Emerging Applications for Food
System Sustainability:
UVC Shows Potential for Improving
the Quality and Safety of Liquid D...
Summary
 UV light in the range of 200 - 280 nm (UVC) inactivates
pathogens as a result of the absorption of the UV light ...
How UV Illumination Works
 The killing spectrum of UV light
coincides with the peak
absorbance of DNA for UV light,
sugge...
Dimerization Of Adjacent
Pyrimidine Bases

4

Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists...
UV Illumination & Extended Shelf
Life
Environmental factors

Microbiological
Count

Raw Milk

Processing

Operational fact...
Food Safety Studies
 Food safety potential of UV illumination has been validated by
studies at the University of Californ...
Shelf Life Studies
 Thermo tolerant spoilage organisms do survive pasteurization
restricting the shelf life or products a...
Benefit To Producers
 UV illumination as an adjunct to pasteurization could provide for better
maintenance of the quality...
Benefit To Processors
 Energy efficiency improvements in milk processing plants are limited by
the energy requirements of...
Thermal / UV Energy Evaluation
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Past.
Past. + UV
UHT

Energy in MJ/t
430
484
685

Sources
G. ...
Legislative Status in U.S.
 The University Of California-Davis submitted a proposal to NCIMS 2011 for
a change to the Pas...
Gail Barnes Ph.D. M.B.L.
Personify LLC
barnes.gail@gmail.com
+1 650 218 4993
@DrGailB / @ZAGrrl

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Emerging applications for food system sustainability. UVC shows potential for improving quality and safety of liquid dairy products.

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UV light in the range of 200 - 280 nm (UVC) inactivates pathogens as a result of the absorption of the UV light by the nucleotides of DNA molecules.
The nucleotides are dimerized by UVC and the subsequent chemical modification prevents DNA replication and transcription.
This presentation explores the significance of the germicidal effect of UVC for processing liquid dairy products in both developing and developed markets, on its potential to improve raw milk quality, and address food safety issues around soft cheeses.

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Emerging applications for food system sustainability. UVC shows potential for improving quality and safety of liquid dairy products.

  1. 1. Emerging Applications for Food System Sustainability: UVC Shows Potential for Improving the Quality and Safety of Liquid Dairy Products Gail Barnes Ph.D. M.B.L. Personify LLC IFT International Food Nanoscience Conference July 12-13 ▪ Hilton Chicago ▪ Chicago, IL USA Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Summary  UV light in the range of 200 - 280 nm (UVC) inactivates pathogens as a result of the absorption of the UV light by the nucleotides of DNA molecules  The nucleotides are dimerized by UVC and the subsequent chemical modification prevents DNA replication and transcription  This presentation will explore the significance of the germicidal effect of UVC for processing liquid dairy products in both developing and developed markets, on its potential to improve raw milk quality, and address food safety issues around soft cheeses 2 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. How UV Illumination Works  The killing spectrum of UV light coincides with the peak absorbance of DNA for UV light, suggesting that DNA is the key macromolecule that is damaged  UV light causes dimerization of 2 adjacent thymine pyrimidine bases  2 forms of the dimer • Cyclobutane dimer • 6-4 photoproduct  Both DNA lesions are bulky and distort the double helix  Thymine dimers block transcription and replication, and are lethal unless repaired 3 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Dimerization Of Adjacent Pyrimidine Bases 4 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. UV Illumination & Extended Shelf Life Environmental factors Microbiological Count Raw Milk Processing Operational factors Packaging Refrigerated Storage & Distribution Pasteurization UV Pre-Treatment Recontamination Ultra-pasteurization UV + Pasteurization Post-Treatment Shelf Life Pasteurized 18-21 days if distributed & stored at 4o C 5 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved. ESL 60- 90+ days if filled & packaged with ESL filler & distributed & stored at 4o C
  6. 6. Food Safety Studies  Food safety potential of UV illumination has been validated by studies at the University of California-Davis in Tulare and the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo  UV resistance and D-values have been established for gram positive spore forming bacteria and the pathogens E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, Yersinia enterolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Listeria monocytogenes Source Professor Jim Cullor, University of California-Davis, presentation at 3rd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality in conjunction with the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) , 44th Annual Conference, September 22-24, 2011, St. Louis, Missouri 6 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Shelf Life Studies  Thermo tolerant spoilage organisms do survive pasteurization restricting the shelf life or products as evidenced by code dates of 14 to 18 days • Spoilage organisms include Gram positive, Gram negative and aerobic sporeforming bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Paenebacillus, and Geobacillus • These spores can and do survive pasteurization, germinate, multiply and can cause spoilage in milk and milk products after processing  In laboratory studies by University of California-Davis on milk with 3.5% and 2% fat, UV illumination as an adjunct to pasteurization has been shown to increase microbial shelf life by 28 to 35 days Source Professor Jim Cullor, University of California-Davis, presentation at 3rd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality in conjunction with the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) , 44th Annual Conference, September 22-24, 2011, St. Louis, Missouri 7 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Benefit To Producers  UV illumination as an adjunct to pasteurization could provide for better maintenance of the quality of milk and as such could lead to improved sales  Milk with an added measure of quality will make milk more available to the consumer as it will allow distribution of both white milk as well as smaller volume higher margin products into areas of the retail trade where distribution has been limited because of shelf life  UV illumination of raw milk can improve risk of consumption of nonpasteurized cheeses in North American dairy markets • According to a joint risk assessment drafted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada, consumers are up to 160 times more likely to contract a Listeria infection from soft-ripened cheese made from raw milk compared to the same cheese made with pasteurized milk  UV illumination for pre-treatment of raw milk can be used as alternative thermisation method in developing markets where lack of a reliable energy supply and high cost make on farm refrigeration prohibitive • Allow controlling microorganisms and the storage of milk for prolonged periods • Due to its “cold” nature, improve milk quality and reduce losses • Extend shelf-life during transportation to milk processing centers 8 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Benefit To Processors  Energy efficiency improvements in milk processing plants are limited by the energy requirements of heat-based pasteurization, which includes heating and cooling milk  Non-thermal processes, such as UV illumination, used as an adjunct to pasteurization, have the potential to cut demand for energy for ultrapasteurization of ESL products  The result will be longer shelf life, higher-quality milk products produced using less energy, and with lower GHG emissions, waste and associated costs  Amylase, catalase, lactase, lactoferrin, lipase, phosphatase, protein, vitamin A that are easily destroyed by heat remained intact after UV processing  The trace of fat-soluble vitamin D found naturally in milk can be enhanced by UV processing 9 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Thermal / UV Energy Evaluation 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Past. Past. + UV UHT Energy in MJ/t 430 484 685 Sources G. Riva, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Milan, Italy. Utilization of renewable energy sources and energy-saving technologies by small-scale milk plants and collection centers., FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPER 93. Technology supplier. 10 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Legislative Status in U.S.  The University Of California-Davis submitted a proposal to NCIMS 2011 for a change to the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) that would allow commercial production of milk with UV illumination as an adjunct to pasteurization • The original proposal was not accepted but an amended proposal was which was that a study group be appointed to oversee further food safety studies in the area of furans and cholesterol oxides amongst other compounds • These studies were to be conducted under the chairmanship of Dr Steve Beam of the California Department of Food and Agriculture  The acceptance of UV illumination as a food additive under 21 CFR 179.39(b) (1) is being addressed by technology suppliers with the department that deals with the standards of identity for milk  Based on information from Pennsylvania State University, labeling of the UV product may not be necessary • “Federal law does not require that product that has been treated by pasteurization, ultraviolet light or ozonation be labeled to identify the treatment process. (Reference: 21 CFR §179.39 (ultraviolet); §173.368 (ozone).)” • Technology suppliers are in discussion with the FDA on this opinion 11 Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Gail Barnes Ph.D. M.B.L. Personify LLC barnes.gail@gmail.com +1 650 218 4993 @DrGailB / @ZAGrrl Template graphic elements and format © 2013, Institute of Food Technologists. All rights reserved. Slide content © 2013, by the presenter. All rights reserved.

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