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3. dr. gamabri day 1 isd


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3. dr. gamabri day 1 isd

  1. 1. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGN WORKSHOP Dr. Gambari, A. I. E-mail: Website: Blogsite: Organized By Centre for Open Distance and e-Learning (CODeL) Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of this presentation, you should be able to: Define key concepts in instructional design Differentiate between the different types of instructional design models Use basic ADDIE Model as a guide to design ODL course material 2
  3. 3. 3 INTRODUCTION Definition of key concepts in ID: Instruction Design  System  Model  Instructional Design  Instructional System Instructional System Design (ISD) Model
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION 1 a set of events that facilitate learning 2 a creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems Instructional Design Clarifying the terms
  5. 5. 5 What is design? A systematic planning and ideation process prior to the development of something or the execution of some plan to solve a problem.
  6. 6. 6 Traditional Design Topic for students to learn about A variety of activities to help them learn. Test on the topic The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal. ID attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process into a system.
  7. 7. 7 What is a System? Akanbi (1988) defined a system as any object, event or a procedure that is made up of parts which are working both independently and co- operatively to fulfill a common purpose.
  8. 8. A system is a set of interrelated and sometimes directly interdependent things, principles or parts that work severally and jointly within a given setting for the attainment of a definite goal or set of goals (Ogwo, 1996) 8 Cont…
  9. 9. What is Instructional System? instructional system may be defined as a deliberately organized combination of people, equipment (devices), materials, procedures, and the curriculum which interact cooperatively to achieve a pre determined goal. It is a set of interacting components functioning together to facilitate learning (Inyang, 1988) 9
  10. 10. 10 What is Instructional Design?  Instructional Design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities.
  11. 11. 11 Cont… Instructional Design is a systematic process, based on philosophy and learning theory, for analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction
  12. 12. 12 Cont…  Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
  13. 13. 13 Roles of Instructional Design Systematic process of instructional design enables you to:  Identify a performance problem  Determine the goals and objectives  Define your learners and their needs  Develop strategies to meet needs and goals  Assess learning outcomes  Evaluate if goals, objectives, and needs are met
  14. 14. 14 This systematic approach ensures:  There is a need for training.  The learning events are well-designed.  Quality training materials are developed.  Learning events are implemented using appropriate strategies or approaches.  Learning events are evaluated to ensure that learning has taken place. Why Instructional Design?
  15. 15. 15 She is working on new ways to teach the kids next week and next year. She is drawing upon her knowledge of something called instructional design in her thinking.
  16. 16. 16 Instructional Design is a Process 1. Where are we going? 2. How do we know when we have arrived? 3. How do will we get there?
  17. 17. 17 ID Major Activities 1. Perform an instructional analysis to determine “where we are going.” 2. Develop an instructional strategy to determine “how we’ll get there.” 3. Develop and conduct an evaluation to determine “how we’ll know when we’re there.” When these parts are articulated we can create a model.
  18. 18. 18 What is a Model? Models, like myths and metaphors, help us to make sense of our world. They are used to explain complex systems  Give us structure and meaning to a problem.
  19. 19. 19 What are Instructional Design Models? Prescriptive set of procedures for developing instructional materials A method for the organization and management of instructional process
  21. 21. 21 Selected Characteristics Classroom Orientation Product Orientation System Orientation Typical output One or a few hours of instruction Self-instructional or instructor-delivered package Course or entire curriculum Resources committed to development Very low High High Team or Individual Individual Usually a team Team ID skill/experience Low High High/very high Emphasis on development or selection Select Develop Develop Amount of analysis Low Low to medium Very high Technological complexity Low Medium to high Medium to high Amount of revision Low to medium Very high Medium to high Amount of distribution None High Medium to high Elements of ID Models from Branch & Gustafson (1997)
  23. 23. 23 EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL ADDIE Model ASSURE Model Dick & Carey Model Hannafin & Peck Model Waterfall Model Rapid Prototyping Model Hypermedia Design Model Multimedia Design Model  Lesson Plan Model Kemp’s Instructional Design model Gerlach and Ely Model, etc
  25. 25. Jerrold Kemp Design Model takes a holistic approach to instructional design. Virtually all factors in the learning environment are taken into consideration including subject analysis, learner characteristics, learning objectives, teaching activities, resources (computers, books, etc.), support services and evaluation. The process is iterative and the design is subject to constant revision. This model is a more advanced one to design by and the most comprehensive for web-based course development. 25
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  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29 ADDIE MODEL
  30. 30. 30 ASSURE Model  Heinich, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino  Classroom orientation  Note the selection of materials instead of development Image from
  31. 31. 31 A Analyze Learners S State Objectives S Select Strategies (Methods), Technology, Media & Materials U Utilize Technology, Media & Materials R Require Learner Participation E Evaluate & Revise ASSURE MODEL
  32. 32. 32 WATERFALL MODEL The waterfall model is a model which was developed for software development; that is to create software. It is called as such because the model develops systematically from one phase to other in a downward fashion, like a waterfall Advantages •It is easier to develop various software through this method in short span of time. • It requires the fulfillment of one phase, before proceeding to the next
  33. 33. Cont… Waterfall Model (Traditional) Waterfall Model (Modified)
  34. 34. 34 Dick & Carey Model  Systems orientation  Widespread use in corporate & military
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Mostly used for world wide web Instruction 36 Hypermedia Design Model
  37. 37. 37 Morrison, Ross & Kemp (MRK) Model  Classroom orientation  It has been modified over time Images from instruction/337124/
  38. 38. 38 Morrison, Ross & Kemp (MRK) Model
  39. 39. 39 Rapid Prototyping Model  Originated in manufacturing  ID hijacked from software development  Focused on development primarily  Rapid prototyping models are essential for identifying design flaws and gaining valuable feedback during the design process. Functional rapid prototyping models allow product designers and engineers to see how their designs look and function in real world situations.  Types of prototypes  Look-and-feel: colors, effects, gross screen layouts  Media: use of sound effects, narration, 3D illustrations, video, etc.  Navigation: move through sections, access support (glossary, calculator, etc.)  Interactivity: content, activities, feedback
  40. 40. 40 Design (product specs & treatment) Develop prototype Review
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  42. 42. Gerlach-Ely Design Model is a prescriptive model that is well suited to higher education. The model includes strategies for selecting and including media within instruction. It also handles the allocation of resources. 42
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  44. 44. LESSON PLAN MODEL (i) Needs Assessment (ii) Determination of Constraints. (iii) Derivation of General Objectives (iv) Derivation of Specific Objectives (v) Administration of a Pre-test (vi) Selection of Learning Experiences (vii) Selection of Method (viii) Selection of Media (ix) Implementation of instruction (x) Evaluation (xi) Feedback 44
  45. 45. Ogunlanti, Ihongbe, Babatunde, Akanbi, & Egwin, (1981) 45 Determine Constraints Derive General Objectives Specify Objectives Administer Pretest Select Method Implement Instruction EvaluateNeeds Assessment Select Media Select Learning Experience s Feedback LESSON PLANNING MODEL
  46. 46. APPLICATION OF ISD Distance Education Teacher Education Special Education Guidance and Counseling Skill Training and Materials production Curriculum Development, Innovations, and Evaluation Educational Management and Administration Lesson Planning Vocational -Technical Education, etc. 46
  48. 48. 48 FIVE ESSENTIAL PHASES IN ADDIE MODEL Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation
  49. 49. 49 What happens in the Analyze Phase Provides the framework for the rest of the ID process. Uncover the problem, locate the source of the problem, and start to hypothesize solutions to fix the problem. Research what is needed to solve problem? (Needs Analysis) List instructional goals & the steps that need to be taken for the goals to be accomplished.
  50. 50. 50 Cont…  Who is the audience and what are their characteristics?  Identification of the desired outcome or behaviour.  What types of learning constraints exist?  What are the delivery options?  What are the pedagogical considerations?  What is the timeline for course completion?  What exactly is the (performance) problem?  How do you know there is even a problem?  Why is it a problem?
  51. 51. What happens in the Design Phase? Use the research findings obtained from analysis phase to plan for the developing of the instruction. Create detailed outlines illustrating how learners will complete instructional goals set out in the analysis phase
  52. 52. 52 What Happens in the Design Phase? Part 2 Investigate your learners- Learning Analysis  What is best way to reach audience?  Consider the target population  Consider different learning perspectives Write out Objectives, testing strategies, select how the instruction will be administered, and ultimately decide how instruction will be organized.
  53. 53. 53 Cont… How will the content be organized? How will it be presented to learners? What delivery format will be used? What types of activities and exercises will be included? How will learners' accomplishments be measured?
  54. 54. 54 What Happens in the Develop Phase? Apply all information from the analysis and design phases to produce lesson plans and materials. Actual instruction is created. Develop any media that will be employed in the instruction (hardware and software). Generate supplementary materials to enhance instruction (reference guides, manuals, worksheets, etc.).
  55. 55. 55 What Happens in the Implement Phase? Essentially this phase describes the method in which the instruction will be delivered.  Materials are distributed to learners Use findings from learning analysis to determine best environment for the learner (face to face, online, etc.). This part of the process is where learners must obtain the content that is needed to accomplish the instructional goals.  The books, equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, & the learning application or Web site is functional.
  56. 56. 56 What Happens in the Evaluate Phase? Measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the overall instruction. Formative Evaluation: evaluation that is present in all phases of the process in order to catch errors and enrich the instruction. Summative Evaluation: evaluation that takes place after the finalized instruction is presented. Recommendations provided to determine if the instruction will be adopted or rejected based on its overall effectiveness and efficiency.
  57. 57. ADVANTAGES OF ISD It provides one of the best methods of combining content and resources to optimize learning. It provides one of the best procedures for exposing the learner to instructional tasks, experiences, packages and so on. The requirements for clearly stated objectives for a system will control and guide the planning, design, and development of a learning system. It ensures that all relevant variables in an instructional situation are given proper and adequate consideration 57
  58. 58. Cont…  It encourages the adoption of self correcting strategies in the management of instruction. It provides opportunities for improving upon the system and the performance of the system operations.  It allows for a continuous wholistic perception of the instructional programme (or system) instead of the piecemeal view of the traditional approach. It ensures efficiency and stability in the teaching – learning process because it emphasizes the need to consider all input variables at the planning stage. 58
  59. 59. Cont… It emphasizes and allows more rational basis for allocating financial, material, time, human and other resources. It promotes further innovations within the system; this can be in the form of materials, methods or techniques.  Various instructional variables which may lead, if uncontrolled, to confused and wasteful performance can be specified, considered and taken care of.  Cost effective 59
  60. 60. Cont… It allows the participants to cope with the varying demands of modern technological products, processes and settings within the instructional enterprise if their use is well programmed. Saves time and trouble Promotes effective learning Systematic 60
  61. 61. DISADVANTAGES OF ISD ISD require other personnel which is not available in most of our school system. The variety and scope of media available in most schools is grossly inadequate. The bureaucratic bottlenecks, the conservatism of some staff hinders the full implementation of ISD in Nigeria. 61
  62. 62. Cont.. 62  Time-consuming to implement Poor funding may hinder media procurement and maintenance.  The successful application of ISD entails much theoretical analysis of the prevailing instructional situation in line with scientific and educational principles in order to arrive at any solution. Our teachers are not so equipped for such in depth analysis.
  63. 63. 63 Group Activity Get experience using the models Computer Science, Information Technology, Cyber Security & General Studies Departments should: Use the Dick and Carey model to design an effective instructional product for the client.  Science Education, Mathematics/Statistics & Chemistry, and Physics Departments should: Use the Kemp, Morrison & Ross model to design an effective instructional product for the client. 15 minutes
  64. 64. 64 Conclusions The important thing to remember is to consider all of the factors that need to go into designing effective instruction. It doesn’t matter what model you use, but some models are better suited to certain personalities and instructions.