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High-level brain function arises through functional interactions. These can be mapped via co-fluctuations in activity observed in functional imaging.
First, I first how spatial maps characteristic of on-going activity in a population of subjects can be learned using multi-subject decomposition models extending the popular Independent Component Analysis. These methods single out spatial atoms of brain activity: functional networks or brain regions. With a probabilistic model of inter-subject variability, they open the door to building data-driven atlases of on-going activity.
Subsequently, I discuss graphical modeling of the interactions between brain regions. To learn highly-resolved large scale individual
graphical models models, we use sparsity-inducing penalizations introducing a population prior that mitigates the data scarcity at the subject-level. The corresponding graphs capture better the community structure of brain activity than single-subject models or group averages.
Finally, I address the detection of connectivity differences between subjects. Explicit group variability models of the covariance structure can be used to build optimal edge-level test statistics. On stroke patients resting-state data, these models detect patient-specific functional connectivity perturbations.