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Kathará - NOMS 2018

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Kathará is a framework that allows easy configuration and deploy of arbitrary virtual networks with for SDN, NFV and traditional routing protocols. All empowered by container technology. This is our presentation from NOMS 2018.

Here is our published paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8406267/

Published in: Software
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Kathará - NOMS 2018

  1. 1. G. BONOFIGLIO, V. IOVINELLA, G. LOSPOTO, G. DI BATTISTA A Container-Based Framework for Implementing Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks
  2. 2. NOMS 2018Kathará Introduction ▪ Developed by the Computer Networks research group of the Engineering Department at Roma Tre University ▪ http://kathara.org/ ▪ http://www.dia.uniroma3.it/~compunet/www/view/group.php?id=compunet
  3. 3. NOMS 2018Kathará Context Introducing software at different levels: SDN NFV Programmable Data-plane
  4. 4. NOMS 2018Kathará Network Function Virtualization (NFV) Traditional NFs are physically bound to middleboxes: ▪ High costs for updates, repair and substitution ▪ Cannot keep up with real-time traffic and increasing demand Virtual NF: ▪ Decoupling NFs from the specific-purpose hardware ▪ Software VNFs on general-purpose hardware
  5. 5. NOMS 2018Kathará Network Function Virtualization (NFV) Pro: more flexibility, lower costs Con: lower performance wrt the specific-purpose hardware
  6. 6. NOMS 2018Kathará Data-plane programmability ▪ It is possible to implement several NFs mostly by altering the forwarding plane ▪ This opens the possibility to implement flexible NFs on high performance hardware
  7. 7. NOMS 2018Kathará P4 language ▪ Open-source project by P4 Consortium ▪ Leader on the market for programming protocol independent packet processing ▪ Can be compiled and executed on specific network equipment ▪ Barefoot Tofino (a P4 target) can process packets up to 6,5 Tb/s.
  8. 8. NOMS 2018Kathará SDN NFV Programmable Switches A complex environment Traditional routing protocols
  9. 9. NOMS 2018Kathará SDN NFV Programmable Switches A complex environment Traditional routing protocols How can we experiment in a realistic way? Can we gain benefits from virtualizing part of the network for production?
  10. 10. State of the art
  11. 11. NOMS 2018Kathará Netkit ▪ “The poor man's system to experiment computer networking” ▪ Developed by Compunet Lab Roma Tre ▪ Supports SDN and traditional routing protocols ▪ Based on VM ▪ Kathará supports P4 and can be extended ▪ Based on containers Netkit & SDNetkit M. Pizzonia et al, “Netkit: easy emulation of complex networks on inexpensive hardware”, 2008. H. Mostafaei at al, “Sdnetkit: A testbed for experimenting sdn in multi-domain networks”, 2017.
  12. 12. NOMS 2018Kathará Docker Compose ▪ Comes natively with Docker ▪ Focuses on services ▪ Limited interaction with networking capabilities Moreover, Docker itself is not made to implement fully fledged networks. Developing Kathará, we faced and solved several issues to configure the networking properly.
  13. 13. NOMS 2018Kathará ClickOS ▪ Focuses only on virtual middleboxes (NFV) ▪ Based on VM ▪ Kathará offers advanced routing functionalities ▪ Based on containers ClickOS J. Martins et al, “Clickos and the art of network function virtualization”, 2014.
  14. 14. NOMS 2018Kathará GNF ▪ Deployment of pre-built VNFs in SDN networks ▪ Based on containers ▪ Kathará is agnostic with respect to the underlying network architecture ▪ Offers the possibility to implement any custom VNF through data-plane programmable nodes GNF R. Cziva et al, “Container-based network function virtualization for software-defined networks”, 2015.
  15. 15. Kathará
  16. 16. NOMS 2018Kathará Two main objectives ▪ Verify the possibility of implementing NFV through the P4 language ▪ Interact with SDN, NFV and P4 together with standard protocols to test network solutions, with very close approximation to real world scenarios
  17. 17. NOMS 2018Kathará Kathará (Καθαρά) ▪ Framework based on Docker containers to create and manage virtual networks ▪ It comes with ready-to-pull images to implement SDN, data-programmable switches, standard routing protocols, DNS, web servers and more ▪ Can be easily extended through custom images ▪ Offers a simple command-line UI, inherited from Netkit ▪ Offers a very simple GUI
  18. 18. NOMS 2018Kathará Kathará Architecture ▪ 3 main modules: ❖Scripts ❖Operations ❖Container Platform Adapter ▪ Pre-built images to implement what we need
  19. 19. NOMS 2018Kathará Kathará Images Multi-platform technologies: ▪ Open vSwitch Software implementation of Open Flow enabled switch ▪ Behavioral Model Software implementation of P4 target switch ▪ Quagga Standard routing protocols suite (OSPF, BGP, RIP, etc)
  20. 20. NOMS 2018Kathará vtools ▪ Commands for managing single network nodes Example of vstart: test@kathara:~$ vstart --eth 0:A PC1 test@kathara:~$ vstart --eth 0:A --eth 1:B --image=OVS SW1
  21. 21. NOMS 2018Kathará ltools • Commands for managing «labs» • Based on configuration files for topology and startup ops Example of lab.conf: web[0]=A sw1[0]=A sw1[1]=B sw1[image]=P4 pc[0]=B
  22. 22. NOMS 2018Kathará GUI ▪ Can automatize basic and common operations ▪ Can show a preview of the network ▪ Can export a configuration file to be loaded later ▪ Works from the web or as a stand-alone executable
  23. 23. Security in Kathará
  24. 24. NOMS 2018Kathará Problem: Docker is a tool directed to system administrators, but Kathará is not. Why is that and how can security issues be resolved? A different target from Docker
  25. 25. NOMS 2018Kathará Vulnerability
  26. 26. NOMS 2018Kathará /etc /etc Vulnerability
  27. 27. NOMS 2018Kathará Possible solutions ▪ Let only administrators to use Kathará ▪ Configure SUDO to accept only some command patterns ▪ Create a wrapper
  28. 28. NOMS 2018Kathará Wrapper features ▪ Safe software executed with admin rights ▪ Middle layer between Kathará and Docker ▪ Only allows safe commands to be executed by Docker
  29. 29. Use Cases
  30. 30. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 1: Node transfer • Made possible by the very close approximation between software and hardware solutions • Thanks to the container technology and the usage of multi-platform implemetations (OpenFlow, P4, BGP,…) • The virtual nodes created with Kathará are thus operationally identical to physical network nodes
  31. 31. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 1: Node transfer
  32. 32. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 1: Node transfer
  33. 33. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 2: NFV through P4 Goals: ▪ Pros from the NFV architecture: flexibilty, scalability, decoupling from harware ▪ Gain in performance (wire speed) ▪ Simple programmability through a specific language ▪ Compliance to SFC (RFC-7665)
  34. 34. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 2: NFV through P4 Architecture 1 Management Service Classifier and/or Load Balancer (P4 node) NF NF NF NF NF NF NF NF NF
  35. 35. NOMS 2018Kathará Use Case 2: NFV through P4 Architecture 2 NF NF NF NFNF NF NF Management Service Classifier and Flow Table (P4 node)
  36. 36. Evaluation
  37. 37. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation goals ▪ To prove the effectiveness of Kathará in a production environment with respect to VMs ▪ To prove that Kathará can manage an increasing number of network nodes, even on low performance hardware
  38. 38. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation testbed A realistic web service based on Apache, PHP and MySQL VM equipped with Ubuntu, 3 GBytes of RAM, 4 cores of 2.21 GHz each
  39. 39. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation testbed A realistic web service based on Apache, PHP and MySQL VM equipped with Ubuntu, 3 GBytes of RAM, 4 cores of 2.21 GHz each
  40. 40. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation results
  41. 41. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation results
  42. 42. NOMS 2018Kathará Evaluation results ▪ Under 40 network nodes running at the same time using UML (Virtual Machines) ▪ Over 300 network nodes running at the same time using Containers (on a VM equipped with Ubuntu, 3 GBytes of RAM, 4 cores of 2.21 GHz each)
  43. 43. Conclusions and Future Works
  44. 44. NOMS 2018Kathará Compatibility ▪ Kathará is fully compatible with any major OS ❖ Linux ❖ Windows ❖ MacOS
  45. 45. NOMS 2018Kathará Take away ▪ Kathará can implement any kind of network topology, enabling the usage of SDN, NFV and standard protocols together ▪ The application of standard and multi-platform technologies allows to transfer nodes from virtual to physical devices ▪ It offers higher performance with respect to VMs by several orders of magnitude
  46. 46. NOMS 2018Kathará Future ▪ Kathará Inception ❖ Katharà inside Katharà inside Katharà … ▪ Interaction with orchestrators for automatic cloud deployment ▪ New included images to implement new protocols
  47. 47. Thanks for your attention

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