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Effective teaching, learning and research for university lecturers


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Effective teaching, learning and research for university lecturers

  1. 1. TEACHING AND LEARNING IN LARGE AND SMALL GROUPS Dr. Gambari, Amosa Isiaka E-mail: Website: Blogsite: A Paper Presented at a 3-Day Workshop on Effective Teaching, Learning and Research in FUT, Minna. 3rd September – 3rd October, 2012
  2. 2. 2 Objectives At the end of this presentation, you should be able to: Identify some challenges of teaching large group; Describe some strategies for engaging students, teaching students of varied disciplines and managing some disruptive behaviours in large groups; Explain some techniques for effective use of PowerPoint presentation for large groups;
  3. 3. 3 Cont… Identify some challenges and coping strategies for teaching large classes; Explain the basic concepts in teaching small group; Identify different types of small group learning; Demonstrate some steps for facilitating a small group learning; and Handle some problems of small group learning. Gambari 2012
  4. 4. Definition of Key Concepts Teaching  Learning 4
  5. 5. 5 Cont… 5 1 Teaching is an interaction between a teacher and a student in order to bring about the expected change in the student‟s behavour (Clark (1995). 2 Learning is a process which causes a change in the behaviour of an individual (Ngwoke, 1995). Basic Concepts Clarifying the terms
  6. 6. AIMS OF TEACHING A teacher requires not only knowledge of subject matter but also knowledge of how students learn and how to transform them into active learners. The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people‟s knowledge into active constructors of their own and other‟s knowledge. 6
  9. 9. LARGE GROUP These classes are usually taught in the lecture mode. Students are rarely asked to process their learning, and discussions are limited. Research has found that students are not very happy with large, lecture-style classes.
  10. 10. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON LARGE GROUP One study reports that students are bothered by: Lack of interaction with professors (both in and out of class) Lack of structure in lectures Lack of or poor discussion Inadequate contact with teaching assistants Inadequacy of classroom facilities and environment Lack of frequent testing or graded assignments (James, 2000)
  11. 11. LECTURE METHOD  The lecture method is a process of teaching whereby the teacher verbally delivers the knowledge to his students.  sometimes, entertains questions either to emphasize some points or to make some points clearer.  The teachers do the talking while the students do the listening and jot down the points when necessary.  These days, teachers can lecture a crowd of students or unseen students through the use of radio, television, and internet sites.
  12. 12. Lecture Method 12
  13. 13. ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD LECTURE  It is delivered in a way that is informative, interesting and engaging; The content is well organized and easy to follow; Students feel involved Students are left wondering where time has gone; Students leave knowing that they have learned something(s), and are often inspired to go off and find out more. 13
  14. 14. ENHANCING LECTURE CLASSES 14 Variety Pace Interest Individualization Setting Up Routines Speaking Style  Enlarging Circle Collaboration
  16. 16. At the beginning of the lecture  The lecturer should: Appear enthusiastic and interested in the lecture; Be organized, and take control of the lecture room on your arrival; Know how to use the presentation equipment. 16
  17. 17. During the first few minutes of the lecture The lecturer could: Go through the learning outcomes Describe a problem or scenario that is of relevance to the topic Share his/her passion and enthusiasm for the topic. Link the lecture to some current news or activity. 17
  18. 18. During the remaining period of the lecture The lecturer could: Use relevant and current examples to illustrate the point; Draw on the students' experiences (where possible); Use rhetorical questions to encourage students to keep on track; Vary between note taking, listening, and active participation; Use visual materials Use live links to the web to demonstrate the currency of the material being 18
  19. 19. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE  Brown (1987) identified three types of signal and clues: (i) Signposts: indicate the structure and direction of the lecture: E.g:  Last week we covered … and this week I will be developing those ideas further.  Today I want to consider…  First, we are going to look at …  Second, I‟ll spend some time considering …  There are also statements which indicate ends of the topics within the lecture:  * So, that summarizes the key features of … 19
  20. 20. Cont… (2) Links: are phrases or statements that link part of a lecture together: E.g: Having just come to the end of a topic, you could say, for example:  So what does that mean in practice? Well, let's go on to have a look at . . .  So we can conclude then that.. .But what does that really tell us about. ... ? Well, if we go back to the first item we considered today. . . .  So, you can see that this is the final step in the process. So what now? If we know that this happens in this way, what are the long term consequences? Well, we‟ll now go on to consider those . . 20
  21. 21. Cont… (3) Foci: are statements that give emphasis and which highlight key points, e.g.: This is the most crucial step of the process . . . There are three absolutely essential points that need to be made . . . 21
  22. 22. A Case Study of Matt Davies (Aston University) Uses the „INTRO‟ mnemonic is particularly helpful in introducing a lecture. Where: I stands for Interest; N stands for Need; T stand for Timing; R stand for Range; and, O stand for Outcome. 22
  23. 23. HOW DO I ENGAGE MY STUDENTS? There are different types and levels of student engagement: (i) First, Build a rapport, accessible, approachable and friendly. (ii) Breaking the flow or changing activity (iii) Encourage active participation in the lecture by (a)Pose questions for students to discuss in small groups (b) Get the students to tackle problems individually, and then compare their answers with one or two others sitting next to them. (c) Ask the students to vote on a multiple choice question (MCQ) 23
  24. 24. Cont… Show a DVD clip, but do ask the students to look for something specific that you can ask them about afterwards; Use demonstrations that can involve the students directly; Ask students to do mini-test, for example, to check students‟ progress. This will need to be marked and could be based on an MCQ format. 24
  25. 25. LECTURING TO A VARIED STUDENT GROUP To make the lecture a good learning experience for all students, the following suggestions may help: Find out about the student cohorts who will be attending the lecture. Acknowledge to the students at the beginning, that you know they are a varied group and that the content, organisation and supporting materials for the lecture will reflect this. Use examples, or case studies, that are varied and reflect the subject disciplines of the group; 25
  26. 26. Cont…  When undertaking class tasks, suggest to the students that they work in their disciplinary cohorts; When appropriate, ask the students to work on different problems or consider different questions that are relevant to their knowledge base or subject discipline; and Make explicit reference to specific additional resources each cohort can access for support after the lecture. 26
  27. 27. MANAGING DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR  Late arrivals  Students chatting/Making Noise  Types of noise: Psychological noise; physical noise; etc  Use of mobile phones 27
  28. 28. EFFECTIVE USE OF POWERPOINT PowerPoint presentation can be a very effective tool for enliven the lecture. It is easy presentation to import graphics, photographs, ch arts, graphs, audio and video clips, and to insert live web links. If used well, it can generate interest and provide rich and varied information. 28
  29. 29. How Can I Use PowerPoint Effectively? 29
  30. 30. How can I use PowerPoint Effectively? (i) Avoid using complex background images which detract attention. (ii) Do not use over-complex graphs; (iii) Use a San-serif font such as Arial or Verdana because it‟s easier to read from a distance. (iv) Try to avoid lectures which use only slides with bullet points; 30
  31. 31. Cont... (v) Use not more than 5–7 bullets/points per slide for text information. (vi) Use short sentences. Think in terms of point form, and not narrative sentences and paragraphs. (vii) Use a large font, 18–24 point. (viii) Add an empty slide or a simple slide with a “Thank you” message to the end of your presentation so that the viewer is not left looking at your desktop! 31
  32. 32. Cont… (ix) Make your PowerPoint to be interactive (x) Import and use digitized images, sound or video materials within the presentation (xi) Use the hyperlink function to allow non- linear progression through the material. 32
  33. 33. CHALLENGES OF TEACHING LARGE CLASSES The following are some of the challenges: (i) Lack of intimacy (ii) Anxiety (iii) Meeting the student needs (iv) Marking of the scripts (v) Distractions (vi) Preparation (vii) Noise level (viii)Monitoring students (ix) Limited Space for CL activities (x) Textbooks and resources 33
  34. 34. STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH LARGE CLASSES Use a teacher's notebook Spread out Create a participation grade Encourage competition Relax: Find ways to relax before d class Establish trust by knowing your students by their name 34
  35. 35. Cont… Manage the noise Reduce marking and preparation time Enforce a lateness policy Share your mobile phone, e- mail, Skype, blog site addresses 35
  37. 37. What is a „small group‟? In higher education programmes, small groups may comprise of as many as 25 or 30 students. It can also operate within a much larger setting, such as a lecture, workshop or conference. 37
  38. 38. Benefits of Small Group Learning (SGL) (i) Tolerance and positive interactions among students from different cultural backgrounds; (ii) The exchange and processing of information; (iii) Academic achievement; (iv) Ownership of new knowledge and skills; (v) Opportunities to solve real-world problems; (vi) Positive attitudes toward the content; 38
  39. 39. Cont… (vii) Openness to new perspectives; (ix) Motivation to learn; (x) Confidence in one‟s social skills; (xi) Psychological health (e.g., social development, self-esteem); and (xii) Attendance. 39
  40. 40. Different Structures of Small Groups Learning (i) Informal small groups learning (ii) Formal small groups learning (a) Cooperative Learning (b) Collaborative Learning 40
  41. 41. STEPS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL GROUP WORK  The following are basic steps and preparation for SGL: 1. Teaching students the basic principles of SGL 2. Planning and preparation 3. Teachers and students roles in structuring SGL 4. Deciding on group size 5. Ways of forming the group/Group composition 6. Practical/Seating Arrangement 7. Group Dynamics – Group Process 8. Starting the Session 9. Types of small group learning 10. Handling problems or difficult situations in SGL 41
  42. 42. 1. Teaching Students Basic Principles of SGL (i) Positive interdependence, (a) Goal interdependence (b) Resource interdependence (c) Role interdependence (ii) Individual accountability, (a)Eliminates free riders (b) Domineering (c) Keep students on-task 42
  43. 43. Cont… (iii) Group interaction: E.g, (a) discussing concepts, (b) sharing personal experiences, (c) solving problems, and (d) encouraging each other, group members help each other learn the concepts. and (iv) Social skills: (a) leadership, (b) communication & active listening, (c) delegation, (d) conflict management, and (e) decision making. 43
  44. 44. 2. PLANNING AND PREPARATION  There are four fundamental questions a teacher should ask themselves when planning a teaching session, they are: (i) Who am I teaching? The number of learners and their study level or stage in training; (ii) What am I teaching? The topic or subject, the type of expected learning (knowledge, skills, behaviours); (iii) How will I teach it? Teaching and learning methods, length of time available, location of teaching session, internet resources, SGL skills models, etc; and (iv) How will I know if the students understand? Informal and formal assessments, questioning techniques, feedback from 44
  45. 45. Cont… 45
  46. 46. 3. TEACHERS‟ AND STUDENTS‟ ROLES IN STRUCTURING SGL (a) Teacher Roles (i) Start and finish group work - keeping to time, - ensuring outcomes are achieved - tasks are explained (ii) Maintain the flow of content (iii) Manage group dynamics. (iv) Facilitate goal achievement (v) Manage group environment 46
  47. 47. Timing and Tasks 47
  48. 48. (b) Student Roles 48 May 22, 2006 48 1. Facilitator/Leader Starts the activity and keeps the group on task Reiterates roles for others, as needed 2. Recorder: Takes notes as needed 3. Reporter: Presents to the large group 4. Time Keeper: Helps keep team on task within time limits
  49. 49. Cont… 5. Quiet Captain: The quiet captain sees to it that the group does not disturb other 6. Checker: The checker makes sure that each one in the group finishes the worksheet or assigned task in class. 49
  50. 50. 4. PRACTICAL AND SEATING ARRANGEMENTS (a) Practical Arrangement (i) the use of computer equipment (ii) Know how to load presentations, (iii)access the internet, (iv) set up the data projector (v) set up & use interactive whiteboards or other equipment (b) Seating Arrangement It has the following advantages: (i) Encourages nervous students to participate (ii) A dominating student can be checked (iii) Determines the level of students‟ participation 50
  51. 51. Types of Seating Arrangement 51
  52. 52. Cont… 52
  53. 53. Cont… 53
  54. 54. Cont… 54
  55. 55. Cont… 55
  57. 57. Deciding on Group Size The choice of group size will often depend on the:  size of the whole class; as well as on the size & Shapes of the room; and facilities available in the rooms in which the small- group work is to be carried out. 57
  58. 58. The followings are types of group sizes based on their advantages and disadvantages: (i)Pairs Advantages  ease to arrange meeting or schedules.  are good for small-scale tasks Disadvantages  Problems can occur when pairs fall out,  or a student is absent,  lazy or domineering.  It is normally unwise to use the same pairs for long-term tasks, but it is advisable to change pairs over different 58
  59. 59. (ii) Threes Advantages communication is still easy; work can be shared out in manageable ways; It is easier to arrange meetings/schedules than for larger groups. there is possibility of a 'casting vote'. opportunity when making decisions 59
  60. 60. Cont… Disadvantages two can gang up on against one, It is vulnerable if one member is often absent or when present doesn't take an equal responsibility 60
  61. 61. Fours Advantages (i) it can be spited into pairs for some activities (ii) can be a good for sharing out large projects (iii) Students with different abilities/qualities can play to their own 61
  62. 62. Fives Advantages (i) are a favoured for many tasks, (ii) opportunity for 'casting vote' (iii) opportunity when making decisions. (iv) There are sufficient people to provide a range of perspectives, Disadvantages (i) possibility for slacker to hide 62
  63. 63. (vi) Sixes The group can subdivide into threes or twos, in many different ways. It is difficult to ensure the equivalence of tasks for group members. 63
  64. 64. Seven to ten 64
  65. 65. (vii) Seven to ten Advantages (i) Can be splitting into smaller groups for action (ii) It only viable if a substantial task is to be undertaken and if considerable support and advice is given on project and team management. Disadvantage (i) greater possibility of idlers loafing 65
  67. 67. Strategies for Forming Groups  Avoid allowing students to form their own groups. When groups are self-selected, students are more likely to stray from the objective and form cliques (Cooper, n.d.).  Members should be chosen based upon differing achievement levels, learning styles, race or ethnicity, gender, academic majors or career objectives, ages, personalities, or past experiences.  Group can be constituted based on: Group with some historical or social basis; Random groups; and performance- related groups. 67
  68. 68. (i) Groups with some historical or social basis (a) Friendship groups Advantage (i) Feel sense of ownership Disadvantage (i) Students of similar ability clump together 68
  69. 69. (b) Geographical groups Advantages (i) is one of the easiest and quickest ways of dividing a class into groups. (ii) minimizes the embarrassment of some students who might not have been selected in a friendship group. Disadvantage (i) students nearest the tutor has higher in motivation compared to those in the most remote corner of the room. 69
  70. 70. Alphabetical (family name) group Advantages (i) It is easy to achieve if you already have an alphabetical class list. Disadvantages (i) it is possible for students to find themselves in the same group, if several tutors use the same process of group selection. (ii) It is possible when working with multicultural large classes, several students from the same culture may have the same family name, and some groups may end up as dominated by one culture. 70
  71. 71. (ii) Random groups (a) Number group  When students are given a number (for example on a class list), you can easily arrange for different combinations of groups for successive task (b) Class list rotating syndicates Where a succession of small-group tasks is to be used, say with group size being four, it can be worth making a printed list of the whole class, and starting off by forming groups by writing AAAA, BBBB, CCCC, DDDD, etc. down the list. Next time round, write ABCD, ABCD, ABCD etc 71
  72. 72. Cont… Astrological groups: selection on the basis of calendar month of birth date. Similarly, 'star signs' could be used but not all students know their stars. It can be used to groups members into different sizes Disadvantage (i) participants from some religions may also find it inappropriate. 72
  73. 73. (iv) Further ways of forming groups (a) Performance-related groups: Sometimes you may wish to set out to balance the ability range in each group, for example by including one high-flier and one low-flier in each group. (b) Skilled based groups: For some group task, it can be worthwhile to try to arrange that each group has at least one member with identified skills and competences. (c) Hybrid groups: This is a compromise solution. 73
  75. 75. Stages of Group Processes 75
  76. 76. 1. Forming Gambari, 2012 76 1. Exploratory stage 2. Awkward stage, characterized by silence 3. Teachers can help by facilitating introduction, using ice breaking tasks, explaining the tasks and purpose of the group Tasks:
  77. 77. 2. Storming 75 Tasks: 1. Determine requirements and roles 2. trying to carrying out the a task & become functional 3. This stage is characterized by conflicts 4. The teacher can help by clarifying & reflecting ideas & moderating conflicts.
  78. 78. 3. Norming 78 Tasks: 1. The group begins to share ideas, thoughts and beliefs & establish ground rules 2. Teacher can help clarifying ideas & ground rules, & encourage reticent member to participate
  79. 79. 4. Performing 79 Tasks: 1. Group focuses on activity & start to work as a team. 2. Teacher‟s is to keep the group focused and facilitate as necessary. 3. Monitor performance Provide feedback (e.g. evaluations) Apply consequences
  81. 81. Starting the Session The main task for the teacher at the start of the session is to facilitate forming and norming. To do this we need to: (i) Create a positive learning environment; (ii) Outline our expectations and explore those of the group; (iii) Negotiate and set ground rules; (iv) Identify, agree and assign roles and responsibilities; and (v) Facilitate participation and enable communication between group members through setting appropriate tasks. 81
  82. 82. Setting Ground Rules Typical ground rules might include: (i) Starting and finishing on time; (ii) Coming prepared; (iii) Listening to others without interruptions; (iv) Participating; (v) Saying when you don‟t understand; 82
  83. 83. Cont… (vi) Addressing the whole group and not just the teacher when speaking; (vii) Switching off mobile phones; (viii) Treating others‟ contributions with respect; (ix) Keeping personal issues out of the session; and (x) Maintaining confidentiality within the 83
  84. 84. A. The Ten Commitments 1. I promise to do my share of work with pleasure and delight. 2. I will be brave to express myself in my group. My opinions do count. 3. I will be sensitive to my learning. If I find any problem or difficulty, I will turn to my teammates for help immediately. 4. When my classmates are doing their presentation, I will encourage them with my big smile and attentive eyes. 5. I am willing to help my classmates and teammates when they need me. 84
  85. 85. Cont… 6. I will write “thank-you” notes to one of my classmates and teammates after each class. 7. I will learn how to show my appreciation in words and in deeds to anyone who helps me during class discussion. 8. I will learn how to catch my classmates while they are doing something good. 9. I will respect the differences between my classmates and me. 10. I promise to enjoy every minute of our physics class by smiling happily all the time. 85
  86. 86. B. The Ten Commandments 1. Do not turn in your homework late; 2. You must not laugh at your teammates when they make mistakes; 3. You must not sleep in class; 4. You must not chat with teammates during group discussion; 5. You must not shout at your teammates when talking to them; 6. You must not take things from another teammate‟s desk without permission; 86
  87. 87. Cont… 7. You must not kick the feet of another teammate under the table; 8. You must not eat or chew gum or garlic during group discussion; 9. You must not stay up late the night before small group learning class; and 10. You must not swing your chair while seated. (adopted from Gambari, 2010) 87
  88. 88. Questioning and facilitation techniques  Question strategies (i)Evidence - How do you know that? What evidence is there to support that position? (ii) Clarification - Can you put that another way? Can you give me an example? Can you explain that term? (iii) Explanation – Why might that be the case? How would we know that? Who might be responsible for…? (iv) Linking and extending - Is there any connection between what you have just said and what Y said earlier? How does this idea support/challenge what we explored earlier in the session? 88
  89. 89. Cont… (v) Hypothetical – What might happen if…? What would be the potential benefits of X? (vi) Cause and effect – How is this response related to management? Why is/isn‟t drug X suitable in this condition? What would happen if we increased/decreased X? (v) Summary and synthesis – What remains unsolved/uncertain? What else do we need to know or do to understand this better/be better prepared? (adapted from Brookfield 2006) 89
  90. 90. Group Functioning Strategies The following questions are necessary in determining how groups are functioning: (i)How well do you think you did that as a group? (ii) Did someone take the lead, and if so, how did this come about? (iii) Who said most? (iv) Whose ideas are most strongly present in the solution to the task? (v) Did you always agree with the ideas - being adopted by the group? (vi) Was there anything you thought but didn't actually say? 90
  92. 92. Types of Small Groups 92 simple Short term Impermanent Ad hoc Examples:  Think-Pair-Share  Four Corners complex Longer activities Permanent groups Examples:  Jigsaw  Group presentations/projects
  93. 93. Examples of SGL  Jigsaw  Brainstorm session;  Buzz group;  Cross-over group;  Fishbowl;  Free discussion;  Open-ended enquiries;  Peer-tutoring;  Problem-based tutorial group;  Tutorless group;  STAD TAI Role play; Self-help group; RPT;  Simulation/game; Snowballing; Step-by-step discussion; Structured enquiries; Syndicate; Tutorial; … etc. 93
  94. 94. 1. Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) - How to do it (i) Assign students to 4 – 5 member heterogeneous groups; (ii) The teacher presents materials usually in a lecture-discussion format. (iii) Group members work cooperatively with teacher-provided worksheets or answer sheets or both; 94
  95. 95. Cont… (iv) Each student individually takes a quiz and group quiz. (v) Each student‟s individual quiz score and team quiz score are counted equally towards the student‟s final course grade; (vi) High scoring teams is recognized in the class. 95
  96. 96. 96 May 22, 2006 2. Jigsaw – how to do it (i) Create heterogeneous groups called “home” groups (ii) Give students a part of a text to read (equally distributed) (iii) Have “expert groups” get together to share (iv) Bring “home” groups back together to debrief (v) Students take individual or group quiz (vi)Best group is rewarded
  97. 97. Cont… 97 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 home groups, with 4 members each 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 expert groups, with one member from each home group Rejoin home groups and share expertise
  98. 98. 3. Team Assisted Individualization – how to do it (i) Students are split into teams of three or four or five with a mix of ability; (ii) After a teacher has taught a lesson; (iii) Each teammate complete the task (iv) Teammates help each other complete tasks; (v) Students are then tested individually or by group; (vi) Teams earn recognition. 98
  99. 99. 4. Learning Cell – how to do it (i) Students read an assignment and generating a list of questions dealing with the major points, important concepts or methodological procedures. (ii) During class time, students are randomly paired up, and partner A begins by 99
  100. 100. Cont… (iii) After the question is answered (and possibly corrected), the second student, B, poses a question to student A. & each write down their answers. (iv) During this process the lecturer goes round monitoring student progress and providing clarification as needed. 100
  101. 101. 5. Think, Pair, Share - How to do it? (i) Announce a discussion topic or problem to solve; (ii) Give students at least 10 seconds of think time to THINK of their own answer; (iii) Ask students to PAIR with the person sitting next to them to discuss the topic or Solution; (iv) Finally, randomly call on a few students to SHARE their ideas with the class; NB: Give students time cues for each step will keep them on task. 101
  102. 102. 6. Syndicate – how to do it (i) Assign students to 4-8 group member; (ii) Assign each group a topic to research, or you can give the class a list and allow each group to choose a topic; (iii) Let groups know time limit for the project execution & presentation; (iv) A marking scheme that includes a weighted peer- evaluation along with lecturer evaluation can be devised. 102
  103. 103. 7. Brainstorming – How to do it (i) In a small or large group select a moderator and a recorder (they may be the same person). (ii) Define the problem or idea to be brainstormed (make sure everyone is clear on the topic being explored). (iii) Set up the rules for the session. They should include: (a) Allowing everyone to contribute; (b) Recording each answer unless it is a repeat; and (c) Setting a time limit and stopping when that time is up. 103
  104. 104. Cont... (iv) Start the brainstorming. The recorder should write down all responses, if possible so everyone can see them. Make sure not to evaluate or criticize any answers until brainstorming is done. (v) Once you have finished brainstorming, go through the results and begin evaluating the responses. Some initial qualities to look for when examining the responses include: (a) Looking for any answers that are repeated or similar; (b) Grouping like concepts together; (c) Eliminating responses that definitely do not fit; (vi) Now that you have narrowed your lists down, discuss the remaining responses as a group; and (vi) Give the class time cues for each step to keep them on task and efficient. 104
  105. 105. 8. Buzz Groups – How to do it (a) Open-Ended Buzz Group Discussion: (i) Open-ended discussions begin with a sincere question (to which there is no one correct, concise or simple answer) posed by the teacher or a student. (ii) Incorporate pauses after students' responses to encourage extended or different responses. (iii) Clarify students' responses when necessary. (iv) Establish student-student dialogues during the discussion whenever possible. (v) Respect students' questions and their responses. (vi) Model the role of listener, collaborator, mediator, prompter, lear ning partner and 105
  106. 106. (b) Guided Buzz Group Discussion (i) Guided discussions begin with teacher-posed questions that promote the exploration of a particular theme, topic or issue. (ii) Through discussion, students should achieve a deeper understanding of the topic. (iii) After some time is spent on teacher-directed questioning, students should be encouraged to facilitate discussions by continuing to formulate and pose questions appropriate to the topic of study. 106
  108. 108. 1. Group member behaviours which damage group work S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 1. Group members being late (i) Lead the group towards including an appropriate ground rule on punctuality (ii) Point out that punctuality is related to courtesy (iii) Lead by example, don’t be late yourself! (iv) Make the beginning of group sessions well worth being there for (v) Give out something useful at the beginning of the session (vi) Avoid queuing 2. Group members not turning up at all (i) Ensure that it really is worth turning (ii) Keep records of attendance (iii) Assess attendance (iv) Issue something during each session (v) Cover some syllabus elements only in small-group sessions (vi) Don't cancel small-group sessions 108
  109. 109. Cont … 109 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 3. Group members not preparing (i) Help students to structure their preparation (ii) Don't fail to build on their preparations (iii) Try starting each session with a quick quiz (iv) Consider asking them to hand in their preparations sometimes (v) Get them to peer-assess their preparations sometimes 4. Group members not doing their jobs (i) Have clear task briefings in the first place (ii) Make the first part of a group task relatively short and straight forward (iii) Specify the learning outcomes clearly (iv) Set structured tasks, with staged deadlines
  110. 110. Cont… 110 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 5. Group members being disruptive (i) Cheek that it really is disruption (ii) Find out why a person is being disruptive (iii) Watch for the same group member being disruptive repeatedly 6. A group member dominating (i) Get the group to reflect on how it is functioning (ii) Lead a discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of assertiveness (iii) Confront the dominator privately (iv) Intervene in the work or the group
  111. 111. 2. Group Facilitator Behaviour which can Damage Group Work 111 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 1. Facilitator ignoring non- participants (i) Remind the whole group of the benefits of equal participation (ii) Clarify the group learning briefing (iii) Consider making the assessment of contribution to the work of the group more explicit (iv) Confront a non-participant directly (v) Try to find out if there is a good reason for non-participation (vi) Explore whether non-participation could be a cry for help (vii) Check, with care, whether the problem is with the work rather than the group (viii) Cheek whether non-participation could be a reaction against the facilitator 2. Facilitator allowing domineers (i) Have a quiet word with the domineer (ii) Get the whale group to do a process review (iii) Watch out for why people dominate
  112. 112. Cont … 112 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 3. Facilitator not having prepared adequately (i) Make it obvious that you have prepared specially for the group session (ii) Keep records of group sessions, and have them with you 4. Facilitator being too didactic or controlling (i) Don’t try to hurry group learning too much. It is tempting (ii) Hide your knowledge and wisdom sometimes (iii) Allow group students to learn from mistakes (iv) Plan processes rather than outcomes (v) Ask your students (vi) Learn from selected colleagues
  113. 113. Cont… 113 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 5. Facilitator showing lack of cultural sensitivity (i) Read about It (ii) Watch other group-learning facilitators, with this agenda in mind (iii) Don't make assumptions (iv) Talk to group members individually (v) Ask directly sometimes 6. Facilitator favouring clones (i) Go clone detecting (ii) Don't over-compensate
  114. 114. Cont… 114 S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution 7. Facilitator talking too much (i) Remind yourself that most learning is done by doing, rather than listening. (ii) Don’t allow yourself to be tempted into filling every silence. (iii) Only say some of the things you think. Don’t fall into trap of feeling you have to defend your expertise, or that you need to justify your position. (iv) Don’t let them let you talk too much! (v) Present some of your thoughts (particularly longer ones) in print. 8. Facilitator not providing clear objectives (i) Work out exactly what you intend each group learning session to achieve. (ii) Publish the learning outcomes or objectives in advance. (iii) Maintain some flexibility (iv) Don't just write the objectives or outcomes - use them! (v) Assist students in creating their own objectives.
  115. 115. Conclusion  Teaching large group of students is a challenging experience and it is not sufficient to simply know the material but how to make the lecture interesting and engaging, well organised and structured, with clear guidance through the material, using relevant and topical examples and case studies.  Small groups can be an effective learning situation in which students learn both through instructions from their teachers and from interaction with each other. The group also provides opportunities for individuals to speak in front of others and to receive feedback from teachers and peers. 116
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