- According to skeletal evidence, the first group traveled to the Middle East- After 80,000 frigid years , homosapiens crossed into Yemen through “Gates of Grief” (DNA Evidence).- In 60,000 years H. Sapiens had traveled into Southeast Asia and Volcanic eruptions covered Asia, India and Malaysia.- Only about 70,000 years ago Modern men came across Australia.- 50,000 years ago: Modern man began inhabiting Europe- 1856 Neander, Germany – skeleton found – had different facial features, more adapted to climate. WHERE HER MITOCHONDRIAL DNA TRAVELED TO….
Also Called the Mitochondrial Eve MITOCHONDRIAL EVE THEORY STATES THAT THE MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN ALL HUMANS IS INHERITED FROM ONE COMMON FEMALE ANCESTOR IN AFRICA ~200,000 YEARS AGO. THIS IS JUST ONE OF SEVERAL THEORIES ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION THAT ARE BEING DEBATED.
There are multiple explanations for how the Mitochondrial Eve theory, an example of it isthe bottleneck theory. The bottleneck theory is when a population undergoes a serveevolutionary change, probably caused by a disease or natural disaster.• The bottleneck effect could have occurred in that a large population of modern humans may have greatly dwindled in size, therefore losing mitochondrial DNA. Some of the remaining mating partners may not produce daughters where additional mitochondrial DNA.• Another possible way was a population of humans where a highly restricted speciation event took place that caused some of the individuals to begin to evolve into modern humans.HOW IT OCCURRED
Cann et al Cann et al. had examined the DNA of a group of people from five geographic populations. He had discovered that • All mtDNA genotypes could be traced back to a single, ancestral, mtDNA genotype. • The woman responsible for the mtDNA, had lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Cann et al. supported his findings with a parsimonious evolutionary tree that showed how mtDNA derived from roots in Africa. • He also found that the African population shows the most overall mtDNA diversity. THE DISCOVERY
During the 1980’s, several groups at UC Berkely used DNA restriction analysis to tracematernal lineages of people sampled from around the world. Non-coding regions withinmitochondrial DNA accumulate neutral mutations rapidly and steadily. The number ofindividuals sampled varied with each group, where 21, 147, and 241 individuals wereinvolved. They found many types of mitochondrial DNA that were separated into 2 groups, agroup of sub-Saharan Africans and a group consisting of N. Africans and all other populationgroups. The fact that Africans are present in both groups suggest an African origin formodern humans. They also showed that within the African population, there was muchmore variation in mitochondrial DNA that any other group, indicating that the Africanpopulation has been established longer. The information generated from these studies wasused to calculate a mutation rate using geographical groups of known colonization or bycomparing the mutations among humans with the divergence of humans and chimpanzees.It has been estimated that Mitochondrial Eve lived 150,000-200,000 years ago and thatmitochondrial DNA mutates 2-4% per million years.MORE DISCOVERIES