Process simulation of urea plant

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Process simulation of urea plant

  1. 1. Project Guide Dr. S. NIGAM BY : 13 -ADITYA DESHMUKH 16 -SANKET DIVE 22 -GAJANAN HANGE 23 -PAWAN JAMADAR
  2. 2.       Molecular Formula - NH2CONH2 Molecular Weight - 60 Boiling Point -Decomposes Melting Point -1320 c Specific Gravity -1.335 Solubility -Fairly Soluble in Water
  3. 3.     Urea mostly used in solid fertilizer(53%) and liquid fertilizer(31%) as well. It has also found applications in animal feed, formaldehyde resigns, and adhesives. Urea is the nitrogen compound with the largest production volume in the world. Urea being preferred nitrogen fertilizer worldwide, its utilization is increasing steadily
  4. 4. Ammonium carbamate decomposition method Ammonia and CO2 are compressed and reacted at 100200 atms and 170-190 C in an autoclave to form ammonium carbamate (NH4COONH2). Urea is formed by dehydration in a low pressure stripping operation. Process modification occur in recycle of unreacted NH3-CO2and percentage excess in reactants.
  5. 5. Although there are several processes currently used for the manufacture of urea, the underlying principle for all the processes is same. The two main reactions involved are: 1) CO2 + 2NH3 Kcal/gm mol NH2COONH4 2) NH2COONH4 Kcal/gm mol NH2CONH2 + H2O H= -37.4 H= + 6.3 Undesirable side reaction taking place is: 3) 2NH2CONH2 NH2CONHCONH2 + NH3 (Biuret)
  6. 6. Temperature : The conversion of ammonium carbamate to urea gradually increases as the temperature increases. However, after a particular temperature, depending upon the pressure, the conversion suddenly drops with further increase in temperature . Pressure: The main reaction is sufficiently slow at atmospheric pressure. However, it starts almost instantaneously at pressure of the order of 100 atm and temperature of 150 oC. There is reduction in volume in the overall reaction and so high pressure favors the forward reaction. Concentration: Higher the concentration of the reactants, higher will be the forward reaction according to the law of mass action. Residence Time: Since, urea reaction is slow and takes about 20 mins to attain equilibrium, sufficient time is to be provided to get higher conversion

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