$ PER YEAR TOTALADescriptionWest Sub-PrecinctCentral Sub-PrecinctEast Sub PrecinctDONROADWAYSTUDY AREAKEATING CHANNELMASTER PLAN KEY MAP59FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREDEVELOPMENT QUANTITIES: OPTION 3
  60. 60. APPENDIX
  61. 61. 62 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARYM EAndrew G. KiCBRE ConsulT 416 815 2370andrew.kidd@cGavin YeungCBRE ConsulT 416 874 7274gavin.yeung@ This disclaimer shEllis Advisory Se© 2010 CB Richaand does not reprconnection with tInformation priorwithout notice orDate:To:From:Re: PRELIMIN Based on pwithin surproperties Additional Although aas most ladevelopmSmith + Go City’s GardAS+GG MasCurrent KeNote: Given normadditionaldevelopm Additional In addition1) TdeM Oidd | Vice Presidenlting I CB Richard0 | F 416 362 8085cbre.com| Associate Consullting I CB Richard4 | F 416 362 8085@cbre.comhall apply to CB Richarrvices Inc., and CB Richard Ellis Limited, Real Eresent, warrant or guarathe Information and ther to placing any relianceobligation to the recipieJune 23, 201Jonathan OrGavin YeunKeating ChaNARY RESEApreliminary drrounding the s in and arounl Land averages provnd traded in tent sites contaordon Gill ArcPlan iner Future Dster Plan eating Channel: the above chamal market col value of apprent. l Add‐Value Ben to increasinhe consolidatievelopment ntd Ellis Limited5 | C 416 561 3945ltantd Ellis Limited5 | C 416 859 4994d Ellis Limited, a real ehard Ellis Québec LimitéEstate Brokerage. The inantee the accuracy, corrrecipient’s reliance upoe upon the Information.nt from CBRE.10rlovengannel DistrictARCH iscussions witKeating Channd the KeatingProperty Typvide an idea ofthe Keating Chained in the Cchitecture LLPevelopment Pl District art includes ononditions, landroximately $1enefits g value througion of land int54estate brokerage, and itsée (collectively “CBRE”nformation set out hereinrectness and completeneon the Information. TheThe Information mayt Opinion of Vth CBRE’s Resnnel District, Cg Channel Distpe LOfIndustf the current rhannel area arity’s DevelopmP (“AS+GG”). Averag(AcPlan 010nly developmend as parceled a4,325,000 thrgh an increaseto larger averaCanadian affiliates, CB”).n (the "Information") isess of the Information.e recipient of the Informchange and any propertValuesearch DepartmCBRE has deterict. andfficetrialrange in valuesre smaller parcment Plan as wge Parcel cres) T.84.57.47nt sites withinaccording to trough an incree in the total aage parcels th14SuTo4141httB Richard Ellis Alberta Lintended for informationCBRE does not acceptmation should take suchty described in the Infoment and comrmined the cu$/Acre$720,000$2,300,000$1,500,000s of such propcels. Below is well as the MaTotal Land (Acres) 19.4125.14‐ the district bothe Master Plaease in the totaamount of landat would allow5 King Street Wuite 600oronto, ON M5H6 362 2244 Tel6 362 8085 Faxtp://www.cbre.cLimited, CB Richard Ellnal purposes only. CBRt or assume any responh steps as the recipient mormation may be withdrmparable salesurrent averageperties, they man estimate oaster Plan devEstimated Vper Acre‐ ‐ $2,500,00oundary as defan developed bal land availabd, value is alsow for higher dWestH 1J8com/Consultinglis Manitoba Limited, CRE has not verified the Insibility or liability of anmay deem necessary torawn from the market as of propertiese value of may be misleadof the total valeloped by AdrValue e EstimTotal$48,5$62,800 fined by AS+GGby AS+GG creable for o created throdensity CB Richardnformationny kind inverify theat any times ding, ue of rian mated l Value 25,00050,000‐G ates ugh: 2) The removal of the Gardiner Expressway, thus removing: a. physical barriers to development b. a visual eyesore to the public and potential investors c. air, noise and light pollution and allowing: d. increased visibility of Lake Ontario e. increased rental rates f. flexibility to consolidate parcels of land g. increased green space 3) Opportunity for increased development investment interest Studies of similar projects involving the tear down of a freeway and replacement with an underground tunnel show that the market‐adjusted value of properties adjacent to the freeway increased relative to those of comparable properties not adjacent to the freeway. Our initial discussions with experts from similar projects shows that lands adjacent to the Gardiner Expressway tear down can expect a further increase in value between 20‐30%. Total Value Increase Our preliminary estimates indicate that adjacent lands to the Gardiner Expressway in the Keating Channel District will likely experience an approximate increase between 155% to 168%. This increase is a function of the combination of increased land available from the AS+GG Master Plan and and additional value‐add benefits as a result of the Gardiner Expressway teardown. Furthermore, it is worth noting that our research shows commercial rents for properties adjacent to similar projects have experience substantial gains. We expect commercial rents of properties adjacent to the Gardiner project to increase ~25%‐35%. FURTHER RESEARCH We expect the planning, construction and at‐surface development for the AS+GG Master Plan to be completed in approximately 1 market cycle. Following construction, we expect there to be significant investor interest in the Keating Channel District due to many of the factors listed above. We expect increased investor interest to drive three factors affecting value: 1) Amount of density: High‐rise density creates greater land value than low‐rise density 2) Type of density: Commercial, retail, residential and mixed‐use typically each create different value 3) Quality of density: Location, efficiencies, and amenities will drive the quality of each type of density M EAndrew G. KiCBRE ConsulT 416 815 2370andrew.kidd@cGavin YeungCBRE ConsulT 416 874 7274gavin.yeung@ This disclaimer shEllis Advisory Se© 2010 CB Richaand does not reprconnection with tDate:To:From:Re: PRELIMIN Based on pwithin surproperties Additional Although aas most ladevelopmSmith + Go City’s GardAS+GG MasCurrent KeNote: Given normadditionaldevelopm Additional In addition1) TdeM Oidd | Vice Presidenlting I CB Richard0 | F 416 362 8085cbre.com| Associate Consullting I CB Richard4 | F 416 362 8085@cbre.comhall apply to CB Richarrvices Inc., and CB Richard Ellis Limited, Real Eresent, warrant or guarathe Information and theJune 23, 201Jonathan OrGavin YeunKeating ChaNARY RESEApreliminary drrounding the s in and arounl Land averages provnd traded in tent sites contaordon Gill ArcPlan iner Future Dster Plan eating Channel: the above chamal market col value of apprent. l Add‐Value Ben to increasinhe consolidatievelopment ntd Ellis Limited5 | C 416 561 3945ltantd Ellis Limited5 | C 416 859 4994d Ellis Limited, a real ehard Ellis Québec LimitéEstate Brokerage. The inantee the accuracy, corrrecipient’s reliance upo10rlovengannel DistrictARCH iscussions witKeating Channd the KeatingProperty Typvide an idea ofthe Keating Chained in the Cchitecture LLPevelopment Pl District art includes ononditions, landroximately $1enefits g value througion of land int54estate brokerage, and itsée (collectively “CBRE”nformation set out hereinrectness and completeneon the Information. Thet Opinion of Vth CBRE’s Resnnel District, Cg Channel Distpe LOfIndustf the current rhannel area arity’s DevelopmP (“AS+GG”). Averag(AcPlan 010nly developmend as parceled a4,325,000 thrgh an increaseto larger averaCanadian affiliates, CB”).n (the "Information") isess of the Information.e recipient of the InformValuesearch DepartmCBRE has deterict. andfficetrialrange in valuesre smaller parcment Plan as wge Parcel cres) T.84.57.47nt sites withinaccording to trough an incree in the total aage parcels th14SuTo4141httB Richard Ellis Alberta Lintended for informationCBRE does not acceptmation should take suchment and comrmined the cu$/Acre$720,000$2,300,000$1,500,000s of such propcels. Below is well as the MaTotal Land (Acres) 19.4125.14‐ the district bothe Master Plaease in the totaamount of landat would allow5 King Street Wuite 600oronto, ON M5H6 362 2244 Tel6 362 8085 Faxtp://www.cbre.cLimited, CB Richard Ellnal purposes only. CBRt or assume any responh steps as the recipient mmparable salesurrent averageperties, they man estimate oaster Plan devEstimated Vper Acre‐ ‐ $2,500,00oundary as defan developed bal land availabd, value is alsow for higher dWestH 1J8com/Consultinglis Manitoba Limited, CRE has not verified the Insibility or liability of anmay deem necessary tos of propertiese value of may be misleadof the total valeloped by AdrValue e EstimTotal$48,5$62,800 fined by AS+GGby AS+GG creable for o created throdensity CB Richardnformationny kind inverify thes ding, ue of rian mated l Value 25,00050,000‐G ates ugh:
  62. 62. 63FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARYRelativeKeaAdditional The AS+GGChannel Pmeasure t Following Followingmeasure aGardiner f 1) A2) Cu3) M4) A5) Ph Below aredevelopm Zoning ane Market Valueating Channel l Tax RevenuesG Master Planrecinct Mastethis increase. Studies g the preliminaand confirm thfrom Don Vallssess the zoniurrent land deMeasure net nessessing markhasing of devee some examplent. d Land Use Ree: the above shDistrict, post‐cs n would yield aer Plan. A furthary research che impact on tey to Parliameing and land uevelopment paew developmeket feasibility elopment les of work doequirements hows the cyclicconstruction, ia substantial iher study by Ccompleted abothe value of deent. use requiremeattern of areaent potential of developmeone previouslycal nature of rein comparison ncrease in taxCBRE upon awove the next stevelopment sitnts of the Keas in and arounent opportunity by CBRE to aeal estate and with the Centx revenues as ward of the conteps upon awates adjacent aating Channel nd the Keatingties assess the impthe relative petral Business Dcompared witntract would sarding the conand surroundiDistrict g Channel Distpact on value ferformance ofDistrict (CBD)th the Keatingseek to accurantract are to fung the East trict for transit orie f the g ately urther ented Current LaNote: The Measure N and Developmchart above dNet New Devement Pattern deals exclusivelareas will dealopment Potely with residenl with commerntial ntial. Studies ofrcial, retail, reof the Keating esidential and Channel Distrimixed use ict and surrouunding
  63. 63. 64FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARY
  64. 64. 65FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURECBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARY 7 units/acre = 0.2 times density 118 units/acre = 0.5 times deensity 775 un units/acre = its/acre = 2.0 0.2 times dentimes densitysity y 118 units/acre 110 units/acr= 0.5 times dere = 3.0 times ensity density
  65. 65. 66FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE Opportunnities CBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARY
  66. 66. 67FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREPhasing of f DevelopmenModerate nt Phasing Schedule Aggressiive Phasing Scchedule CBRE TECHNICAL SUMMARYPHASING OF DEVELOPMENT
  67. 67. 68FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREHALCROW YOLLES TECHNICAL SUMMARY  1Halcrow Transportation Demand Analysis for Gardiner Expressway and Lake ShoreBoulevard Reconfiguration Environmental Assessment(Waterfront Toronto competition brief #2009-60).1. IntroductionThis document was prepared in support of the design proposal requirements for thecompetition to develop innovative design options for the Gardiner Expressway and LakeShore Boulevard Reconfiguration Environmental Assessment (Waterfront Torontocompetition brief #2009-60). It provides the required north-south and east-west screenlineauto trip summaries, demonstrating the a.m. peak hour screenline traffic demand andcapacity for “existing conditions”, as well as for the “future base” scenario and the AS+GG“future with design” scenario..Based on information provided in recent Waterfront Toronto and City of Torontodocuments and associated data for the primary study area (including the East Bayfront andLower Don Lands precincts) related to land use by parcels, coverage and floor space by landuse type, dwelling unit and employment estimates were developed by Halcrow staff for twofuture scenarios. As documented herein, the land use activity related estimates weretranslated into estimates of auto driver trip rates for residential and commercial developmentwithin the primary study area and the resultant estimates of AM peak period vehicles wereassigned to three screenlines shown in Figure 1.Figure 1: Study area and Screenlines.EBF: East BayfrontKC: Keating Channel Precinct (area of Lower Don Lands Precinct north of Keating ChannelRC: (area of Lower Don Lands south of Keating Channel)2. Summary and ConclusionsTable 1 summarizes the results of the screenline analysis, showing the AM peak hour vehiclevolumes in relation to the estimated roadway capacities for the 3 screenlines shown in Figure 1.Volume/Capacity ratios provide a convenient short-form indicator of changes in traffic conditions.  2Table 1 – Summary of FindingsGardiner Screenline Analysis (AM Peak Hour Vehicles and V/C Ratios)Dir Existing Future Base Future with DesignEB 0.32 0.51 0.79WB 0.42 0.53 0.81NB 0.33 0.73 0.77SB 0.31 0.54 0.60EB 0.31 0.35 0.55WB 0.49 0.63 0.90Screenline A: Jarvis, from the Lake torail lineScreenline B: rail line, from Jarvis toDon RiverScreenline C: Don River, from rail lineto Shipping ChannelAs shown in Table 1, estimated volume/capacity ratios for the existing situation (which reflects2008-2009 traffic counts) shows that demands are equal to 31% to 49% of the available roadcapacity. These v/c ratios, as discussed in Section 3.2, suggest that there is substantial reservecapacity on the existing routes that serve the East Bayfront and Lower Don Lands precincts,particularly on the existing Lakeshore Blvd and the Gardiner Expressway.1As shown in Table 1, for the Future Base, and discussed in Section 3.3, the Base Casetransportation capacity assumptions (existing road network) appear to providesufficient roadway capacity to support planned development within the primary study area (EastBayfront and Lower Don Lands Precincts). Volume/capacity ratios increase at all screenlinesand in all directions for 2031, with the highest v/c ratio being associated with northbound trafficcrossing Screenline B (the railway corridor), where a v/c ratio of .73 is estimated by 2031. Withthe future base scenario, substantial reserve roadway capacity appears to be available atScreenlines A and C.The Future with Design Scenario, discussed in Section 3.4, reflects the both the reduced east-west roadway capacity in the Gardiner/Lakeshore Corridor and the increased developmentpotential within the Keating Channel North Precinct associated with the AS+GG design proposal.The estimated v/c ratios for the Future with Design scenario all show further increases comparedto the Base Case, with substantial increases in traffic congestion expected at Screenline A in bothdirections and westbound crossing screenline C. Despite the very substantial reductions inroadway capacity on the Gardiner Expressway, with the proposed replacement of the 6 to 8 laneelevated freeway with a four lane freeway tunnel through the primary study area, the proposeddesign appears to have sufficient capacity to accommodate vehicle travel to/from and through theEast Bayfront and Lower Don Lands precincts, although the AM peak hour v/c ratio forwestbound traffic at Screenline C is estimated to be .90 (which suggests congested conditionsconsistent with Level of Service D-E) .The road network assumed under the Future with Design scenario will be able to accommodateanticipated traffic at all screenlines at congestion levels that are accepted within built up inner cityareas where local residents and workers have competitive travel options to driving, includingsuperior levels of accessible transit service.                                                 1 Halcrow’s analysis reflects and is consistent with the information provided in recent detailed planning reports preparedfor the general study area, including the Lower Don Lands Class Environmental Assessment Master Plan (WaterfrontToronto, Feb 2010) and associated documents including the February 17, 2010 Memo prepared by Delcan re GardinerExpressway EA. Results of Bluetooth Origin / Destination Survey — Summary.
  68. 68. 69FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY© 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTUREHALCROW YOLLES TECHNICAL SUMMARY  33. Technical Documention3.1 Study Area and ScreenlinesThe general approach to assessment of future traffic demands within the primary study areacan be described as follows: In order to assess the ability of existing and planned roads toaccommodate current and future traffic demands in and out of a study area, screenlines wereestablished near the boundaries of the primary study area.Available traffic counts crossing the screenlines were compiled in order to understand thecurrent level of traffic in and out of the area by direction. Capacity was calculated based onroad type and number of lanes available for general traffic, by direction for the currentsituation and for the future (2031).Future traffic volumes crossing each screenline were then estimated using the methodsdetailed below considering existing traffic volumes, background traffic growth and new autotrip making that can be expected to result from planned development in the study area.Finally, the estimated traffic volumes were divided by the available or planned peak hourroad capacity, to derive volume/capacity ratios (v/c ratios). These v/c ratios provide aconvenient summary of the utilization of available or planned road capacity across eachscreenline.The three screenlines were established to contain the key development parcels within theprimary study area: Screenline A just west of Jarvis Street, Screenline B, immediately south ofthe Rail corridor north of Lake Shore Boulevard, and Screenline C, just west of the DonRoadway, as illustrated in Figure 1..3.2 Existing ConditionsExisting traffic counts were extracted from the City of Toronto data provided to thecompetitors. No traffic data was available for the Commissioner Street at Screenline C.Given it is a low volume roadway, a nominal hourly volume of 100 vehicles was assumed.Per lane capacity assumptions are consistent with previous studies (reference).As shown in Table 2, Existing Conditions, the analysis shows low v/c ratios of 0.31 to 0.49,which shows that current traffic volumes are well within the available road capacity at the 3screenlines. The current road network provides sufficient capacity for observedinbound/outbound traffic at each screenline.3.3. Future Base ConditionsTo determine traffic volumes under future base (2031) conditions, estimates of annual trafficgrow rate were applied to existing traffic on each link, to reflect some modest growth inthrough traffic at the 3 screenlines. These growth rates accommodate background trafficgrowth, but not traffic related to planned development within the primary study area (EastBayfront, Keating Channel and the rest of the Lower Don Lands).The study area is located in a downtown setting where development is well established, andlittle growth is expected in auto traffic, as growth over the last 20 years has been associatedwith modal shifts to transit and walking. A rate of 0.5% per annum was applied to east/westtraffic crossing the north/south screenlines A and C, and a rate of 0.25% per annum wasapplied to north/south traffic crossing the east/west screenline B. The slightly higher growthrate crossing screenlines A and C accommodates the connectivity of the east-west routes,  4while links crossing screenline B are adjacent to the lake and have little traffic growthpotential.Table 2: Screenline Analysis – Existing ConditionsScreenline A: Jarvis, from the Lake to rail lineEB Gardiner Lakeshore Queens Quay TotalLanes 4 3 2Capacity/lane 1800 700 700Capacity 7200 2100 1400 10700Current AM Peak Hour volume 2390 495 486 3371volume/capacity ratio 0.33 0.24 0.35 0.32WB Gardiner Lakeshore Queens Quay TotalLanes 4 3 2Capacity/lane 1800 700 700Capacity 7200 2100 1400 10700Current AM Peak Hour volume 2854 954 643 4451volume/capacity ratio 0.40 0.45 0.46 0.42Screenline B: rail line, from Jarvis to Don RiverNB Jarvis Sherbourne Parliament Cherry TotalLanes 2 1 2 1Capacity/lane 700 700 700 700Capacity 1400 700 1400 700 4200Current AM Peak Hour volume 285 495 450 151 1381volume/capacity ratio 0.20 0.71 0.32 0.22 0.33SB Jarvis Sherbourne Parliament Cherry TotalLanes 2 1 2 1Capacity/lane 700 700 700 700Capacity 1400 700 1400 700 4200Current AM Peak Hour volume 285 290 351 385 1311volume/capacity ratio 0.20 0.41 0.25 0.55 0.31Screenline C: Don River, from rail line to Shipping ChannelEB DVP Gardiner ramp Lakeshore Commissioner TotalLanes 2 2 3 1Capacity/lane 1800 1800 700 700Capacity 3600 3600 2100 700 10000Current AM Peak Hour volume 1818 814 348 100 3080volume/capacity ratio 0.51 0.23 0.17 0.14 0.31WB DVP Gardiner ramp Lakeshore Commissioner TotalLanes 2 2 3 1Capacity/lane 1800 1800 700 700Capacity 3600 3600 2100 700 10000Current AM Peak Hour volume 2253 1786 796 100 4935volume/capacity ratio 0.63 0.50 0.38 0.14 0.49
  69. 69. 70 FOUR FLOWS - THE EVOLUTION OF THE GARDINER EXPRESSWAY © 2010 ADRIAN SMITH + GORDON GILL ARCHITECTURE  5To estimate future auto traffic volumes, it was necessary to estimate the traffic associatedwith new development proposed within the primary study area. In order to do this, datafrom the Master Plan Summary Table provided to competitors was used to estimate 2031dwelling units and employment for three sub-areas, East Bay Front, Keating Channel andthe remainder of the Low Don Lands Area (RC). These values were then used to estimateAM peak hour auto driver traffic generated by local residents (a function of dwelling units)and by local workers (a function of the number of employees). Transportation TomorrowSurvey data for 2001 and 2006 were used to estimate current and future auto driver trips forlocal residents, recognizing well established trends showing an increased proportion of localresidents walking to work or taking transit, rather than driving, Similarly, auto driver triprates to workplaces in the area east between Jarvis and the Don River, south of Queen Streethave shown stability or declines and these trends were captures in the auto driver trip ratesapplied to estimates of future employment in the primary study area.The estimated development potential, associated with the 2010-0414 Development Tableprovided by Waterfront Toronto, and related trip generation and distribution estimates foreach subarea and screenline are summarized in Tables 3 and 4.Table 3: Trip Generation Assumptions/Estimates for Future Base CaseTrip GenerationResidential GFA (m2) Residential DUAM peak hour auto triprate (per DU)AM peak hourauto tripsCommercialGFA (m2)EmployeesAM peak hour auto triprate (per employee)AM peak hourauto tripsEBF 187,144 5,294 0.11 582 360,954 12,633 0.125 1,579KC 490,834 5,806 0.125 726 190,879 6,681 0.125 835RC 692,845 8,195 0.15 1,229 269,439 9,430 0.125 1,179Total 1,370,823 19,295 2,537 821,272 28,745 3,593Outbound (residential) Trips Inbound (commercial) TripsPeak hour demands = .5 of estimated AM Peak period demandsTable 4: Trip Distribution Assumptions/Estimates for Future Base CaseTrip DistributionScreenline A Screenline B Screenline C TotalOutbound (Residential) Distribution 30% 65% 5%Outbound (Residential) Trips 761 1649 127 2537Inbound (Commercial) Distribution 50% 25% 25%Inbound (Commercial) Trips 1797 898 898 3593HALCROW YOLLES TECHNICAL SUMMARY  6The trip generation and distribution assumptions developed by Halcrow were derived basedon 2001 and 2006 Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS) and 2001 and 2008 Kings TravelSurvey data documenting trip making behaviour by mode in the vicinity of our study area.Halcrow’s review of 1996-2006 travel trends for the Downtown Core area south of Queenshows that Auto Driver mode shares of total person trips declined from 29% to 22.5% overten years. While Downtown Toronto continued to grow as both an employment area and aresidential community, the TTS survey suggests that the total auto traffic destined for theDowntown during the AM peak period actually declined.The 2008 Kings Survey results provide an even more updated basis for assessing the autodemands.originating in new inner city residential areas such as the King-Parliament andKing-Spadina communities. Between 2001 and 2008, the auto driver mode share from AMpeak trips made by residents of the Kings communities declined from 35% to 23% for alltrips, while the proportion of all AM peak trips made by walking increased from 29% to40% while transit’s share of total trips was stable at approximately 30%.The typical AM peak auto driver trips per unit within the Kings area (approximately .33trip/du reported in the 2001 TTS survey) were adjusted downward in lane with the modalshifts indicated in the January 2010 Kings Travel Survey Bulletin-Draft.In assessing future auto traffic demands, Halcrow assumed that the East Bayfront areawould have the highest walk/transit shares (consistent with the 2008 Kings Travel SurveyBulletin – Draft), while the Other Lower Don Lands will likely have somewhat lowertransit/walk modal splits given the longer walk times to downtown jobs. Therefore, ourassumed auto driver trip rates vary accordingly, as documented in Table 3.Considering both the low future background traffic growth and reasonable estimates of thenew AM peak auto driver trips associated with proposed developments for the primary studyarea, the analysis shows increases in volume/capacity (v/c) ratio for all screenlines, as shownin Table 5. The current road network would continue to provide sufficient capacity forinbound/outbound traffic at each screenline under future base conditions.

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