Research on monographical issues related to the Roman world in general or specifically on the Roman Hispania.• Level: 1º de ESO• Subject: social sciences• Teacher: Deseirée Ordiz• Methodology: • Groups of three or four people. • Search and selection of information through various websites suggested by the teacher, preparation of summaries on the content relevant to the investigation; selection of images to illustrate the work, a PowerPoint presentation, an oral presentation of the results before the group and proposed activities to work on.
Suggested topics for students: • The roman army. The legions in Hispania. • Roman emperors. Hispanic emperors (Trajan and Hadrian) • Roman urbanism. Rome, capital of the Empire. Baelo Claudia, Tarraco, Italic • Women in Rome. Hispanic women. • Roman houses. Villa of Veranes… • Leisure in Rome. Theaters, ciscuses, amphitheaters. The theater of Mérida. • Roman baths. Baths of Caracalla. Baths of Campo Valdés.Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
ROMAN HOUSES Clara Puerto Sánchez Clara González Guerrero Jenny Collar LagoArce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania Castrum Military camp, walled and rectangular shaped with a central avenue cross shaped. Three hundred people could live inside. It is the oldest Roman housing model.
Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania Domus Family houses for families of a certain economic level. It was constructed from two parts and consisted of a single plant. Most domus were 120 meters long and 30 meters wide.
Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania Urban villa This housing had all the luxuries of the city, and it usually used to be surrounded by a garden. They had a room for every season. Only the richest could afford it.
Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania Insulae It is a block of flats from 300 to 400 square meters divided into floors that open to theoutside with windows and balconies. They appear in the fourth century. C. andreached a height of 6/7 floors. They had no running water or latrines : the feces weredeposited in a common container at the foot of the stairs or thrown out the window.There were no heating (they got warmed with braziers) nor chimneys; the windowshad no glass, just curtains or wooden blinds. They were built by private businessmenwho speculated on the land and construction. In the mid-fourth century, Rome had1797 domus and 46.602 insulae with an average of 5 dwellings occupied by 5 or 6people each...
THE ROMAN ARMY Legions In Hispania.Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
Índex. ► History of the army. ► Organization of the army. ► Life in the army. ► Legionnaire´s uniform. ► Army weapons and tactics. ► Symbology. ► The Roman camp. ► The legions in Hispania ► Questions ► ResourcesArce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
ARMY HISTORY. ► In early Rome men served in the army according to their property and wealth and did not receive any compensation for the services rendered, that made that the poorest were excluded from service ► The early formation of the army from its beginnings was a copy of the compact and closed Greek phalanx made of armed spearmen, which was organized later, after the struggles against the hill tribes, into legions, more flexible formations where spears were replaced by swords and javelins. ► In 396 B.C. the paid military service was first introduced, although citizens were still being recruited when necessary without any permanent professional arm, which would not come until the arrival of Augusto to the power who would continue the practice of recruiting. By the year 107BC, the poorest citizens were allowed into the army and with Augusto it was open free to the entire population of the Empire, which was divided into elite legions and troops reserved to the Roman citizens and the auxilia, where the rest of the population of the Empire was integrated.Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
ARMY ORGANIZATION.► After changing the model of the Greek phalanx held since its beginnings, the legion became the base unit of the Roman army, though originally the word legion was applied to the entire army► A legion was usually made up of 10,000 legionnaires in the infantry and 1,000 legionaries, in cavalry. The man who led the legion was the legacy who was helped by six tribunes.► A centurion commanded 100 legionaries► The badge holder was the man who kept the eagle, the most important symbol in Rome because it represented the greatness of it► The trumpet transmitted the orders of the officers.
LIFE IN THE ARMY► Not only had The soldier to learn the art of war but he should dominate other trades like sowing, harvesting crops and raising horses, he also had to know something of the craft of artisan to repair and make weapons, so as to handle pick and shovel to dig trenches , build camps, build walls and undermine the enemy walls.► When graduating after 20 years of service for the Legionaires, 16 for the garrison of Rome, 25 for auxiliaries and 26 for soldiers sailors. Soldiers were given the title of Veteranus and received a plot of land or a lot of money equivalent to 12 years of pay. They also received extra payments at the beginning of each term of a new emperor, custom established by Emperor Claudius. For the auxiliaries the main reward was to receive the Roman citizenship.
THE LEGIONNAIRES UNIFORM► The uniform of the soldiers was varied over time, until the reign of Claudius the legionaries wore protective chain mail that was replaced with overlapping iron sheets. Medals and metal plates were fixed in the breastplate, below they wore a fabric shirt that ended on a shirtail and a leather garment.► The metallic breastplate like the greaves or shinpads were reserved for officers, a metallic belt was used to fit the armor and hang the sword.A major tactics of the Romans in their arms was to copy from the enemies everything that could benefit them, so for example their short sword or Hispanicus Gladius was an adaptation of the Iberian Falcata which wreaked havoc among the legionaries during clashes with Hispanic auxiliaries of Hannibal during the Second Punic war. This sword was ideal for body combat due to its double edge and measures 50 cm. long by 7 cm. wide► The head and neck were protected by a bronze helmet. The hemispherical helmet with cheek pieces was adorned most of the time with a plume of feathers or horsehair. The Romans copied their shields from the French model, which consisted of a large oval or rectangular plate most of the times, the center had a hemisphere to make slip the enemy projectiles.
ARMY WEAPONS AND TACTICS► In the Roman Empire the discipline of war was considered a science and an art, the constant training of the Roman army was one of the most feared and it was largely responsible for its success.► The Roman army was preparing to attack using basic training, using a vanguard of Velites (Light Infantry), and then the infantry was arranged in three lines, The Hastati, the princes and the Triarii (Veterans) entered only if their intervention was necessary . To the right of the infantry cavalry stood and to the left the cavalry of the allies. In order to attack, the first line of soldiers advanced shield to shield, while the second line protected the first line with their own shields by placing them on their heads.► If the first line was not enough, the second one attacked by the spaces left by the previous one, while the first retreated to refuel with spears and shields .► For the siege, towers were also used for archers, battering rams to breach the walls or terraces and mobile towers which had a drawbridge to scale the walls.► Another of the tactics used for the siege was to surround with two walls the besieged city, one inside to avoid out to the besieged and an outdoor to prevent access to any auxiliary forces (first used in Numancia (Soria )► They had siege engines as the onager, the ballista, etc.
SYMBOLOGY► During the early Republic, Army division consisted of five banners, the eagle, the wolf, the minotaur, the horse and the boar, but in 104 BC Mario abolished the other banners and left only the eagle (Aquila) as a symbol of the whole army► We could also find the Signum, which was the banner of the centuries, consisting of the eagle and the badge of the Roman crown on top and under this , the inscription SPQR. With the Empire the inscription was replaced by the name of the Emperor.► The loss of a banner in a clash was considered a real disgrace in Roman society, his recovery was celebrated as a great victory by the army and the whole society
THE ROMAN CAMP► The Roman camps were an engineering work at high speed, an army on the move built up a completely fortified camp at the end of the day and they destroyed the next morning, before moving on.► Temporary camps that were built at the end of the daily running and destroyed to leave the place were built following a strict order and discipline.► The permanent camps made of stone were used as winter camps. In peacetime they became small towns with an area of about twenty acres to house a legion.
THE LEGIONS IN NHISPANIA► In Hispania there were several legions led by some commanders as Augustus, Lucio, Marco, etc..► One of the most famous wars of Hispania was the Cantabrian wars in which The legions of Caesar Augustus, Junius Brutus, etc, served.
QUESTIONS ► When was paid military service first implemented? ► What name was given to the six men who helped the Legacy? ► What other tasks needed to perform the Legionnaires? ► What was the name of the spear that the Roman legionaries wore? ► What was the most important symbol for the army? ► What was the name of the permanent camp built by the Romans? ► What was the name of the wars held by the Romans against the Hispanics in the northern peninsula?Arce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania
SOURCES ► We mostly used the link to the Roman army placed in Educastur campus, the Wikipedia and Google picturesArce Program- Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania