Reduzindo os custos da manutenção e  aumentando os ganhos da produtividade no     segmento de O&G pela galvanizaçãoReducin...
The O&G Challenges• Provide durable  corrosion protection  with manageable  maintenance costs• Minimize production-  relat...
Risk of corrosion damage•   Need to predict performance of    the corrosion protection system•   Need to predict performan...
Unpainted Galvanized                                      Coating Service Life                                          (5...
Layered Structure of                Galvanized Coatings                                       Eta Layer                   ...
Corrosion rates for Zn based                               upon atmospheric conditions                               as de...
Typical Life Cycle Costs                 11000                 10000                  9000(Present Value                 8...
Probability of Steel Failure                  1.0DefiniteAlmost Certain                  0.9Highly Probable               ...
What is a DUPLEX Coating?• HDG as a firm base - HDG is an ideal primer  for paint providing  - Barrier Protection  - Sacri...
How does a Duplex System Work?• Zn products of Corrosion (WHITE) far less  massive than RED Rust (Fe)• Blistering (corrosi...
Results in the “Synergistic effect”,              which is:Duplex Service Life = Factor x (Zn Life + Paint Life) e.g. Serv...
The main job of Zn inpainted duplex coatings is to protect the paintafter the paint has failed   Acrylic painted   galvani...
Atmospheric corrosive                         environments classified in terms                                  of ISO 922...
* S e le c t a n IS O 1 2 9 4 4 c o m p lia nt s ys te m                                                                  ...
O&G Applications in                    Petrochemical Plants-1Ambient temperature Ducts        Dutos de temperatura ambient...
O&G Applications in             Petrochemical Plants-2Equipment Screens              Telas de equipamentosEquipment Guards...
O&G Applications in                    Petrochemical Plants-3Platforms                        PlataformasPrecipitator Stru...
Cape Town petrochemical plant cable ladders and       trays survey          Coating thickness still          exceeds 55µm ...
Hydrocarbon Storage                Facility, Port Boynton,                   South Australia•Allowed fast-tracking of cons...
Shell Oil Corio Bay Refinery         Geelong, Vic. Australia Built 1954: All Structural Steelwork is now HDGHDG pipe bridg...
•Shell used 2500 tons ofstructural steel in this Corio LongResidue Catalytic Cracking Unitafter having had experience of15...
Formosa Plastics Naptha                    Cracking Plant                                                        Severity ...
Ampol    Petroleum                      Refineries Ltd.resources Australia                New ReformerIsomerisationUnit,  ...
Galvanized steelchosen due to:•Schedules•Quality•Project controls•Contract Coordination•Risk reduction•Benefits during ope...
Gb2011 frank e.goodwin_iza
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Gb2011 frank e.goodwin_iza

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Gb2011 frank e.goodwin_iza

  1. 1. Reduzindo os custos da manutenção e aumentando os ganhos da produtividade no segmento de O&G pela galvanizaçãoReducing the costs of maintaining and increasing the productivity gains in the segment of oil and gas by galvanizing Frank E Goodwin IZA
  2. 2. The O&G Challenges• Provide durable corrosion protection with manageable maintenance costs• Minimize production- related costs (downtime)• Minimize safety and environmental issues Petrobras Paulínia (SP) Replan refinery The largest in Brazil, 365,000 bpd
  3. 3. Risk of corrosion damage• Need to predict performance of the corrosion protection system• Need to predict performance and behavior of the structure being protected• In theory, most corrosion protection systems can be maintained during service• In practice, corrosion protection maintenance is often highly problematical Petrobras XXIII dynamic positioned deep water-drilling platform
  4. 4. Unpainted Galvanized Coating Service Life (5% Rust) Relationship between coating thickness and life 90 80 rural inland, C2service life, years 70 60 urban inland/mild coastal, 50 C3 40 industrial inland/urban 30 coastal, C4 20 polluted industrial/coastal, 10 C5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 thickness, um
  5. 5. Layered Structure of Galvanized Coatings Eta Layer Relatively pure zinc outer layer Zeta Layer Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 5.8-6.2% Zinc Delta Layer Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 7-12% Zinc 85-250µm Gamma Layer Thin molecular layer: 21-26% Zinc Base SteelKey Factors• Metallurgical (diffusion) bond at Steel-Coating interface• Hardness of alloy layers significantly greater than base steel• Cathodic protection at defects in coating• Thickness at edges greater than at surface 5
  6. 6. Corrosion rates for Zn based upon atmospheric conditions as defined by ISO 9223Class Description Corrosion rate Corrosion Life of Life of (1st year for rate (steady coating, coating, Zn g/m2 year) state for Zn thickness thickness µm/y) 55μm 100μm C1 Interior: dry ≤ 0.7 ≤ 0.05 100 yrs+ 100 yrs+ C2 Interior: occasional 0.7 – 5 0.05 – 0.5 80 – 100 yrs 100+ condensation Exterior: exposed rural inland C3 Interior: high humidity, 5 – 15 0.5 - 2 25 – 80 yrs 50 – 100 yrs some air pollution Exterior: urban inland or mild coastal C4 Interior: swimming pools, 15 – 30 2-4 12 – 25 yrs 25 – 50 yrs chemical plant, etc. Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastal C5 Exterior: industrial with high 30 - 60 4 - 10 7 – 12 yrs 12 – 25 yrs humidity or high salinity coastal
  7. 7. Typical Life Cycle Costs 11000 10000 9000(Present Value 8000 Painted Steel Costs per Ton 7000 Index) 6000 ∆LCC (/Year) 5000 4000 Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel 3000 2000 1000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Service Period (Years)
  8. 8. Probability of Steel Failure 1.0DefiniteAlmost Certain 0.9Highly Probable 0.8Good ChanceLikely 0.7 Liability?Quite Likely Painted Steel (no maintenance) 0.6ProbablePossible 0.5Improbable Asset 0.4Unlikely Painted Steel (with maintenance)Highly Unlikely 0.3Seldom 0.2 Rare Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel) Impossible 0.1Probability ofSteel Failure 0 5 10 15 20 25 Service Period (Years) 8
  9. 9. What is a DUPLEX Coating?• HDG as a firm base - HDG is an ideal primer for paint providing - Barrier Protection - Sacrificial Protection• Top Paint Coating - Barrier Protection - Aesthetics & Color “W” Tower, Vancouver Canada
  10. 10. How does a Duplex System Work?• Zn products of Corrosion (WHITE) far less massive than RED Rust (Fe)• Blistering (corrosion creep) of paint therefore far less than when it is direct onto steel• Zinc products of corrosion tend to seal the pores in the top paint coating
  11. 11. Results in the “Synergistic effect”, which is:Duplex Service Life = Factor x (Zn Life + Paint Life) e.g. Service Life = 1.5 x (9 years + 5 years) = 21 years to 5% rust Synergistic factors Industrial/Marine 1.8 to 2.0 Sea water (immersion) 1.5 to 1.6 Non-aggressive climate 2.0 to 2.7
  12. 12. The main job of Zn inpainted duplex coatings is to protect the paintafter the paint has failed Acrylic painted galvanized steel - panel scribed through to steel substrate and salt spray tested Acrylic painted steel - panel scribed through to steel substrate and salt spray tested
  13. 13. Atmospheric corrosive environments classified in terms of ISO 9223Class Description Corrosion Typical life yrs Typical life in Typical life in yrs rate (av. to 1ST yrs to 1ST of a DUPLEX loss for Maintenance Maintenance System Zn µm/y) (Z275 ±20µm) (85µm Zn in HDG)C1 Interior: dry ≤ 0.05 200 >200+ Not RequiredC2 Interior: occasional condensation 0.05 to 40 to 200 >170 Not Exterior: exposed rural inland 0.5 RequiredC3 Interior: swimming pools, 0.5 to 2 5 to 10 21 to 42 Not chemical plant, etc. Required Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastalC4 Interior: swimming pools, 2 to 4 5 to 10 21 to 42 42 to 84 chemical plant, etc. Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastalC5 Exterior: industrial with high 4 to 10 3 to 5 10 to 21 18 to 37 humidity or high salinity coastal
  14. 14. * S e le c t a n IS O 1 2 9 4 4 c o m p lia nt s ys te m E N IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -5 : 1 9 9 8 T a b le A 9 : P a in t s y s te m s c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s C 2 to C 5 -I a n d C 5 -M S u b s tra te : H o t-d ip -g a lv a n iz e d s te e l¹) T h e p a in t s y ste m s g ive n in th e fo llo w in g ta b le a re o n ly e x am p le s ,. O th e r p a in t s ys te m s h a v in g th e s a m e p e rfo rm a n c e a re p o s s ib le . If th e s e e x am p le s a re u s e d , it s h a ll b e e n s u re d th a t th e p a in t s ys te m s c h o s e n c o m p ly w ith th e in d ic a te d d u ra b ility w h e n e xe c u t Paint Priming coat(s) Top coat(s)) including Paint system Expected durability 2)6) System intermediate coat(s)) (see 5.5 and ISO 12944-1) No Binder 5) Number of NDFT 3) Binder 5) Number of NDFT 3) Total NDFT 3) C2 C3 C4 C5-I C5-M coats µm coats µm µm L M H L M H L M H L M H H L H S9.01 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.02 1 40 1 80 2 120 PVC PVC S9.03 1 80 1 80 2 160 S9.04 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.05 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.06 1 40 1 80 2 120 - AY AY S9.07 1 80 1 80 2 160 S9.08 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.09 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.10 1 40 1 80 2 120 EP EP S9.11 or 1 80 or 1 80 2 160 PUR PUR 4) S9.12 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.13 1 80 2-3 240 3-4 320 Binders for priming coat(s) Paints (liquid) Binders for top coat(s) Paints (liquid) No of components Water No. of components Water borne borne 1-pack 2-pack possible 1-pack 2-pack possible PVC = Polyvinyl chloride x PVC = Polyvinyl chloride x AY = Acrylic x x AY = Acrylic x x EP = Epoxy x x EP = Epoxy x x PUR = Polyurethane x PUR = Polyurethane x x1) T h e m e c h a n ic a l o r c h e m ic a l s u rfa c e p re p a ra tio n re rq u ire d is d e s c rib e d in IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -4 .2) T h e d u ra b ility is in th is c a s e re la te d to th e p a in t s ys te m a d h e s io n to th e h o t-d ip -g a lva n iz ed s u rfa c e .3) N D FT = N o m in a l D ry F ilm T h ic k n e s s . S e e 5 .4 fo r fu rth e r d e ta ils .4) If c o lo u r a n d g lo s s re te n tio n is re q u ire d , it is re c o m m e n d e d th a t th e la s t c o a t s h o u ld b e b a s e d o n a lip h a tic P U R .5) F o r e x pla n a tio n o f a b b re v ia tio n s , s e e fo o t o f ta b le6) L ig h t g re y s h a d in g in d ic a te s th a t th e p a in t s y ste m s c o n c e rn e d w o u ld n o t n o rm a lly b e u s e d fo r th e s e c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s . T h e y a re n o t lis te d in ta b le A.2 a n d /o r A.3 .
  15. 15. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-1Ambient temperature Ducts Dutos de temperatura ambienteAnchor Bolts Parafusos de âncoraBeams VigasBelt Guards Cinto GuardaCathodic protection rectifiers Proteção catódica retificadoresCatwalks DesfilesChecker Plate Padronizada PlacaCo-generation Equipment Equipamentos de cogeraçãoColumns ColunasConveyor Systems Sistemas de transporteCooling tower Structure Estrutura da torre de resfriamentoCrane Supports Suporta guindasteCross bracing Cruz órteseDecks PlataformasDrain Pipes Tubos de drenagemDrive Piling Driven empilhandoElectrical Conduits Condutas elétricaElectrical Cable Ducts Dutos cabo elétricoEmbedded Items Itens incorporados
  16. 16. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-2Equipment Screens Telas de equipamentosEquipment Guards Equipamentos GuardaFasteners FixadoresFencing EsgrimaFire extinguishing Equipment Equipamento de incêndioFlare Towers Torres incendiarFlat Plates Placas planasGirts GirtsGratings GradesHandrail CorrimãoHeat exchanger Tubing Tubulação trocador de calorLadders EscadasMarine Terminal Structures Estruturas Terminal MarítimoOffshore Structures Estruturas OffshoreOutside Switchgear Fora ComutadoresFrames FramesPipe Ways Maneiras pipePipe Supports Suporta tubulaçãoPipe Racks Racks tuboPipe Bridges Tubo de Pontes
  17. 17. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-3Platforms PlataformasPrecipitator Structures Estruturas precipitadorPrefabricated Buildings Edifícios pré-fabricadosProcess Piping Tubulação de ProcessoProcess Equipment Equipamentos de processoSkids SkidsProcess Vessels Vasos processoPurlins TerçasRailings TrilhosSafety Equipment Equipamento de segurançaSag Rods Sag RodsScuppers EmbornaisStairways EscadasStringers LongarinasTransmission Poles Pólos de transmissãoWalkways PassarelasWastewater Treatment Equipment Equipamento do tratamento de águas residuais
  18. 18. Cape Town petrochemical plant cable ladders and trays survey Coating thickness still exceeds 55µm initial thickness requirement after 25 years! Corrosion severity=C4
  19. 19. Hydrocarbon Storage Facility, Port Boynton, South Australia•Allowed fast-tracking of constructionbecause of damage resistance of HDG•800 tons of HDG used in pipe racksaloneAll-HDGCompressorHouse
  20. 20. Shell Oil Corio Bay Refinery Geelong, Vic. Australia Built 1954: All Structural Steelwork is now HDGHDG pipe bridge Galvanized sheet covering insulated pipes
  21. 21. •Shell used 2500 tons ofstructural steel in this Corio LongResidue Catalytic Cracking Unitafter having had experience of15 years with NO maintenanceat the No. 4 Distiller• Measurements showed another30 years maintenance free life ispossible (70 µm Zn remaining)
  22. 22. Formosa Plastics Naptha Cracking Plant Severity >>ISO C5!This industry development zone used300 000 tons of galvanized steel including Deep-waterPort, Refinery, Co-gen plant…….
  23. 23. Ampol Petroleum Refineries Ltd.resources Australia New ReformerIsomerisationUnit, Unit, Brisbane Adelaide, SA 65m high structure all HDG 10,000 bpd of high octane fuel Required 130 tons of HDG
  24. 24. Galvanized steelchosen due to:•Schedules•Quality•Project controls•Contract Coordination•Risk reduction•Benefits during operation

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