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C-SERMS Phase 1 Baseline 
Report & Suggestions for 
Moving Forward 
Alexander Ochs 
CSEV IV, Georgetown/Barbados,13-14 Nov 2014
Worldwatch in the Caribbean 
Dominican Republic Wind and Solar Roadmap 
EEP, 2012 
Sustainable Energy Roadmaps in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica 
ICI of the German Government, 2013 & 2014 
10 Islands Profiles & Regional Matrix 
Carbon War Room, 2014 
Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia Water and Energy Regulation Studies 
& Synthesis Report of Lessons Learned 
ADB, 2014 
Study on the Development of the Renewable Energy Market in Latin America 
& the Caribbean 
IDB, 2014 
C-SERMS Phase I Baseline Report 
CARICOM & IDB, 2013 (first draft); REETA/GIZ update 2014 
Collaborating with many additional stakeholders in the region
Technical 
Assessment 
• Energy Efficiency 
Potential 
• Renewable Energy 
Potential 
• Grid Solutions 
Business 
Investigation 
• Financing Gap 
Analysis 
• Domestic Reform & 
Capacity Building 
• International Support & 
Cooperation 
Socio-Economic 
Analysis 
• Levelized Cost of Energy + 
(LCOE+) 
• Energy Scenarios 
• Macroeconomic 
Effects 
Sustainable Energy Roadmaps 
Policy 
Recommendations 
• Vision & Long-Term Goals 
• Concrete Policy 
Mechanisms 
• Governance & 
Administrative Efficiency
The Need for Regional 
Energy Cooperation in the 
Caribbean
Selected CARICOM Energy & 
Development Challenges 
Technical 
Socioeconomic 
Environmental 
• Unmet existing and future demand 
• Isolated and small grid networks 
• Small size of individual national markets 
• Outdated equipment 
• Low efficiency 
• Energy poverty 
• High electricity tariffs 
• Vulnerability to rising, volatile fuel prices 
• Missed opportunities for domestic investment 
and jobs 
• Local air, freshwater and ocean pollution 
• Deforestation 
• Degradation and depletion of natural habitats, 
ecosystems and resources 
• Global climate change 
© Worldwatch Institute
Opportunities of Regional Cooperation 
Draw on a common vision and shared goals 
Share best practices, experience, and expertise 
Leverage combined economic resources and complementary renewable energy resources 
Take advantage of cost-effective energy supply options by creating a regional energy market 
Bundle projects to attract finance 
Build regional supply chains
C-SERMS Phase 1 
Methodology
C-SERMS Phase 1 
Assessing Current Status and Potential 
Reg’l & Nat’l Targets Priority Initiatives, 
Policies, Projects, and 
2017 Activities (PIPPA) 
2022 
2027 
• Renewable Power 
Generation 
• Energy Efficiency 
Improvements 
• CO2 Emissions 
Reductions 
• Regional 
Recommendations 
• National 
Recommendations 
Energy System Analysis: 
• Electricity Sector 
• Transportation Sector 
• Production, Consumption, 
Transmission & Distribution 
• CO2 Emissions 
Identifying Potential: 
• Renewable Resource 
Potential 
• Energy Efficiency Potential 
• Infrastructure Needs 
Policy Assessment: 
• Governance & Administration 
• RE and EE Support Goals & 
Policies 
• Emissions Reduction Goals 
& Policies 
Roadmap for 
the Caribbean 
Setting a 
common vision 
© Worldwatch Institute
Current Energy Situation and 
Future Development Pathways
CARICOM Renewable Energy Potential 
Key: 
Extremely 
High 
(>100%) 
Very High 
(50-100%) 
High 
(20-50%) 
Medium 
(0-20%) 
None/ 
Low 
Unknown 
Hydro Wind 
Geo-thermal 
Solar 
Biomass/ 
Other 
Antigua and Barbuda 
The Bahamas 
Barbados 
Belize 
Dominica 
Grenada 
Guyana 
Haiti 
Jamaica 
Montserrat 
St. Kitts and Nevis 
St. Lucia 
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 
Suriname 
Trinidad and Tobago
RE Costs vs. Electricity Tariffs 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
Typical Energy Cost (US cents/kWh) 
 Montserrat • Antigua & Barbuda 
© Worldwatch Institute 
• Dominica  
 Belize 
• 
Suriname 
 Guyana 
• The 
Bahamas 
St. Lucia 
• Jamaica 
• 
St. Vincent & 
the Grenadines
Selected potential game 
changers in the Caribbean 
Future Sustainable Energy 
System in the Caribbean 
Expanded use of 
distributed renewables 
Increased deployment of 
mainstream renewable 
energy technologies 
Geothermal energy 
development 
Improved energy 
efficiency 
Regional electricity 
interconnection 
Eventual use of nascent 
renewable energy 
technologies
Regional Targets
CARICOM Regional Targets 
Documented 
Renewable 
Resource 
Potential Across 
All Member States 
Projected 
Regional Power 
Capacity Needs 
to 2030 
Regional 
Targets for 
Renewable 
Electricity 
Capacity Share 
2017: 20% 
2022: 28% 
2027: 47%
RE & CO2 Targets 
Horizon 
Target 
Year 
CARICOM Sustainable 
Energy Targets adopted by 
CARICOM member states 
CARICOM Emissions 
Reduction Targets 
(CO2 emissions reductions 
in the power sector against 
BAU) 
Short Term 
(5 years) 
2017 20% 18% 
Medium Term 
(10 years) 
2022 28% 32% 
Long Term 
(15 years) 
2027 47% 46%
National Targets
Documented 
Renewable 
Resource 
Potential Across 
All Member States 
Projected 
Regional Power 
Capacity Needs 
to 2030 
Regional 
Targets for 
Renewable 
Electricity 
Capacity Share 
2017: 20% 
2022: 28% 
2027: 47% 
Natl’ Resource 
Assessments 
RE Baseload 
Potential 
Existing National 
Targets 
Targets 
for 
Specific 
Member 
States 
Suggesting National Targets 
Viable Additions 
of Intermittent 
Resources
Suggested National Targets 
Country 
Estimated National Renewable Share of Installed 
Capacity to Meet Regional Target of 48% by 2027 
Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Generation in 
2027 
(based on installed capacity target) 
Antigua and Barbuda 61% 62% 
The Bahamas 55% 51% 
Barbados 67% 55% 
Belize 76% 85% 
Dominica 56% 100% 
Grenada 70% 100% 
Guyana 84% 90% 
Haiti 46% 52% 
Jamaica 58% 40% 
Montserrat 34% 100% 
St. Kitts and Nevis St. Kitts: 57%; Nevis: 67% St Kitts: 100%; Nevis: 100% 
St. Lucia 69% 100% 
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 59% 81% 
Suriname 52% 60% 
Trinidad and Tobago 52% 
29%
Smart Policy-Making
Components of successful 
sustainable energy promotion 
Long-term vision 
Concrete 
policies and 
mechanisms 
Successful 
Promotion of 
Sustainable 
Energy 
Effective 
governance 
structures and 
administrative 
processes
Key: 
In place 
In development 
Suggested 
© Worldwatch Institute 
Existing Policy 
Environment
Institutional and governance 
challenges in CARICOM 
Overlapping/opposing mandates and priorities among various government agencies and institutions 
Few CARICOM member states have significant capacity dedicated exclusively to energy issues 
Resource constraints (human capacity, small budgets, limited staff, diverse responsibilities) 
In some member states, continuing dominance of single utility monopolies in the electricity sector
Identifying Priorities 
1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 
2. Regional Level 
3. National Level
Existing Data Gaps 
Electricity System/Infrastructure 
• Thorough analysis of electricity end users 
• Detailed data on fuel import costs 
• Assessment of grid functionality and storage potential 
• Detailed data on power plants in operation 
• Updated power sector capacity plans 
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency 
• Renewable energy’s cost effectiveness not calculated, understood or 
communicated 
• Unavailability of renewable energy assessments and technology 
feasibility studies 
• Higher-resolution assessments for priority geographic locations not 
conducted and/or communicated 
• Resource complementarity in integrated energy planning not 
conducted and/or communicated 
• Energy audits not conducted and/or communicated
Existing Data Gaps 
Transportation 
• Coordinated data collection and analysis of transportation 
• Updated sector plans and strategies 
CO2 Emissions 
• Updated greenhouse gas inventories 
• Sectoral emissions data 
• Updated emissions reduction plans and strategies 
Policy and Administration 
• National-level assessments of institutional/governance effectiveness 
• National-level assessment of policy effectiveness and efficiency
Identifying Priorities 
1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 
2. Regional Level 
3. National Level
Regional Priorities 
SHORT TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Set Regional Standards     
Mainstream Renewable Energy    
Build Capacity in Research, Development, and 
Innovation (RDI) 
   
Regional Priorities 
MEDIUM TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Develop Targeted Financing Tools to Support Key High 
Impact Areas 
       
Build Capacities with Key Supporting Stakeholders       
Conduct On-Site Feasibility Studies for Priority 
Resources Identified        
Support and Manage Regional Electricity 
Interconnection 
       
Regional Priorities 
LONG TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Coordinate Information Gathering and Communication                
Conduct Regional Assessment of Technological 
Lessons Learned                
Coordinate International Finance & Initiatives in the 
Region 
               
Support Design of National Sustainable Energy Programs 
& Implementation Plans 
              
Identifying Priorities 
1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 
2. Regional Level 
3. National Level
National Priorities 
SHORT TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Incentivize Renewable Generation Through Regulatory 
Reform 
    
Support Energy Efficiency Through Targeted 
Legislation 
    
De-Monopolize Grid Access and Encourage IPP 
Generation      
Maximize Societal Benefits of Sustainable Energy   
National Priorities 
MEDIUM TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Implement Policies to Support the Growth of Renewable 
Energy in the Transportation Sector 
      
Improve Institutional Effectiveness       
Simplify Regulatory Compliance Mechanisms 
      
Conduct and Communicate Key Resource and 
Technical Assessments 
        
Conduct On-Site Feasibility Studies for Priority 
Resources Identified       
National Priorities 
LONG TERM 
2 
0 
1 
4 
2 
0 
1 
6 
2 
0 
1 
8 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
0 
2 
2 
2 
0 
2 
4 
2 
0 
2 
6 
Utilize Government Resources to Promote Renewable 
Energy 
               
Ensure Policy Effectiveness               
Thank you! 
Alexander Ochs 
Director of Climate and Energy 
aochs@worldwatch.org 
+1 202 745 8092 x511

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C-SERMS Phase 1 Baseline Report & Suggestions for Moving Forward

  • 1. C-SERMS Phase 1 Baseline Report & Suggestions for Moving Forward Alexander Ochs CSEV IV, Georgetown/Barbados,13-14 Nov 2014
  • 2. Worldwatch in the Caribbean Dominican Republic Wind and Solar Roadmap EEP, 2012 Sustainable Energy Roadmaps in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica ICI of the German Government, 2013 & 2014 10 Islands Profiles & Regional Matrix Carbon War Room, 2014 Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia Water and Energy Regulation Studies & Synthesis Report of Lessons Learned ADB, 2014 Study on the Development of the Renewable Energy Market in Latin America & the Caribbean IDB, 2014 C-SERMS Phase I Baseline Report CARICOM & IDB, 2013 (first draft); REETA/GIZ update 2014 Collaborating with many additional stakeholders in the region
  • 3. Technical Assessment • Energy Efficiency Potential • Renewable Energy Potential • Grid Solutions Business Investigation • Financing Gap Analysis • Domestic Reform & Capacity Building • International Support & Cooperation Socio-Economic Analysis • Levelized Cost of Energy + (LCOE+) • Energy Scenarios • Macroeconomic Effects Sustainable Energy Roadmaps Policy Recommendations • Vision & Long-Term Goals • Concrete Policy Mechanisms • Governance & Administrative Efficiency
  • 4. The Need for Regional Energy Cooperation in the Caribbean
  • 5. Selected CARICOM Energy & Development Challenges Technical Socioeconomic Environmental • Unmet existing and future demand • Isolated and small grid networks • Small size of individual national markets • Outdated equipment • Low efficiency • Energy poverty • High electricity tariffs • Vulnerability to rising, volatile fuel prices • Missed opportunities for domestic investment and jobs • Local air, freshwater and ocean pollution • Deforestation • Degradation and depletion of natural habitats, ecosystems and resources • Global climate change © Worldwatch Institute
  • 6. Opportunities of Regional Cooperation Draw on a common vision and shared goals Share best practices, experience, and expertise Leverage combined economic resources and complementary renewable energy resources Take advantage of cost-effective energy supply options by creating a regional energy market Bundle projects to attract finance Build regional supply chains
  • 7. C-SERMS Phase 1 Methodology
  • 8. C-SERMS Phase 1 Assessing Current Status and Potential Reg’l & Nat’l Targets Priority Initiatives, Policies, Projects, and 2017 Activities (PIPPA) 2022 2027 • Renewable Power Generation • Energy Efficiency Improvements • CO2 Emissions Reductions • Regional Recommendations • National Recommendations Energy System Analysis: • Electricity Sector • Transportation Sector • Production, Consumption, Transmission & Distribution • CO2 Emissions Identifying Potential: • Renewable Resource Potential • Energy Efficiency Potential • Infrastructure Needs Policy Assessment: • Governance & Administration • RE and EE Support Goals & Policies • Emissions Reduction Goals & Policies Roadmap for the Caribbean Setting a common vision © Worldwatch Institute
  • 9. Current Energy Situation and Future Development Pathways
  • 10.
  • 11. CARICOM Renewable Energy Potential Key: Extremely High (>100%) Very High (50-100%) High (20-50%) Medium (0-20%) None/ Low Unknown Hydro Wind Geo-thermal Solar Biomass/ Other Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Montserrat St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago
  • 12. RE Costs vs. Electricity Tariffs 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Typical Energy Cost (US cents/kWh)  Montserrat • Antigua & Barbuda © Worldwatch Institute • Dominica   Belize • Suriname  Guyana • The Bahamas St. Lucia • Jamaica • St. Vincent & the Grenadines
  • 13. Selected potential game changers in the Caribbean Future Sustainable Energy System in the Caribbean Expanded use of distributed renewables Increased deployment of mainstream renewable energy technologies Geothermal energy development Improved energy efficiency Regional electricity interconnection Eventual use of nascent renewable energy technologies
  • 15. CARICOM Regional Targets Documented Renewable Resource Potential Across All Member States Projected Regional Power Capacity Needs to 2030 Regional Targets for Renewable Electricity Capacity Share 2017: 20% 2022: 28% 2027: 47%
  • 16. RE & CO2 Targets Horizon Target Year CARICOM Sustainable Energy Targets adopted by CARICOM member states CARICOM Emissions Reduction Targets (CO2 emissions reductions in the power sector against BAU) Short Term (5 years) 2017 20% 18% Medium Term (10 years) 2022 28% 32% Long Term (15 years) 2027 47% 46%
  • 18. Documented Renewable Resource Potential Across All Member States Projected Regional Power Capacity Needs to 2030 Regional Targets for Renewable Electricity Capacity Share 2017: 20% 2022: 28% 2027: 47% Natl’ Resource Assessments RE Baseload Potential Existing National Targets Targets for Specific Member States Suggesting National Targets Viable Additions of Intermittent Resources
  • 19. Suggested National Targets Country Estimated National Renewable Share of Installed Capacity to Meet Regional Target of 48% by 2027 Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Generation in 2027 (based on installed capacity target) Antigua and Barbuda 61% 62% The Bahamas 55% 51% Barbados 67% 55% Belize 76% 85% Dominica 56% 100% Grenada 70% 100% Guyana 84% 90% Haiti 46% 52% Jamaica 58% 40% Montserrat 34% 100% St. Kitts and Nevis St. Kitts: 57%; Nevis: 67% St Kitts: 100%; Nevis: 100% St. Lucia 69% 100% St. Vincent and the Grenadines 59% 81% Suriname 52% 60% Trinidad and Tobago 52% 29%
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 23. Components of successful sustainable energy promotion Long-term vision Concrete policies and mechanisms Successful Promotion of Sustainable Energy Effective governance structures and administrative processes
  • 24. Key: In place In development Suggested © Worldwatch Institute Existing Policy Environment
  • 25. Institutional and governance challenges in CARICOM Overlapping/opposing mandates and priorities among various government agencies and institutions Few CARICOM member states have significant capacity dedicated exclusively to energy issues Resource constraints (human capacity, small budgets, limited staff, diverse responsibilities) In some member states, continuing dominance of single utility monopolies in the electricity sector
  • 26. Identifying Priorities 1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 2. Regional Level 3. National Level
  • 27. Existing Data Gaps Electricity System/Infrastructure • Thorough analysis of electricity end users • Detailed data on fuel import costs • Assessment of grid functionality and storage potential • Detailed data on power plants in operation • Updated power sector capacity plans Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency • Renewable energy’s cost effectiveness not calculated, understood or communicated • Unavailability of renewable energy assessments and technology feasibility studies • Higher-resolution assessments for priority geographic locations not conducted and/or communicated • Resource complementarity in integrated energy planning not conducted and/or communicated • Energy audits not conducted and/or communicated
  • 28. Existing Data Gaps Transportation • Coordinated data collection and analysis of transportation • Updated sector plans and strategies CO2 Emissions • Updated greenhouse gas inventories • Sectoral emissions data • Updated emissions reduction plans and strategies Policy and Administration • National-level assessments of institutional/governance effectiveness • National-level assessment of policy effectiveness and efficiency
  • 29. Identifying Priorities 1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 2. Regional Level 3. National Level
  • 30. Regional Priorities SHORT TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Set Regional Standards     Mainstream Renewable Energy    Build Capacity in Research, Development, and Innovation (RDI)    
  • 31. Regional Priorities MEDIUM TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Develop Targeted Financing Tools to Support Key High Impact Areas        Build Capacities with Key Supporting Stakeholders       Conduct On-Site Feasibility Studies for Priority Resources Identified        Support and Manage Regional Electricity Interconnection        
  • 32. Regional Priorities LONG TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Coordinate Information Gathering and Communication                Conduct Regional Assessment of Technological Lessons Learned                Coordinate International Finance & Initiatives in the Region                Support Design of National Sustainable Energy Programs & Implementation Plans               
  • 33. Identifying Priorities 1. Closing Existing Data Gaps 2. Regional Level 3. National Level
  • 34. National Priorities SHORT TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Incentivize Renewable Generation Through Regulatory Reform     Support Energy Efficiency Through Targeted Legislation     De-Monopolize Grid Access and Encourage IPP Generation      Maximize Societal Benefits of Sustainable Energy   
  • 35. National Priorities MEDIUM TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Implement Policies to Support the Growth of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector       Improve Institutional Effectiveness       Simplify Regulatory Compliance Mechanisms       Conduct and Communicate Key Resource and Technical Assessments         Conduct On-Site Feasibility Studies for Priority Resources Identified       
  • 36. National Priorities LONG TERM 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 8 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 6 Utilize Government Resources to Promote Renewable Energy                Ensure Policy Effectiveness               
  • 37. Thank you! Alexander Ochs Director of Climate and Energy aochs@worldwatch.org +1 202 745 8092 x511

Editor's Notes

  1. Here’s what made us famous, Why we were invited by CARICOM, IDB, the German Government, GIZ to help with this Regional Roadmap Importance of INTEGRATED ANALYSIS Many people these days say, we do not need more studies, we need action; I work for a non-fo-profit b/c I am also driven by creating a better place through action; but what is guiding this action? but information in these individual areas often still does not exist, and if it does, it is piecemeal Intelligent policy-making has accurate and reliable information at hand, it integrates them to find the best pathway forward Didn’t have the same level of ambition in C-SERMS 1 – b/c there wasn’t the time & resources to do that – rather a baseline report suggesting priorities for moving forward and identifying gaps, rather than filling them already
  2. few CARICOM member states have any significant fossil fuel resources of their own,  reliance on fuel imports (mostly peroleum products for both electricity generation and transportation) is extremely high big exception is Trinidad and Tobago, where energy production is a major cornerstone of the economy. Reliance on fossil fuels contributes to high electricity tariffs as well as a number of local environmental challenges such as pollution as well as contributing to climate change Although many CARICOM member states have high rates of electricity access, expanding electricity access remains a priority in several countries including Belize, Guyana, Suriname, and particularly Haiti, where only 25 percent of the population has access to power. Given the overall size of Haiti’s population (nearly 10 million people), only approximately half of CARICOM’s nearly 17 million people have electricity access. Here is an overview of the challenges that CARICOM nations have in common
  3. So here is the approach we took, in a relatively short time frame
  4. Enormous expected Growth of Energy Demand – in most places the demand for energy at least doubles in the next 15 years  Business as usual  Shows the importance of energy savings and energy efficiency
  5. Tremendous potential exists in many countries to meet most or all of current demand with renewables. Want to make sure that this table does not send the wrong message. What is For this table technology potential is measured in respect to its measured share of peak demand in each member state There are many assessment gaps that still exist which must be filled in order to facilitate project development Geothermal: particularly the islands making up the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles, have significant untapped geothermal resources. Development of this resource in member states such as Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines could dramatically alter the energy balance of these islands and the region as a whole if regional grid interconnections are developed. Currently, no CARICOM state has developed geothermal power, although exploratory drilling and preliminary investigations are under way in several places. Hydropower: Large hydropower comprises the majority of renewable power generation within CARICOM. Development of large-scale hydropower facilities such as the 165 MW Amalia Falls project in Guyana stands to play a significant role in the changing energy mix. Like geothermal, hydropower presents opportunities to broaden and interconnect regional energy markets, particularly in mainland member states like Guyana and Suriname. Small hydro plants, typically classified as generating less than 10 MW of electricity, have significant ecological and often human rights advantages, but development feasibility (especially for run-of-the-river systems) requires specific site characteristics that preclude its use in several small-island CARICOM member states. Elsewhere, the potential for small, sustainable hydro deployment is enormous, particularly for providing electricity access to remote, currently underserviced populations, e.g., in the mainland countries as well as Haiti. Modern biomass (including bagasse and biogas): Belize is a regional leader in the use of bioenergy as a baseload energy source. Many CARICOM member states, particularly those on the mainland and the larger island states, have good biomass potential. Waste-to-energy technologies have drawn some attention throughout the region, although their viability is restricted in those states with limited waste collection capacity or comparatively small populations, as these do not generate the volumes of waste necessary to make waste-to-energy plants economically viable. In Haiti, the identified potential for waste-to-energy technologies has so far been constrained by infrastructural challenges and a lack of waste collection capacity. Solar: All CARICOM member states possess strong solar energy potential and opportunities to use various solar technologies for power generation, heating, and cooling—making solar technology a crucial, but yet mostly unused, regional sustainable energy solution. The high component costs that have traditionally plagued solar technologies have declined significantly, with solar PV module costs falling nearly 50 percent in 2011 alone, making solar cost-competitive with fossil fuels under certain conditions. Several CARICOM states have already demonstrated enormous success using solar water heating (with Barbados being a global leader in this technology) and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy. Wind: There is also strong regional potential for wind power development. Many experts consider wind the most viable renewable energy technology for rapid expansion in the region over the next two decades. Currently, however, few CARICOM member states have developed utility-scale wind infrastructure, aside from Jamaica, which now has over 40 MW of installed wind capacity, and St. Kitts and Nevis, which has 2 MW installed. Ocean energy: Energy technologies including wave and tidal and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technologies have been identified as a priority area under the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Sustainable Energy Initiative (SIDS DOCK), as they offer significant potential throughout the region, presenting opportunities including power generation and the use of deep-sea cooling in the tourism sector. As of May 2012, marine energy technologies remain in the development phase, however, and they still have prohibitively high costs that limit their deployment in the short-term. CARICOM member states are currently taking steps to advance pilot projects for OTEC, although the technologies’ long-term potential in the region is restricted by factors including uncertain technology development and project scale.
  6. Based on global average generation costs many RE technologies are already cost competitive based on the high electricity rates currently found in CARICOM member states Note: Figure depicts the global range of generation costs for a number of renewable energy technologies, places them within the range of CARICOM electricity tariffs (4.5–38.2 U.S. cents/kWh, and provides example tariffs in select countries with strong potential for that particular resource.
  7. reliance on fossil fuels (mainly residual and distillate fuel oils as a result of the widespread use of diesel generators). few CARICOM member states have any significant fossil fuel resources, regional reliance on fuel imports is extremely high one big exception is Trinidad and Tobago, where energy production is a major cornerstone of the economy. Reliance on fossil fuels contributes to high electricity tariffs as well as a number of local environmental challenges such as pollution as well as contributing to climate change Although most CARICOM member states have high rates of electricity access, expanding electricity access remains a priority in several countries including Belize, Guyana, Suriname, and particularly Haiti, where only 25 percent of the population has access to power. Given the overall size of Haiti’s population (nearly 10 million people), only approximately half of CARICOM’s nearly 17 million people have electricity access.
  8. Energy Efficiency
  9. As for energy efficiency – our limited information suggests that it is possible to reduce energy intensity by 33% Achieving these regional goals will require targeted actions at the national level supported by regional collaboration.
  10. Many policies have been enacted, however many gaps still exist in the policy frameworks of CARICOM member states While these policies have been identified an assessment of policy effectiveness is needed to ensure each is having the intended impact SUGGGESTED MEANS SUGGESTED BY GOV’T DOCUMENTS – NOT SUGGESTED BY US – WE WOULD OF COURSE SUGGEST THAT ALL OF THIS US IS GREEN
  11. Several critical data and information gaps exist in the Caribbean. While information for CARICOM member states is most readily available in the electricity sector, detailed energy data in this and other sectors—particularly transportation—is severely lacking. This impedes analysis and strategic planning. While some degree of clarity can be obtained with respect to energy production and consumption as well as specific fuel usage across the region, current data limitations make it extremely challenging to assess energy end-use in CARICOM. Without this information, an accurate breakdown of sectoral energy use cannot be developed. Additionally, assessing the economic effects of the region’s energy system is hindered by lack of available data on value and volume of fossil fuel imports To fully understand the future role RE and EE can play in the region more detailed technical assessment must be conducted and communicated. Understanding the potential for energy efficiency is crucial because of its compounding effects: when a user demands one less unit of energy because of efficiency measures, the system typically saves much more than one unit of produced energy because of avoided losses during generation, transmission, and distribution. Especially in countries like Haiti, where technical and non-technical losses are relatively high, end-user efficiency savings can translate into much greater savings in generation. Even in areas where the necessary RE and EE assessments have been completed, the results are often not communicated and the assessments themselves are unavailable
  12. Thorough analysis of electricity end-users Data often not collected or reported Detailed data on fuel import costs Data lacking on economic impact of current energy matrix Assessment of grid functionality and storage potentials Information lacking on the extent to which existing electricity networks must be updated Detailed data on power plants in operation Readily available information lacking on the current status and operation of existing plants Updated power sector capacity plans Available information often out of date; existing plans may change without public notification Coordinated data collection and analysis of transportation Data often disorganized or uncollected Updated sector plans and strategies Available information often out of date Lack of widespread calculation, understanding, and communication of renewable energy’s cost effectiveness (continuing perception of renewable energy as prohibitively expensive) Unavailability of renewable energy assessments and technology feasibility studies (data often not disseminated for project development) Higher-resolution assessments for priority geographic locations not conducted and/or communicated (in member states without existing detailed resource assessments, research should focus on priority areas near greatest potential and demand) Analysis of opportunities for resource complementarity in integrated energy planning not conducted and/or communicated (individual assessments usually assess one renewable resource in isolation, missing critical opportunities for complementarity) Energy audits not conducted and/or communicated (limited data on the energy efficiency of sectors, businesses, etc.)
  13. Coordinated data collection and analysis of transportation Data often disorganized or uncollected Updated sector plans and strategies Available information often out of date Updated emissions reduction plans and strategies Available information often out of date Updated greenhouse gas inventories Information provided to UNFCCC often out of date Sectoral emissions data Collected data lacking specificity required for effective policy design While policy and administration mechanisms have been identified in C-SERMS I a more thorough understanding of both policy and administrative effectiveness will be necessary to encourage growth in the sector.
  14. Focus on filling information gaps, including coordinating data collection processes and commissioning the missing technical assessments for RE and EE. Making publically available and successfully communicating the results of existing information within the region, a step which is often overlooked, will have a significant impact on building support for RE projects
  15. Focus on filling information gaps, including coordinating data collection processes and commissioning the missing technical assessments for RE and EE. Making publically available and successfully communicating the results of existing information within the region, a step which is often overlooked, will have a significant impact on building support for RE projects
  16. Focus on filling information gaps, including coordinating data collection processes and commissioning the missing technical assessments for RE and EE. Making publically available and successfully communicating the results of existing information within the region, a step which is often overlooked, will have a significant impact on building support for RE projects