6. dr. gambari day 1 concept of odl course materials


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6. dr. gambari day 1 concept of odl course materials

  2. 2.  ISD WORKSHOP  Organized By  Centre for Open Distance and e-Learning (CODeL). Dr. Gambari, A. I. E-mail: gambarii@yahoo.com Website: www.gambari.mgfglobal.com Blogsite: www.drgambari.com March, 2012
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  How do ODL materials differ from other educational materials?  It is not effective to send textbooks to ODL students. Rather, materials must be specially designed to suit the ODL situation.  The differences between ODL materials and conventional classroom and other concepts of ODL materials are treated in this presentation.
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES  At the end of this presentation, you should be able to;  Differentiate between textbook and ODL materials  List devices included in ODL materials by instructional designer  List the components of ODL materials
  5. 5. THE STRUCTURE OF ODL MATERIALS  If you glance at a random sample of ODL materials, you are likely to be struck by how different they look from traditional textbooks. Probably the four things that will be most noticeable are:  the wide range of learning devices,  the relatively low proportion of text compared to learning devices,  the space that is often provided for learners to write their answers in, and  the ‘generous’ layout overall.
  6. 6. Embedded Devices  The term ‘embedded devices’ seems to have been fashioned by Martens (1998) to describe all the devices that instructional designers include in their materials. Martens noted 23 different types of embedded device in the materials that he looked at.
  7. 7. The most common include:  learning objectives  tests of prior knowledge  advance organisers  activities  feedback to activities  examples  self-tests  summaries and lists of key points  study tips  animations (in electronic materials)  hypertext links (in electronic materials).
  8. 8.  Most of these devices are not present in a typical textbook, so why do instructional designers include them in ODL materials?  The answer lies in the theories discussed yesterday, cognitive approach stresses the use of learning devices such as:  learning objectives,  tasks broken down into small steps,  learners assessed against the stated learning objectives,
  9. 9.  a wide variety of tasks but within the scope of the stated objectives,  material ‘chunked’ into small, meaningful pieces,  mnemonics used to aid memory,  advance organisers used to help learners see the structure of the topic, and  simplification of the real world.
  10. 10. Space for Learners’ Answers  It is common practice to provide answer spaces in ODL text materials, reflecting the widespread teacher belief that this encourages learners to complete the activities. As Lockwood (1992) says, the evidence that this is the case ‘is persuasive’. He reports research by Henderson (1993) which found that questions without answer spaces were answered by 40% of learners, but the same questions with answer spaces were answered by 90% of learners. Martens (1998) has also noted that learners who complete activities tend to do better on the course as a whole.
  11. 11. The ‘Generous’ Layout  Writers on ODL instructional design repeatedly mention the desirability of a ‘generous’ layout and the liberal use of ‘white space’.  (Interestingly, research supports the opposite case for web pages that are used for searching: see ‘Reduce the amount of unused space on pages used for scanning and searching’ at http://usability.gov/guidelines/layout.html#five.
  12. 12. Comparison of ODL Materials and Textbooks
  13. 13. ODL materials typically … Textbooks typically … Are divided into study units, sometimes representing a week’s work Are divided into chapters, based on topics rather than study time Include a study guide on how to use the materials and how to study by oneself Do not include study guides or study guidance Include study tips (e.g., on note-taking) Do not include study tips Include examples Include examples Include diagrams and pictures Include diagrams and pictures
  14. 14. Cont… Include numerous activities Have few or no activities Provide feedback on answers Do not provide feedback Are tightly structured Are more loosely structured Address the learner as ‘you’ Use passive language (e.g., ‘it can be seen that’ or ‘the reader will note that’) Have a generous layout, often including space for learners to write in Have pages filled with text, figures, tables, lists and other graphic elements – there is no space for learners to write in Have as an audience the individual learner Serve a dual audience: the learner and the teacher Attempt to meet all the needs of the learner Assume that the learner has a teacher who will be able to amplify the printed text
  15. 15. Example 1 INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING PROFESSION (EDU 111)  Module 1: Teaching as a Profession  Unit 1: Basic Concepts in Education  Unit 2: Teaching and Learning  Unit 3: Teaching as a Profession  Unit 4: Qualities of a Professional Teachers  Unit5: Teacher’s Professional Skills  Module 2: Teaching Process  Unit 1: Communication Process  Unit 2: Behavioural Objectives  Unit 3: Evaluation of Learning Outcomes  Unit 4: Lesson Plan  Module 3: Teaching Methods  Unit 1: Lecture, Discussion and Individualize Instruction  Unit 2: Laboratory, Demonstration and Field Trip Methods  Unit 3: Problem-Solving, Discovery and Inquiry Methods  Unit 4: Simulation/Game, Group and Project Methods  Unit 5: Assignment, Class-teaching and Questions Methods
  16. 16.  CONTENTS  1.0 Introduction  2.0 Objectives  3.0 Main Body 3.1 Meaning of Education 3.2 Initiation and Education 3.3 Training and Drilling 3.4 Instruction and Indoctrination 3.5 Schooling and Education  4.0 Conclusion  5.0 Summary  6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA)  7.0 References/Further Readings UNIT 1: BASICS CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION
  17. 17. Example 2 UNIT 2: MECHANICS  CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Body 3.1 Types of forces 3.1.1 Gravitation force 3.1.2 Magnetic force 3.1.3 Electrical force  3.2 Effects of forces 3.2.1 Change in state of rest or motion 3.2.2 Deformation 3.3.3 Turning effect  4.0 Summary  5.0 Conclusion  6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment  7.0 References/Further Readings
  18. 18. Assignment
  19. 19. Thank you for listening and God bless you