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HOW THE NEXT GENERATION OF 
PRODUCTS PUSHES TO RETHINK THE 
ROLE OF USERS AND DESIGNERS 
Gabriele Montelisciani 
Universit...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Presentation Summary 
“How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role ...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Introduction 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink 
the Role of Users...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Creating products through the web 
• Different Users 
• Different Enabling Approaches:...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Creating products through the web 
4) Open-source hardware and its synergies with digi...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Research Question 
Is it possible to develop a common design language that 
values bot...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Function-Behaviour-Structure Paradigm 
• FUNCTIONS 
• What is the object for? 
• BEHAV...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Enabling people in designing through the FBS 
3 KEY GENERATIVE FACTORS: 
Structure: 
•...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Enabling people in designing through the FBS 
Proficient 
Users 
Pro-Ams 
Mainstream 
...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 
10 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 
11 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 
12 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 
13 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 
14 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
An Exemplary Case: The Puzzle Lamp 
15 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to ...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
An Exemplary Case: The Puzzle Lamp 
16 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to ...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Conclusions 
• FBS has the potential to be an enabler of the user-as-designer era; 
• ...
14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan 
Acknowledgements 
The project started during the course “PhDplus: Creativity, innovati...
Please follow us here: 
http://www.thingsoninternet.biz 
19 
How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink 
the Ro...
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How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers

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An emerging category of products, such as gadgets and smart devices, provides the user with high levels of customization but imposes to revise the roles of both users and designers.
The Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) framework has been proved to describe both designers perspective and customers use in a proper way. The paradigm has to be adapted when the high level of product customization enables all the users to reinvent the product itself.
Researchers, amateurs, makers are now capable to fully interact with the electronic, the control software and even the shape of finished products. Main enablers of such change are several emerging technological solutions, both hardware (such as low cost 3D printers, programmable electronic boards, low cost sensors and actuators) and software (such as user-manufacturing web platforms).
A design language that encompasses this new way of doing design becomes a priority. The paper investigates the role of FBS model as a practical response to this topic and presents a user-manufacturing web platform based on this theoretical framework. The design and development of a new smart object, performed through the introduced platform, is presented in order to support the description.

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How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers

  1. 1. HOW THE NEXT GENERATION OF PRODUCTS PUSHES TO RETHINK THE ROLE OF USERS AND DESIGNERS Gabriele Montelisciani University of Pisa Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering
  2. 2. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Presentation Summary “How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers” Proceedings of the 24° CIRP DESIGN CONFERENCE, Milan (Italy) G. Montelisciani 1, D. Mazzei2, G. Fantoni1,2 1 Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy 2 Research Center "E. Piaggio", University of Pisa, Italy • INTRODUCTION • PRODUCTS CREATION THROUGH THE WEB and FBS • A PLATFORM FOR DESIGNING SMART OBJECTS • AN EXEMPLARY CASE • CONCLUSIONS 2 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  3. 3. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Introduction How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers The rise of Mass Customization • Open Innovation • Crowdsourcing • Product Customization Platforms • Makers revolution FROM USER TO USER-AS-DESIGNER 3
  4. 4. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Creating products through the web • Different Users • Different Enabling Approaches: 1) User friendly web-based CAD environments for 3D design SketchUp; Tinkercad; Shapeways 2) User-manufacturing web services Ponoko, Vectorialism, Thingiverse, iMaterialize 3) Low cost 3D printers and other layered manufacturing tools 4 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  5. 5. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Creating products through the web 4) Open-source hardware and its synergies with digital fabrication. • 5) Internet Of Things (IOT) as a new enabler towards mass creativity and growth of Smart Objects - Objects - Individuals - Social Networks 5 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  6. 6. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Research Question Is it possible to develop a common design language that values both professional designers and users (as-designers)? 6 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  7. 7. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Function-Behaviour-Structure Paradigm • FUNCTIONS • What is the object for? • BEHAVIOURS • What the object does? • STRUCTURE • What the object is? 7 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  8. 8. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Enabling people in designing through the FBS 3 KEY GENERATIVE FACTORS: Structure: • Skin (Exterior and Structural characteristics) • Brain (CPU and Microcontrollers) and Peripheral Nervous System (Sensors and Actuators) Behaviours: • Brain’s Low level programming Functions: • Functionalities through design and (high level) programming • Actions and Reactions defined through simple cause-effect logic  Different levels of interaction based on measurable and less measurable reasons (skills, expertise, creativity, motivations,…) 8 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  9. 9. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Enabling people in designing through the FBS Proficient Users Pro-Ams Mainstream users 9 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers An Investigation on the Field 50 Potential Users Levels of Interaction with FBS Elements
  10. 10. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 10 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers 3 Different Virtual Areas
  11. 11. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 11 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers • Structured set of rules that contextualize the behavior of the smart object on the basis of the planned functions • If-then logic described in natural language structure
  12. 12. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 12 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers • Electronic Behaviours => Triggering Events through Low Level Programming • Physical Behaviours (Mechanics, Ergonomics, etc)
  13. 13. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 13 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers Where the user can select or define the hard features of the smart device.
  14. 14. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan A Platform for Designing Smart Objects 14 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers FBS FEATURES LIBRARY USERS-AS-DESIGNERS’ COMMUNITY
  15. 15. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan An Exemplary Case: The Puzzle Lamp 15 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers Mainstream users Pro-Ams Proficient Users Pro-Ams
  16. 16. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan An Exemplary Case: The Puzzle Lamp 16 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  17. 17. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Conclusions • FBS has the potential to be an enabler of the user-as-designer era; • Democratization of design through a holistic system that allows pro-active collaboration among different profiles LIMIT NO features to proof the consistency of the designed products boost trial and error approaches and stimulates users’ learning by doing FUTURE • Test on a wider set of users • Identification of approach’s unexplored layers to reinforce the FBS-based framework. ex-post FBS consistency check for product validation (without interfering with the learning by doing) 17 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers
  18. 18. 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan Acknowledgements The project started during the course “PhDplus: Creativity, innovation, entrepreneurial spirit”, University of Pisa. Financial support by MISE Project “IoTPrise: Internet of Things: trasferimento di tecnologie e creazione d’impresa” (Bando RIDITT, DM 22/12/2009); EU LLP Programme – Leonardo Da Vinci (n° 2012-1-IT1-LEO05-02794): “EEC: European Enterpreuners Campus”. 18 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers Thank you for your attention!
  19. 19. Please follow us here: http://www.thingsoninternet.biz 19 How the Next Generation of Products Pushes to Rethink the Role of Users and Designers 14/04/2014 CIRP DESIGN 2014, Milan

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