Sociology - HIMALAI IAS

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Sociology - HIMALAI IAS

  1. 1. SOCIETY  It is general term it is abstract or imaginary Society consists family, kins, band, Tribe, village, town, taluk district, state, nation, world CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOCIETY  Common territory Eg: Village  There should be interaction between the people, mere existence of individuals is not enough. Eg: Village HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  2. 2.  People must to some extent have a common culture and a shared sense of membership (belongingness. in the commitment of the same group Eg: Village  They feel themselves distinct from others Eg: Village ORIGIN OF SOCIETY  THEORY OF DEVINE ORIGIN : As per this, theory society created by God.  FORCE THEORY: As per this society created by few powerful and strong people. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  3. 3.  PATRIARCHAL THEORY : As per this society created by male members  MATRIARCHAL THEORY: as per this society created by female members.  THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT: As per Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau society created through making contract between two or more conflicting groups.  ORGANIC THEORY OF SOCIETY: As per Herbert Spencer, Society is like an organism. Both society and organism consists birth, growth, maturity, death. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  4. 4.  GROUP MIND THEORY : As per this, society created as per many people discussions or thinking. PREREQUISITES OF SOCIETY  IT IS SELF PERPETUATING i.e., - society continue irrespective of an individuals death and birth  IT IS ORGANISED i.e., Society organised as per division of labour or specialisation of work.  SOCIETY CONSISTS norms or culture HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  5. 5. CONDITIONS FOR SOCIETY FOR ITS SURVIVAL  Society must consists, territory  In society group of people must maintain interaction  In society, group of people must maintain, culture. ELEMENTS OF THE SOCIETY  Likeness: i.e., in society, people will maintain same type of socio-bio-economical- psychological needs. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  6. 6.  differences: In society, people will maintain differences.  When compare to differences in society, members will maintain more likeness  Society is an abstract i.e., people will maintain psychological interaction.  Society is a permanent. HUMAN & ANIMAL SOCIETY Human beings also like animals in biological needs: But human beings has culture but Animals has culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  7. 7. TYPES OF SOCIETY BAND: It is smallest society. It consists group of families, which move from place to place as per season. It is egalitarian society. It is headed by eldest male of female member. TRIBE: It is group of bands. Here people will live in particular area like forest or hill area with using common dialect and practicing primitive economic activities like hunting and food gathering/pastorlism/horticulture of shifting cultivation HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  8. 8. VILLAGE: It is a society. Here 75% of male population engaging in agricultural activities. It consists patrilocal joint family which headed by eldest male member called as Kartha. TOWN: It is urban area with 75% of male population engaging in trading activities. It consists extend nuclear family. It consists less than One lakh population. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  9. 9. CITY: It is urban area with 75% of male population engaging in trading, manufacturing, service activities. It consists nuclear family. It consists more than One lakh population. METRO-POLITAN CITY: It is urban area with 75% of male population engaging in Trading manufacturing service activities. It consists nuclear family. It consists more than Ten lakh population. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  10. 10. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: It is urban area with 75% of male population engaging in manufacturing. It consists nuclear family. It consists more than Ten lakh population. POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: It is urban area with 75% of male population engaging in services. It consists nuclear family. It consists more than Ten lakh population. BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE SOCIETY Psychic unity among members in the society Mutual awareness and cooperation among members. Society based on both likeness and differences among members in the society. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  11. 11. COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY  It is part of the society. Eg; Village is part of Indian society.  It has particular territory. Eg: Village has particular territory  People will maintain fact to face relationship. Eg: Village  People will maintain common life style. Eg: food habit, dress habit, common culture  People will maintain we feeling HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  12. 12.  One group depending on another group. Eg: Landlords depending on agricultural labours  It grown spontaneously Eg: Village  It is permanent Eg: Village  It has particular name. Eg: Rampur in Mysore  It has diffused goal  It has no legal status. Eg: Filing case against village not possible HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  13. 13. TYPES OF COMMUNITY  Neighbors in Village  Band  Tribe  Village  Minorities  Monastry  Prison  Boarding Schools HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITES  GRAS’S THEORY OF ECONOMIC CHANGE According to him community developed as per economic activities like hunting and food gathering, pastrolism, horticulture in tribal area or agriculture and pastrolism in rural area.
  14. 14. SOCIETY 1) It is wider 2) It has less or more population 3) It has no particular area COMMUNITY It is part of the society It has less population. It has particular area. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  15. 15. SOCIETY 4) People maintains heterogeneity 5) People may maintain close or not close relationship. 6) It has many goals. 7) Individual personality develops in multi way. 8) It consists likeness and differences. Eg: India, World COMMUNITY People maintains homogeneity. People maintain face to face relationship. It has less goals. Individual personality develops in narrow way. It consists likeness. Eg: Village, tribe HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  16. 16. ASSOCIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSOCIATION  It is concrete form of organisation. Eg: Bar council  It is artificially created. Eg: Bar Council  It has goal. Eg: Bar Council goal is safeguarding lawyers.  It has written rules and regulations.  Here membership is voluntary.  It is temporary HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  17. 17. SOCIETY COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION It is wider It is part of the society It is part of the society Membership is voluntary /Involuntary Membership is involuntary Membership is voluntary HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  18. 18. SOCIETY COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION People maintains heterogeneity People maintains homogeneity. People maintains heterogeneity. People may maintain close or not close relationship. People maintain face to face relationship. People may maintain close or not close relationship. It has many goals. It has less goals. It has less goals. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  19. 19. SOCIETY COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION Individual personality develops in multi way Individual personality develops in narrow way. It has less goals. It consists likeliness and differences. Eg: India, World It consists likeness. Eg: Village, tribe It consists likeliness and differences. Eg: India, World It may be natural artificially created. It may be natural created It may be artificially created. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  20. 20. SOCIETY COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION It may be natural artificially created. It may be natural created. It may be artificially created. It has written or unwritten norms. It has unwritten norms. It has written norms. It is permanent. Eg: Indian Society It is Permanent Eg: Village It is temporary. Eg: An industry HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  21. 21. INSTITUTIONS Institution is means or path for achieving goal. It is explained as given below: HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER INSTITUTION GOAL  Marriage For forming family.  Agriculture, trade, industry Fulfilling economical needs  Education Changing one’s personality  God, prayer, rituals For attaining salvation  Election, political party For forming government.
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTION  Institutions are means for controlling individuals. Eg: Law is a means for controlling individuals in the society  Institutions are the result of collective interaction of individuals Eg: Law in India formed by people representatives  Institutions are formed on the basis of customs and values: Eg: Family marriage HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  23. 23.  Institutions are stable means of social control. Eg: Police, Court  According to Oxford dictionary, institutions consists set of mores, folkways, pattern of behaviour that deals with church, family, government etc.  It determining kinship. Eg: Family, marriage  It provide legitimate use of power. Eg: District collector can use power in his district HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  24. 24.  It regulate distribution of goods and services. Eg: Industry  It transmit knowledge from one generation to another generation. Eg: Education  It regulate man relation to super natural being or God. Eg: Religion. CONCEPTS IN CULTURE  EIDO – THE TERM GIVEN BY KROEBER: It indicates any aspects which perceivable or observable through sensory organs like eyes. Eat, etc. Eg: Mangala sutra – which using by Married woman in India HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  25. 25.  ETHO – THE TERM GIVEN BY KROEBER: It indicates any aspects which not observable Through sensory organs but mentally one can analyse. Eg: Sacred feeling which possessed by Indian married woman who wear Mangalasutra. It is not observable  EXPLOIT CULTURE OVERT CULTURE: The term given by Kroeber. It is Eido. It is also called as Etic The term Etic given by Kenneth Pike.  IMPLICIT CULTURE/COVERT CULTURE: The term given by Kroeber. It is Etho. It is also called as Emic. The term Emic given by Kenneth Pike. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  26. 26.  CULTURAL DETERMINISM: It says that every aspect in the society is determined by culture. Eg: Family system in India is determined by Indian Culture.  CULTURAL COMPLEX: It indicates cluster of cultural traits in particular society. Eg: Hinduism consists it’s own marriage, family, religion, sacredness, symbols, festivals etc. Cluster of above said elements called as Hindu culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  27. 27.  CULTURAL TRAIT: It indicates elements in particular culture. These are beliefs, values, ways of doing things, which studied separately in particular culture. Eg: Festivals in Hinduism. It is one cultural trait among many traits in Hindu culture.  DIFFUSION/TRANSCULTURE: It indicates spreading culture. Eg: Due to mass media, western culture found in India also. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  28. 28.  BRITISH DIFFUSION THEORY: It is developed by G.E. Smith, Perry, W.H. River. As per this, whatever culture found in all over world now, once upon a time all culture developed in Egypt  GERMAN DIFFUSION THEORY OR KULTUR KRISE SCHOOL: It is developed by Grabner, Ankerman, Schmidth, Leo problems, Ratzel. As per this, different cultures in the world developed in different areas (once upon a time) Different culture, which developed in different areas spread to other areas. Eg: Zero concept developed by Indians. But today in all over the World ‘Zero’ is using. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  29. 29.  AMERICAN DIFFUSION THEORY: It is developed by Franzbose, Clark wiser, Kroeber.  As per this, different cultural elements in the world developed in different areas. Cultural elements will not spread to other areas. Eg: Deepavali festival restricted to Hinduism. It is not find anywhere in the world.  EVOLUTION OF CULTURE: It indicates development of culture from simple (in the beginning) to complex (in later.) HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  30. 30.  AS PER TYLOR RELIGION EVOLVED AS GIVEN BELOW: Animism (once upon a time people used to worship soul. Polytheism (Gradually people used to worship many gods. monotheism (now people worship one God)  MARGINAL AREA: Any area which is between two cultural areas. Eg: Sub urban Areas. It is in between city and village. Person who is living in marginal area called as Marginal persons. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  31. 31.  CULTURAL PARALLEL OR CONVERGENT CULTURE OR UNIVERSAL CULTURE: It indicates development of same type of culture in different part of the world. Eg: Monogamy found in all over the world.  ETHNOCENTRISM: It indicates exaggerating one’s own culture. Eg: Indian exaggerate Indian culture. American exaggerate Culture.  XENOCENTRISM: It indicates exaggerating other’s culture. Eg: Indian exaggerate american culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  32. 32.  TEMPOCENTRISM: It indicates accepting one’s own culture without questioning Eg. A muslim accept his culture without questioning.  CULTURAL SURVIVAL: It indicates some cultural elements will continue long period without having any benefit to the society. Eg: Many religious rituals in Hindu Community.  SYNCRETISM: It indicates giving new meaning for existing culture. Eg: As per Basavanna, Hindu saint ‘Work is God”. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  33. 33.  CULTURAL RELATIVISM: The term given by Horskovit – It indicates there is no good or bad culture in line world. Each and every culture developed as per one’s bio, Psychic, social needs. It also indicates culture is to be studied in relation to its location. Culture cannot grow in a vacuum. Eg: Hindu culture developed as per their bio, Psychic and Social needs.  ACCULTURATION: It indicates learning other’s culture/when a whole way of life is in the process of change under the influence of another culture. Eg: Indian learning American Culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  34. 34.  ASSIMILATION: It means one culture merge itself with the dominant culture. Eg: Jainism in India merging with Hindu Culture.  ENCULTURATION: It indicates learning one’s own culture. Eg: Tamilian learning Tamil Culture  CORE CULTURE: It indicates any culture which used by most of the members in the society. Eg: Caste system found in all over India. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  35. 35.  CULTURE SPECIALITIES: Any cultural elements which are restricted to particular group called as cultural specialties. Eg: Politician culture restricted to politicians only.  DOMINANT CULTURE: Any culture which is practiced by Dominant members or many members in the society. Eg: Hinduism in India.  SUB-CULTURE: It is a group that shares in the overall culture of the society, but also, has it’s own distinctive values, norms, lifestyles etc. Eg: Jains in India follow Hindu culture, but also it has it’s own distinctive norms, values, lifestyles which are different from Hindu Culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  36. 36.  CONTRACULTURE: Any culture which is opposite to dominant and subculture. Eg: Culture of Terrorists.  CULTURAL PATTERN OR CULTURAL CONFIGURATION: It indicates proper order of cultural elements in the society. Eg: In India, our marriage system, family system, political system, religion system etc. well organised.  CULTURAL THEME: As per Morris Opler, it indicates motivation behind any culture. Eg: Motivation behind any festival is building unity among members. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  37. 37.  APPOLEAN CULTURE: The term used by Ruth Benedict. It indicates calm culture. Ruth Benedict did research on Pubelo tribals in New Mexico. Their culture is calm.  DYNOSIAN CULTURE: The term used by Ruth Benedict. It indicates storm culture. Ruth Benedict did research in Dobu tribals in Kwakital islands in Pacific Ocean. Their culture is storm.  CULTURAL CONFLICT: It indicates clashes between different cultural elements found in Different cultural group. Eg: Hindus will worship Idols. Christians will not worship idols. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  38. 38.  CULTURAL LAG: The concept given by Ogburn. It is gap between material and non material culture or it is a situation that develops when new patterns of behaviour conflict with traditional values or some times material culture and at other times non-material culture changes faster or it explains that there is faster rate of change in the economic sector of society in comparison to non-economic sector. Eg: 1. Traditional society like India, girl working in call centre in midnight with other male and female employees. 2. The situation where TV commentator continuous to describe a cricket match as a radio commentator. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  39. 39.  COMPONENTS OF CULTURE AS PER BIDNEY: As per him culture consists  AGRO FACTS: Knowledge on Agriculture  ARTIFACTS: Knowledge on Technology SOCIOFACTS: Knowledge on people relationship  MENTIFACTS: Knowledge on ideologies of the society  IDEAL CULTURE: Any culture which consists values, beliefs, customs etc. which are ideological nature One may follow / not follow. Eg: Don’t lie. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  40. 40.  REAL CULTURE: Any culture which practiced in day today life. Eg: Following traffic rules.  CULTURALOGY : It is study of the culture.  TRANSCULTURE: It is diffusion or spreading of culture from one area to another area.  PLURAL CULTURE: It indicates existence of more than one culture in particular area. Eg: Hinduism, Eg: Islam, Christianity in India HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  41. 41.  CULTURAL ALTERNATIVE: It indicates alternative values, beliefs, customs practiced in particular society. Eg: among Hinduism, one can burry dead body or burn dead body.  CULTURAL CAPITAL: It indicates Cultural complex  CULTURAL REPRODUCTION: The term given by Bourdeou. It indicates dominant people or group reproduce their culture on weaker section. Eg: In Ancient period, Brahmanas reproduced their culture on low caste groups. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  42. 42.  CULTURAL ACCELERATION: It indicates increasing quantity and quality of culture. Eg: Indian cultural. Eg: Indian cultural elements increasing due to western countries influence.  CULTURAL BLINDNESS: It indicates any culture does not consider other culture. Eg: Fundamentalists in any religion does not recognise other culture of religion.  CULTURAL DRIFT: It indicates unplanned change in culture. Eg: Caste in India. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  43. 43.  CULTURAL FOCUS: It indicates flexibility culture. Eg: America’s culture is flexible  CULTURAL IMPERATIVE: It indicates how culture will fulfill one’s bio, psychic and social needs. Eg: Indian culture developed as per bio-psychic and social needs of Indians It is also called as cultural relativism.  CULTURAL LANDSCAPE: It indicates modification of culture as per one’s Geographical requirements. Eg: Dress habit Change as per one’s geographical requirements. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  44. 44. 51. CULTURAL MANISM: It indicates cultural minorities assimilating with Dominant culture. Eg: Buddhist and Jains merging with Hindu culture. 52. CULTURAL OBJECT: It indicates any material which related to culture. Eg: Mangalsutra for Hindu married women. 53. CULTURAL INERTIA: It indicates continuation of culture even after loosing it’s importance. Eg: Caste system is continuing in India after loosing it’s importance. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  45. 45. 54. CULTURAL MOTOR HABIT: It indicates changes in body movement as per culture. Eg: Body movement while worshipping God. 55. CULTURAL RATIONALISATION: It indicates rational meaning behind any culture. Eg: Rational meaning behind prayer is controlling one’s mind. 56. CULTURAL POSSIBILITIES: It indicates cultural alternatives. 57. CULTURAL SYSTEM: It indicates comparing culture with human body. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  46. 46.  CULTURAL TRANSMISSION: It indicates transmission of culture from one generation to another generation Eg: In India caste system is transmitting from generation to generation.  CULTURAL ADOPTING: It is cultural landscape  CULTURAL ACCUMULATION: It is cultural acceleration  CULTURAL ADHERSION: It indicates association of people of groups HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  47. 47.  CULTURAL BASE: It indicates total values, beliefs, customs etc, found in Particular society in a given time. Eg: Culture during ancient period in India i.e., upto 800 AD.  CULTURAL GRADIENT: It indicates decline in any cultural element. Eg: Day by Day caste system is declining in India.  CULTURAL UNIVERSAL: Some cultural elements found in all the societies or Striking Uniformity among the culture. Eg: Marriage, family, division of labour, incest taboo, rite de passage, ideologies. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  48. 48.  CULTURAL ISLANDS: It indicates any distinct culture which a prevailing in Particular area. Eg: Islam in Mecca, Christianity in Vatican city.  CULTURAL SHOCK: It indicates experiencing strange cultural element in particular area. Eg: Main land in Indian experiencing shock, if he observe naked Zarwas in Andaman & Nichobar Islands.  AS PER RICHARD T. LAPIERE: Culture consists 3 elements i.e.,  IDEOLOGICAL CULTURE: It consists ideologies of the society, Eg: Honesty, Kindness. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  49. 49.  TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE: It consists knowledge on technology and materials. Eg: Computer, Software.  ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: It consists knowledge on human relationships  As per Malinowski “Culture developed as per one’s bio-psychic and social needs”.  LINTON divided culture as universal culture, special culture, alternative culture.  THE TERM CULTUROLOGY GIVEN BY WHYTE. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  50. 50.  TECHNOLOGICAL LAG: When technology fail to adjust with other elements in the society called as Technological lag. Eg: Even though lot of technological development in family planning programmes like contraceptives, vasectomy etc, it is unable to adjust with Indian’s traditional thinking  CULTURAL REVITALISATION: It is giving new meaning for declining culture with the intention of its continuity. Eg: Giving new meaning for caste system with the intention of Its continuity. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  51. 51.  Macalver has talked about culture and Civilisation. By culture he refers to morals, spiritual and intellectual aspects while with Civilisation he refers to secondary, technology and material part.  Malinowski and Raddiff Brown gave instrumental humanistic view on culture. i.e., culture will fulfill human’s bio and psychic and also social needs in particular group.  CIVILISATION: The term given by Alfred Weber. It indicates material, technology which are universally acceptable. Eg: Computer, Software etc. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  52. 52.  AUTONOMOUS CULTURE: The term Autonomous culture given by Robert Redfield. According to Robert Redfield this the culture which has no or even meagre contact with outside world. Eg: Zanwas tribals in Andaman and Nicobar island, have no idea about wearing cloth.  ETIC OR EXPLICIT AND EMIC OR IMPLICIT CULTURE by Kenneth and Pyke. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  53. 53.  CULTURAL BASELINE: It is stage were two or more cultural contact initiate. Eg: Aryan culture and Dravidian culture started contacting in 1,500 B.C. when Aryans came from Central Asia and attacked Harappans.  CULTURAL DEPRIVATION: It indicates avoiding processing some cultural elements by poor class people. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  54. 54.  LEVIS H. MORGAN: says invention of alphabets, phonetics and writing distinguishes civilisation from preceding stages in the evolution of human society. Eg: Because of English alphabets in India call centres and BPO’s are developing.  P.A. SOROKIN: divided culture as ideational ideologies and Sensate (facts) As per Sorokin idealistic culture characterised by partly supernatural intuition and partly sensory experience. Eg: Religion.  LINTON: divided culture as universal culture, special culture, alternative culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  55. 55.  RACE: It is dividing human beings as per different biological characteristics like Nigros have wooly hair, Europeans have smooth curly hair, Mongoloids have straight hair. Inter mixture of races are universal. Racial inter-mixture not leads to de-generation. The concept of pure race is myth. Inter mixture of races is a universal phenomena. No race is superior or inferior to any other race.  RACISM: When inner and superiority of a people over another is Legitimized in terms of biological attributes. Eg: Europeans will think their body structure superior than others. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  56. 56.  RACIAL PREJUDICE: It refers to an attitude that pre-disposes people of racial group to think or act negatively towards other racial group Eg: Europeans will think their race is superior when compare to all races in the world. It arises from unfounded beliefs in racial superiority and inferiority. .  CULTURAL ABSOLUTES: These are norms which are fixed do not differ from culture to culture. Eg: Incest Taboo i.e., avoiding marriage between brother and sister or parents and children. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  57. 57.  CULTURAL ALTERNTIVES: The forms of behaviour recognised by a society as valid which cut across class, occupational or sex lines. These are alternatives in the culture. Eg: One can marry through arranged or registered in Government  PRONATALISM: Some societies have strong positive value for having more children. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  58. 58.  MARCINAL AREAS: It is area between two cultures. It is any border areas. CLARK WISLER demonstrated that in each restricted area of culture, a central point of dispersal could be identified. People living on the borders of the two cultural areas, share the features of both. Eg: People living in India and Pakistan border.  DIACHRONIC ORIENTATION: It consists analysing culture in 2 societies. Eg: Comparing casteism in present and past (It called as historical particularism. or analysing birth to growth to maturity of particular culture. Eg: Caste. (It is called as evolutionism. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  59. 59.  COUNTER CULTURE: It is sub-culture adheres to set of beliefs and values, radically rejects the societies dominant culture and prescribes alternative one. Eg: Jainism divided into two  Dighambara (Original Jainism)  Swethambara (wearing white colour dress) Here swethambara is counter culture.  EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEING:  Ramapithecas: Here man was like ape without speaking skills. He lived irrearly Pleistocene period i.e., whole world covered with ice. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  60. 60.  Austrolopithacas – Here man was in between ape and Chipanji without speaking skills, He lived in middle Pleistocene period. i.e., part of the world covered with ice.  Neaderthaloid- Here man was between modern man and chimpanji with speaking skills. He lived in late pleistocene period i.e., some part of the world covered with ice.  Cromagnan or Homosapiens: He was modern man. Homosapiens developed at the close of early warm climate. The evolution and Development of earliest homoerectors into existing races to place when he entered into the stage of Mousterian tool making industry i.e., making tools with iron. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  61. 61.  CULTURAL CONTACT: It is adopting new cultural patterns. Eg: Indian adopting American culture.  CULTURAL PLURALISM: It refers co-existence of many cultures without evaluating each other. Eg: In India Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Buddhist, Christians.  MODERNIZATION: The term given by Yogendra Singh. It indicates Indians adopting any progressive culture. It is product of diffusion and Acculturation HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  62. 62.  CULTURAL EXPANSION: Cultural expansion means when the innovation of one society are learned adopted or borrowed by another society. It is also called as Cultural diffusion.  CULTURAL BASE: It means one generation hands down its experience, invention, borrow culture to the next generation. Eg: Marwadi’s transfering their business knowledge to their children. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  63. 63.  MASS CULTURE: The term given by H.D. Lass well. It indicates urban culture or modern culture.  CULTURAL CONSTRUCT: The term given by Ralph Linton. Cultural Construct means basic elements in the culture. Eg: Traditionality in Indian Culture  CULTURAL TAXONOMY: The term given by J.H. Steward. It indicates Classification of culture. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER
  64. 64.  Dube says Culture passed in six stages. a. Old Paleolithic Age – Here man started making crude stone equipments for hunting b. Meso Paleolithic Age – Here man started using ornaments and arms. Man also started burying dead body. c. Neopaleolithic Age-Here man started using tools which cutted like knife. Man also started agricultural activities. d. Copper Age – Here man started making copper tools. e. Brown Age – Here man started using tools through Bronze. f. Iron Age – It is modern Age  DE-CULTURATION: Deculturation means forgetting one’s identity. Eg: Indian origins in USA forgetting India’s identity. HIMALAI– WILL SEE YOU AS IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS/KAS OFFICER

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