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Lecture 8

8.1 READING SECTION-1 - Labelling a diagram - T /F /NG - Flow-chart completion 8.2 LISTENING SECTION-2 - Matching - Labelling a diagram 8.3 SPEAKING PARTS 2 &3. - Using reasons & examples - Strategies for self-correctionand expressing oneself more 8.4 WRITING TASK 2. DISCUSSING AFDVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES - Introducing and linking ideas in paragraphs - Constructing the middle paragraphs of an essay

1 of 26
Lecture # 8
READING SECTION-1
- Labelling a diagram
- Flow-chart completion
LISTENING SECTION-2
- Matching
- Labelling a diagram
SPEAKING PARTS 2 &3.
- Using reasons & examples
- Strategies for self-correctionand expressing oneself
more
WRITING TASK 2. DISCUSSING
AFDVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
- Introducing and linking ideas in paragraphs
- Constructing the middle paragraphs of an essay
Reading section-1: Labeling a
diagram
• This task tests your skills locating information in
the passage, relating the information in the diagram
and choosing appropriate words from the passage.
• You may be asked to choose words ot phrases
from a box or list or words from the passage. If you
are asked to choose words or phrases from a box or
list there will be more words than need.
• You will be told the maximum number of words
for each answer. The questions may not follow the
same order as the information in the passage.
Strategies for labeling a diagram
task
1. Skim the whole passage before you start working on any of the
tasks.
2. Read the instructions carefully. Study the drawing and the heading,
if it has one. Try to work out what the drawing shows.
3. Find the part of the passage that is relevant to the drawing – the
heading will help you. The information is usually located in one
paragraph or two in the passage. Read this part carefully and look
for the first answer. Write your answer, making sure you spell it
correctly and write no more than the maximum number of words.
4. Look for the other answers in turn.
5. Write the answers exactly as they appear in the passage.
6. Check answers. Make sure that they make sense: for example, if you
are giving the names of parts of a machine, they should be nouns or
noun phrases.
Reading section-1: Flow-chart
completion
• This task tests your skills
- locating specific information in the passage
- choosing appropriate words
- understanding details and order of information
• Strategies for flow-chart completion
1. Skim the whole passage before you start working on
any of the tasks.
2. Scan the passage for specific information.
3. Use the title of the flow chart if it has to find the right
part of the passage.
4. Use the direction of the arrows and boxes to follow the
order of information in chart.
5. Identify the type of word needed for each part of the
flow chart.
6. Select the appropriate words from the passage.
7. Check the number of words that can be used for each
answer.
8. Answers do not always come in order.

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Lecture 8

  • 2. READING SECTION-1 - Labelling a diagram - Flow-chart completion LISTENING SECTION-2 - Matching - Labelling a diagram SPEAKING PARTS 2 &3. - Using reasons & examples - Strategies for self-correctionand expressing oneself more WRITING TASK 2. DISCUSSING AFDVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES - Introducing and linking ideas in paragraphs - Constructing the middle paragraphs of an essay
  • 3. Reading section-1: Labeling a diagram • This task tests your skills locating information in the passage, relating the information in the diagram and choosing appropriate words from the passage. • You may be asked to choose words ot phrases from a box or list or words from the passage. If you are asked to choose words or phrases from a box or list there will be more words than need. • You will be told the maximum number of words for each answer. The questions may not follow the same order as the information in the passage.
  • 4. Strategies for labeling a diagram task 1. Skim the whole passage before you start working on any of the tasks. 2. Read the instructions carefully. Study the drawing and the heading, if it has one. Try to work out what the drawing shows. 3. Find the part of the passage that is relevant to the drawing – the heading will help you. The information is usually located in one paragraph or two in the passage. Read this part carefully and look for the first answer. Write your answer, making sure you spell it correctly and write no more than the maximum number of words. 4. Look for the other answers in turn. 5. Write the answers exactly as they appear in the passage. 6. Check answers. Make sure that they make sense: for example, if you are giving the names of parts of a machine, they should be nouns or noun phrases.
  • 5. Reading section-1: Flow-chart completion • This task tests your skills - locating specific information in the passage - choosing appropriate words - understanding details and order of information
  • 6. • Strategies for flow-chart completion 1. Skim the whole passage before you start working on any of the tasks. 2. Scan the passage for specific information. 3. Use the title of the flow chart if it has to find the right part of the passage. 4. Use the direction of the arrows and boxes to follow the order of information in chart. 5. Identify the type of word needed for each part of the flow chart. 6. Select the appropriate words from the passage. 7. Check the number of words that can be used for each answer. 8. Answers do not always come in order.
  • 7. LISTENING SECTION-2 - Matching - Labelling a diagram
  • 8. • In the IELTS Listening exam, you may have to match pieces of information. Such tasks can be found in any section of the exam. • In matching listening questions you will be given a list of options to choose from. There will usually be more options than you need to answer the questions. The options are sometimes listed alphabetically and not in the order you will hear them. The questions will be listed in the order that you will hear them.
  • 9. • Strategies for matching task 1.Before you listen, focus on reaing the questions first. 2.Then read the options. 3.Underline keywords. 4.Listen out for the keywords in the question and match them to the keywords in the options. 5.Write only one letter for each question.
  • 10. Labelling a diagram • You may have to label a diagram which describes a process. This question type can be found in any section of the exam. • You have to complete the diagram by writing the information yortself or choosing the answer from a list of options. Sometimes labelling a diagram will require you to relate information to a visual representation of the information you hear. The extent of the visual clues will vary. • You will need to study the diagram before you listen to understand the order of events or process. The information you need in order to answer the questions is in the same order as it is on the recording.
  • 11. Strategies for labelling a diagram task • Read the instruction carefully. Study the drawing and the heading, if it has one. Try to work out what the drawing shows. • Notice how the numbers are arranged so you know in which order the information will be presented. It means you have to think of ways you can describe where places are before you listen. • Make sure you understand what direction or location you need to be following. Is it right or left? Front or back? • Look carefully at the drawing, noting the words that are given in the diagram. You can use these as reference points while you are listening. Circle or underline any keywords or areas. Think of vocabulary for place and location, such as at the top of, at the bottom of, next to, immediately opposite, in the corner/ middle, at the side/ back, behind in front of, opposite, in (a street, town), near, on the corner, next to, at the end of the street etc. • Try to understand the diagram by thinking about thow the different parts relate to each other. • Listen for each place name and find starting point once the CD begins and follow the speaker’s direction. • The words may be exactly what you hear on the recording, do not use your own words. • When you hear the relevant information, listen carefully for the answer. If you miss an answer, go on to the next question or you may miss that too.
  • 12. SPEAKING PART 2&3 - Using reasons & examples - Strategies for self-correction and expressing oneself more clearly
  • 13. Using reasons & examples • In speaking part 2, the topic is based on your experience. Quickly think of something that is relevant to the topic. If you can’t remember anything suitable, invent something. • The first 3 points are usually quite factual. Speak about them in turn, fairly briefly. Allow yourself enough time to talk about the last line. This often asks for an explanation, so it gives you the opportunity to use a wider range of language. • In spaeking part 3, as mentioned before, the examiner will ask you questions related to the topic of part 2. The questions will use verbs describe, compare, recommend, identify, outline, evaluate, speculate, suggest etc. Your answers should be at least one or two sentences long. Expand them, for example by giving reasons and examples.
  • 14. • When you expand your talking you can use some expressions as belowed to give reasons and examples. • Giving reasons: - The reason (why) … - I think that’s why … - As a result (of) … - Why I think is that … - Another reason is that … • • Giving examples: - For example - For instance - Such as - Like* - please note that ‘like’ can’t be used as linking device in academic writing. - One example that springs to mind is … - Probably the best example I can think of is … - Let me give you an example.
  • 15. • Speaking part 2 & 3: Strategies for self-correction and expressing oneself more clearly: You use these natural and simple expression to explain your point again more clearly or get your answer back on track. • Giving a detail / an explanation or clarification: - What I mean is … - What I want to say is … - What I’m trying to say is … - My point is that … - As I was saying - In other words, … - By that I mean - That means that… - Plus … - What people do is that … - Let me explain why I think that. • Referring back to something you said earlier in the talk - As I mentioned before, … - As I said earlier, … • Looking for the correct word - How do you say - What’s the word
  • 16. Pronunciation: Word stress • Something the examiner will be thinking about as you talk is, ‘Does this student impose a strain on the listener?’ This is a very important concept in the IELTS Speaking exam. If you ‘impose a starin’, it means that the listener has to struggle to understand you. • Here are some ways you may impose a strain: • Hesitating for too long • Speaking too quietly • Having poor pronunciation • Improving these aspects of your speaking will improve your mark. • • Word stress is crucial in English. With words which have more than one syllable, e.g. actually, we stress one syllable more than the others. Actually contains three syllables: ac tua lly. If you stress the wrong syllable, the listener may have trouble understanding you. Always mark the stressed syllable when you note down a new word.
  • 17. • WRITING TASK 2: DISCUSSING ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES - Introducing and linking ideas in paragraph - Constructing the middle paragraphs of the essay
  • 18. • As we learnt previously, an essay is a group of paragraphs written about a single topic and a central main idea. • One type of essay is writing about advantages or disadvantages of a topic. If you are writing one topic, it is usually best to discuss advantages and disadvantages in two separte paragraphs, which is in block style.
  • 19. To answer Outweigh questions you must: 1. Brainstorm ideas supporting both sides. 2. Answer the question – do you think the advantages or the disadvantages are most important? Which one? 3. Put your answer to the question in the thesis statement in your introduction. 4. Can use the word ‘outweigh’ in your introduction if you want or can explain if there are more advantages or disadvantages in your opinion. 5. Avoid to use memorized statements for your thesis statement. 6. Have one body paragraph which gives details about the opposite side to your opinion. 7. Have either one or two paragraphs which give details of the side you chose to support by refuting. 8. Restate your opinion in the conclusion using different language. 9. Be careful that the outweigh question is not exactly the same as the Advantages and disadvantages essay question.
  • 20. • As we know that an essay should be organized into an introduction, a body and a conclusion. Ideas if these parts of essay should be connected to a single topic to keep unity in an essay. • One way to keep unity [‘uniti] in an essay is to edit the outline for ideas that are not relevant to the thesis statement or topic sentences. Likewise, (uunii zeregtsee) after you have written the essay, it is helpful to review the text and look for ideas that do not relate to the thesis or the topic sentences. • You can further increase your score for coherence by writing an effective introduction and then linking your points to this introduction. • It should be very clear to the examiner that what each paragraph is about and then logically organize each sentence within that paragraph. At a sentence level, main body paragraphs should follow this structure: - Topic sentence - Explanation - Example For example: The best way to improve the health and fitness of the public is through advertisement campaigns. Many people are unaware of the health benefits regular exercise and a healthy diet brings and an advertising campaign could be used to educate people. For example, the ‘5-a- day’ campaign used in UK was extremely effective in getting people to eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
  • 21. • The topic sentence makes it clear to the reader what the main point is and this is extended with an explanation in the second sentence and a relevant example in the third. If we were to order these sentences differently, they would be more difficult to understand. • In order to provide a good coherent in your paragraphs, you have to use some cohesive devices (linking devices, linking words) - words and phrases that connect ideas, sentences and paragraphs together- those are transitions, pronoun references and repetition of key ideas.
  • 22. • Transitions- words and phrases that are used to connect sentences together or relate ideas to one another. • Some common transitions, that are used in discussing advantages and disadvantages essay, are as belowed. • Comparison: • likewise • compared to • similarly • as …as • and • Contrast: • however • on the other hand • but • yet • in spite of • in contrast • although • instead
  • 23. • Pronoun reference: • Two sentences can be connected by the use of a pronoun. A pronoun (he, she, it , they, etc) takes the place of a noun (a person, place, thing or idea) or a noun phrase (several words that refer to a person, place, thing or idea). For example: • American sign language developed from the mixture of signs used by deaf americans and French Sign Language. Today, it is used by more than 500,000 deaf people in the United States and Canada. • The pronoun it refers back to the subject, American Sing Language, and connects the two sentences together. • • Repetition of key ideas: Key words and phrases are used to connect ideas in an essay into unity. This will help the reader remember the main ideas in the text. For example: • Modern medicine focuses on illness. If a patient with a cough visits a modern doctor, then the doctor will give the patient a medicine to stop the cough. If the the patient also has a fever, the doctor may give a different medicine to stop the fever.
  • 24. • Strategies for constructing middle paragraphs • Write a brief outline including the thesis statement and main ideas. • Structure your answers in logical paragraphs • Include one main idea per paragraph • Link your main ideas of each paragraphs to the introduction. • Support main points with an explanation and then an example. • Use cohesive devices accurately and appropriately. • Vary your linking phrases using synonyms.