Citizens' potential in CO2 emissions reduction - English summary
1. The study on CO2 emission
reduction potential of consumer
actions in energy sector by 2030
Summary | 30.8.2016
• Traditionally top-down models have been used in building Finland’s energy
and climate strategies. This undermines to some extent the significance of
citizens’ own actions, the role of which has not been properly brought into
• Recent technical development has enabled more active participation of citizens
in the energy markets – they have become energy producers and may
rationalize their energy consumption by executing energy efficiency measures.
• Likewise, through their choices, citizens have the possibility to affect the
energy origin of produced electricity and to promote the addition of renewable
energy in the electricity markets by participating in demand response.
• The purpose of this report is to quantify the CO2 emission reduction potential
of citizens’ own, selected energy-related low-carbon measures by year 2030.
• The results of the report illustrate the scale of citizens’ influence potential in
the Finnish energy system.
750,000 new heat
renovationLED lighting and energy
efficient home appliances
Electric load management in
new electric vehicles
8 TWh additional CO2 free
Summary of emission reductions of different measures
new biogas vehicles
Impacts of the measures
• Through their own actions, households
may reduce Finland’s CO2 emissions by 5
MtCO2e by year 2030.
• It equals about 1/3 of Finland’s emission
reduction need from 2015 to 2030 in order to
achieve 40 % emission reduction compared to
emission level of 2005.
• It equals 9 % of Finland’s total emissions in 2015.
• Heat pumps have the highest emission
• Also the purchase of CO2-free electricity has the
potential to significantly reduce emissions,
• Energy end-use may be reduced by 5 %
(i.e. 13 TWh) from current by year 2030.
Heat pumps have most potential.
• Demand response enables addition of renewable
energy although it does not directly reduce
Electric load management
CO2 free electricity
LED lighting and energy
efficient home appliances
End use of energy**
Emission reduction target*
*) Emission reduction target equals to Finland’s emission reduction need
from 2015 to 2030 in order to achieve 40 % emission reduction compared
to emission level of 2005.
**) Residential solar energy production is considered here as an energy
efficiency solution, thus production reduces end use of energy.
• Technological development of the recent years has enabled more active participation of citizens in the
energy markets – consumers have become energy producers, providers of demand response and
implementers of energy efficiency. Likewise, consumers have the possibility through their choices to affect
the energy origin of produced electricity.
• Citizens’ own, selected low-carbon measures studied in this report have the potential to reduce CO2
emissions by approximately 5 MtCO2e by year 2030.
• This equals 9 % of Finland’s total emissions in 2015, and it is about 1/3 of Finland’s emission reduction need
from 2015 to 2030 in order to achieve 40 % emission reduction compared to emission level of 2005.
• This analysis highlights that the importance of citizens’ own actions cannot be undermined when developing
Finland’s climate and energy strategy.
• The calculations based on which the analysis is made represent an ambitious but realistic trajectory for
2030. Some of the measures are economically profitable already now; some will become such in the years to
come. Both activating production and consumption is still largely needed.
• Also usage habits (e.g. apartment indoor temperature, turning off appliances after use, reduction of warm
water consumption) matter, but these were not in the scope of this study.
• Likewise, citizens can make choices for low-carbon food, goods and services. Important additional
possibilities are still vested in these measures.
6. Gaia Group Oy, Bulevardi 6 A, FI-00120 HELSINKI, Finland – Tel +358 9686 6620 – Fax +358 9686 66210
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